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236 papers 100 to 500 followers Collection of articles on biology, biochemistry, nutrition, medicine, immunology, genetics, oncology, microbiology, etc. For Carolina!
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25568613/epidemiology-of-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Nita Gandhi Forouhi, Nicholas J Wareham
The disease burden related to diabetes is high and rising in every country, fuelled by the global rise in the prevalence of obesity and unhealthy lifestyles. The latest estimates show a global prevalence of 382 million people with diabetes in 2013, expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. The aetiological classification of diabetes has now been widely accepted. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the two main types, with type 2 diabetes accounting for the majority (>85%) of total diabetes prevalence. Both forms of diabetes can lead to multisystem complications of microvascular endpoints, including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular endpoints including ischaemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease...
December 2014: Medicine (Abingdon, UK Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26034894/a-molecular-description-of-cellulose-biosynthesis
#2
REVIEW
Joshua T McNamara, Jacob L W Morgan, Jochen Zimmer
Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, and certain organisms from bacteria to plants and animals synthesize cellulose as an extracellular polymer for various biological functions. Humans have used cellulose for millennia as a material and an energy source, and the advent of a lignocellulosic fuel industry will elevate it to the primary carbon source for the burgeoning renewable energy sector. Despite the biological and societal importance of cellulose, the molecular mechanism by which it is synthesized is now only beginning to emerge...
2015: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26018169/dark-matter-of-the-biosphere-the-amazing-world-of-bacteriophage-diversity
#3
REVIEW
Graham F Hatfull
Bacteriophages are the most abundant biological entities in the biosphere, and this dynamic and old population is, not surprisingly, highly diverse genetically. Relative to bacterial genomics, phage genomics has advanced slowly, and a higher-resolution picture of the phagosphere is only just emerging. This view reveals substantial diversity even among phages known to infect a common host strain, but the relationships are complex, with mosaic genomic architectures generated by illegitimate recombination over a long period of evolutionary history...
August 2015: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475987/antibiotic-resistance-is-the-quintessential-one-health-issue
#4
T P Robinson, D P Bu, J Carrique-Mas, E M Fèvre, M Gilbert, D Grace, S I Hay, J Jiwakanon, M Kakkar, S Kariuki, R Laxminarayan, J Lubroth, U Magnusson, P Thi Ngoc, T P Van Boeckel, M E J Woolhouse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434766/metabolism-a-new-layer-of-glycolysis
#5
Maria V Liberti, Jason W Locasale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612937/a-review-of-caffeine-s-effects-on-cognitive-physical-and-occupational-performance
#6
REVIEW
Tom M McLellan, John A Caldwell, Harris R Lieberman
Caffeine is consumed by over 80% of U.S. adults. This review examines the effects caffeine has on cognitive and physical function, since most real-world activities require complex decision making, motor processing and movement. Caffeine exerts its effects by blocking adenosine receptors. Following low (∼40mg or ∼0.5mgkg(-1)) to moderate (∼300mg or 4mgkg(-1)) caffeine doses, alertness, vigilance, attention, reaction time and attention improve, but less consistent effects are observed on memory and higher-order executive function, such as judgment and decision making...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471965/mitochondria-and-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Sejal Vyas, Elma Zaganjor, Marcia C Haigis
Mitochondria are bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and signaling organelles that are integral in stress sensing to allow for cellular adaptation to the environment. Therefore, it is not surprising that mitochondria are important mediators of tumorigenesis, as this process requires flexibility to adapt to cellular and environmental alterations in addition to cancer treatments. Multiple aspects of mitochondrial biology beyond bioenergetics support transformation, including mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover, fission and fusion dynamics, cell death susceptibility, oxidative stress regulation, metabolism, and signaling...
July 28, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617709/sugar-industry-and-coronary-heart-disease-research-a-historical-analysis-of-internal-industry-documents
#8
Cristin E Kearns, Laura A Schmidt, Stanton A Glantz
Early warning signals of the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of sugar (sucrose) emerged in the 1950s. We examined Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) internal documents, historical reports, and statements relevant to early debates about the dietary causes of CHD and assembled findings chronologically into a narrative case study. The SRF sponsored its first CHD research project in 1965, a literature review published in the New England Journal of Medicine, which singled out fat and cholesterol as the dietary causes of CHD and downplayed evidence that sucrose consumption was also a risk factor...
November 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671203/the-essence-of-life
#9
Wentao Ma
: Although biology has achieved great successes in recent years, we have not got a clear idea on "what is life?" Actually, as explained here, the main reason for this situation is that there are two completely distinct aspects for "life", which are usually talked about together. Indeed, in respect to these two aspects: Darwinian evolution and self-sustaining, we must split the concept of life correspondingly, for example, by defining "life form" and "living entity", separately. For life's implementation (related to the two aspects) in nature, three mechanisms are crucial: the replication of DNA/RNA-like polymers by residue-pairing, the sequence-dependent folding of RNA/protein-like polymers engendering special functions, and the assembly of phospholipid-like amphiphiles forming vesicles...
September 26, 2016: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629641/mass-spectrometric-exploration-of-proteome-structure-and-function
#10
REVIEW
Ruedi Aebersold, Matthias Mann
Numerous biological processes are concurrently and coordinately active in every living cell. Each of them encompasses synthetic, catalytic and regulatory functions that are, almost always, carried out by proteins organized further into higher-order structures and networks. For decades, the structures and functions of selected proteins have been studied using biochemical and biophysical methods. However, the properties and behaviour of the proteome as an integrated system have largely remained elusive. Powerful mass-spectrometry-based technologies now provide unprecedented insights into the composition, structure, function and control of the proteome, shedding light on complex biological processes and phenotypes...
15, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692849/calcium-at-the-center-of-cell-signaling-interplay-between-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-and-lysosomes
#11
REVIEW
Anna Raffaello, Cristina Mammucari, Gaia Gherardi, Rosario Rizzuto
In recent years, rapid discoveries have been made relating to Ca(2+) handling at specific organelles that have important implications for whole-cell Ca(2+) homeostasis. In particular, the structures of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) channels revealed by electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM), continuous updates on the structure, regulation, and role of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex, and the analysis of lysosomal Ca(2+) signaling are milestones on the route towards a deeper comprehension of the complexity of global Ca(2+) signaling...
December 2016: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209009/statistical-tests-p-values-confidence-intervals-and-power-a-guide-to-misinterpretations
#12
Sander Greenland, Stephen J Senn, Kenneth J Rothman, John B Carlin, Charles Poole, Steven N Goodman, Douglas G Altman
Misinterpretation and abuse of statistical tests, confidence intervals, and statistical power have been decried for decades, yet remain rampant. A key problem is that there are no interpretations of these concepts that are at once simple, intuitive, correct, and foolproof. Instead, correct use and interpretation of these statistics requires an attention to detail which seems to tax the patience of working scientists. This high cognitive demand has led to an epidemic of shortcut definitions and interpretations that are simply wrong, sometimes disastrously so-and yet these misinterpretations dominate much of the scientific literature...
April 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743014/membrane-protein-quantity-control-at-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#13
Ignat Printsev, Daniel Curiel, Kermit L Carraway
The canonical function of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) system is to enforce quality control among membrane-associated proteins by targeting misfolded secreted, intra-organellar, and intramembrane proteins for degradation. However, increasing evidence suggests that ERAD additionally functions in maintaining appropriate levels of a subset of membrane-associated proteins. In this 'quantity control' capacity, ERAD responds to environmental cues to regulate the proteasomal degradation of specific ERAD substrates according to cellular need...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763497/regulatory-roles-of-micrornas-in-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Juan Feng, Wanli Xing, Lan Xie
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs in eukaryotes, have been recognized as significant regulators of gene expression through post-transcriptional mechanisms. To date, >2000 miRNAs have been identified in the human genome, and they orchestrate a variety of biological and pathological processes. Disruption of miRNA levels correlates with many diseases, including diabetes mellitus, a complex multifactorial metabolic disorder affecting >400 million people worldwide. miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus by affecting pancreatic β-cell functions, insulin resistance, or both...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699445/crispr-cas9-immune-system-as-a-tool-for-genome-engineering
#15
Magdalena Hryhorowicz, Daniel Lipiński, Joanna Zeyland, Ryszard Słomski
CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) adaptive immune systems constitute a bacterial defence against invading nucleic acids derived from bacteriophages or plasmids. This prokaryotic system was adapted in molecular biology and became one of the most powerful and versatile platforms for genome engineering. CRISPR/Cas9 is a simple and rapid tool which enables the efficient modification of endogenous genes in various species and cell types. Moreover, a modified version of the CRISPR/Cas9 system with transcriptional repressors or activators allows robust transcription repression or activation of target genes...
October 3, 2016: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793473/analysis-of-the-prion-protein-gene-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#16
Viorica Chelban, Andreea Manole, Lasse Pihlstrøm, Lucia Schottlaender, Stephanie Efthymiou, Emer OConnor, Wassilios G Meissner, Janice L Holton, Henry Houlden
Neurodegenerative diseases are a very diverse group of disorders but they share some common mechanisms such as abnormally misfolded proteins with prion-like propagation and aggregation. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most prevalent prion disease in humans. In the sporadic form of CJD the only known risk factor is the codon 129 polymorphism. Recent reports suggested that α-synuclein in multiple system atrophy (MSA) has similar pathogenic mechanisms as the prion protein. Here we present 1 Italian family with MSA and prion disease...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211483/ageing-the-yin-and-yang-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#17
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712646/child-health-disparities-in-the-21st-century
#18
Charles Oberg, Sonja Colianni, Leslie King-Schultz
The topic of persistent child health disparities remains a priority for policymakers and a concern for pediatric clinicians. Health disparities are defined as differences in adverse health outcomes for specific health indicators that exist across sub-groups of the population, frequently between minority and majority populations. This review will highlight the gains that have been made since the 1990s as well as describe disparities that have persisted or have worsened into the 21st century. It will also examine the most potent social determinants and their impact on the major disparities in mortality, preventive care, chronic disease, mental health, educational outcomes, and exposure to selected environmental toxins...
September 2016: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828954/prion-associated-toxicity-is-rescued-by-elimination-of-cotranslational-chaperones
#19
Kathryn M Keefer, Heather L True
The nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC) is a highly conserved but poorly characterized triad of proteins that bind near the ribosome exit tunnel. The NAC is the first cotranslational factor to bind to polypeptides and assist with their proper folding. Surprisingly, we found that deletion of NAC subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae rescues toxicity associated with the strong [PSI+] prion. This counterintuitive finding can be explained by changes in chaperone balance and distribution whereby the folding of the prion protein is improved and the prion is rendered nontoxic...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767920/staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-and-long-term-risk-for-death-united-states
#20
Angelico Mendy, Edgar R Vieira, Ahmed N Albatineh, Janvier Gasana
To examine the association of colonization by Staphylococcus aureus and general population mortality, we followed 10,598 adults for 8.5 years on average. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus colonization was not associated with death. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage predicted death in a crude analysis but not after adjustment for socioeconomic status and co-morbidities.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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