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205 papers 25 to 100 followers Collection of articles on biology, biochemistry, nutrition, medicine, immunology, genetics, oncology, microbiology, etc. For Carolina!
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612937/a-review-of-caffeine-s-effects-on-cognitive-physical-and-occupational-performance
#1
REVIEW
Tom M McLellan, John A Caldwell, Harris R Lieberman
Caffeine is consumed by over 80% of U.S. adults. This review examines the effects caffeine has on cognitive and physical function, since most real-world activities require complex decision making, motor processing and movement. Caffeine exerts its effects by blocking adenosine receptors. Following low (∼40mg or ∼0.5mgkg(-1)) to moderate (∼300mg or 4mgkg(-1)) caffeine doses, alertness, vigilance, attention, reaction time and attention improve, but less consistent effects are observed on memory and higher-order executive function, such as judgment and decision making...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550203/%C3%AE-cell-differentiation-status-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Nicola Jeffery, Lorna W Harries
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects 415 million people worldwide and is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, progressing to insufficient insulin production, as a result of β-cell failure. Over time, chronic hyperglycaemia can ultimately lead to loss of β-cell function, leaving patients insulin-dependent. Until recently the loss of β-cell mass seen in T2D was considered to be the result of increased rates of apoptosis; however, it has been proposed that apoptosis alone cannot account for the extent of β-cell mass loss seen in the disease, and that a loss of function may also occur as a result of changes in β-cell differentiation status...
December 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274295/sources-and-implications-of-nadh-nad-redox-imbalance-in-diabetes-and-its-complications
#3
REVIEW
Jinzi Wu, Zhen Jin, Hong Zheng, Liang-Jun Yan
NAD(+) is a fundamental molecule in metabolism and redox signaling. In diabetes and its complications, the balance between NADH and NAD(+) can be severely perturbed. On one hand, NADH is overproduced due to influx of hyperglycemia to the glycolytic and Krebs cycle pathways and activation of the polyol pathway. On the other hand, NAD(+) can be diminished or depleted by overactivation of poly ADP ribose polymerase that uses NAD(+) as its substrate. Moreover, sirtuins, another class of enzymes that also use NAD(+) as their substrate for catalyzing protein deacetylation reactions, can also affect cellular content of NAD(+)...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550988/acute-resistance-exercise-induced-igf1-expression-and-subsequent-glut4-translocation
#4
Kohei Kido, Satoru Ato, Takumi Yokokawa, Yuhei Makanae, Koji Sato, Satoshi Fujita
Acute aerobic exercise (AE) is a major physiological stimulus for skeletal muscle glucose uptake through activation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the regulation of glucose uptake by acute resistance exercise (RE) remains unclear. To investigate the intracellular regulation of glucose uptake after acute RE versus acute AE, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: RE, AE, or nonexercise control. After fasting for 12 h overnight, the right gastrocnemius muscle in the RE group was exercised at maximum isometric contraction via percutaneous electrical stimulation (3 × 10 sec, 5 sets)...
August 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535619/pharmacological-targeting-of-kinases-mst1-and-mst2-augments-tissue-repair-and-regeneration
#5
Fuqin Fan, Zhixiang He, Lu-Lu Kong, Qinghua Chen, Quan Yuan, Shihao Zhang, Jinjin Ye, Hao Liu, Xiufeng Sun, Jing Geng, Lunzhi Yuan, Lixin Hong, Chen Xiao, Weiji Zhang, Xihuan Sun, Yunzhan Li, Ping Wang, Lihong Huang, Xinrui Wu, Zhiliang Ji, Qiao Wu, Ning-Shao Xia, Nathanael S Gray, Lanfen Chen, Cai-Hong Yun, Xianming Deng, Dawang Zhou
Tissue repair and regenerative medicine address the important medical needs to replace damaged tissue with functional tissue. Most regenerative medicine strategies have focused on delivering biomaterials and cells, yet there is the untapped potential for drug-induced regeneration with good specificity and safety profiles. The Hippo pathway is a key regulator of organ size and regeneration by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Kinases MST1 and MST2 (MST1/2), the mammalian Hippo orthologs, are central components of this pathway and are, therefore, strong target candidates for pharmacologically induced tissue regeneration...
August 17, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482568/structural-biology-breaking-the-diffraction-barrier
#6
COMMENT
Allison Doerr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542265/metabolic-shift-toward-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-docetaxel-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells
#7
Luigi Ippolito, Alberto Marini, Lorenzo Cavallini, Andrea Morandi, Laura Pietrovito, Gianfranco Pintus, Elisa Giannoni, Thomas Schrader, Martin Puhr, Paola Chiarugi, Maria Letizia Taddei
Drug resistance of cancer cells is recognized as the primary cause of failure of chemotherapeutic treatment in most human cancers. Growing evidences support the idea that deregulated cellular metabolism is linked to such resistance. Indeed, both components of the glycolytic and mitochondrial pathways are involved in altered metabolism linked to chemoresistance of several cancers. Here we investigated the drug-induced metabolic adaptations able to confer advantages to docetaxel resistant prostate cancer (PCa) cells...
August 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510169/zika-virus-disease-a-current-review-of-the-literature
#8
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Arslan Bashir
BACKGROUND: The massive pandemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading through South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and possibly the USA. It is the most recent of four surprising appearances of imperative arthropod-borne viral illnesses in the Western Hemisphere over the preceding 20 years. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this narrative review is to summarize the existing knowledge about the epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, complications, replication, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment and prevention of ZIKV infection...
August 10, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516442/igfbp1-increases-%C3%AE-cell-regeneration-by-promoting-%C3%AE-to-%C3%AE-cell-transdifferentiation
#9
Jing Lu, Ka-Cheuk Liu, Nadja Schulz, Christos Karampelias, Jérémie Charbord, Agneta Hilding, Linn Rautio, Philippe Bertolino, Claes-Göran Östenson, Kerstin Brismar, Olov Andersson
There is great interest in therapeutically harnessing endogenous regenerative mechanisms to increase the number of β cells in people with diabetes. By performing whole-genome expression profiling of zebrafish islets, we identified 11 secreted proteins that are upregulated during β-cell regeneration. We then tested the proteins' ability to potentiate β-cell regeneration in zebrafish at supraphysiological levels. One protein, insulin-like growth factor (Igf) binding-protein 1 (Igfbp1), potently promoted β-cell regeneration by potentiating α- to β-cell transdifferentiation...
September 15, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398621/the-genetic-architecture-of-type-2-diabetes
#10
Christian Fuchsberger, Jason Flannick, Tanya M Teslovich, Anubha Mahajan, Vineeta Agarwala, Kyle J Gaulton, Clement Ma, Pierre Fontanillas, Loukas Moutsianas, Davis J McCarthy, Manuel A Rivas, John R B Perry, Xueling Sim, Thomas W Blackwell, Neil R Robertson, N William Rayner, Pablo Cingolani, Adam E Locke, Juan Fernandez Tajes, Heather M Highland, Josee Dupuis, Peter S Chines, Cecilia M Lindgren, Christopher Hartl, Anne U Jackson, Han Chen, Jeroen R Huyghe, Martijn van de Bunt, Richard D Pearson, Ashish Kumar, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Niels Grarup, Heather M Stringham, Eric R Gamazon, Jaehoon Lee, Yuhui Chen, Robert A Scott, Jennifer E Below, Peng Chen, Jinyan Huang, Min Jin Go, Michael L Stitzel, Dorota Pasko, Stephen C J Parker, Tibor V Varga, Todd Green, Nicola L Beer, Aaron G Day-Williams, Teresa Ferreira, Tasha Fingerlin, Momoko Horikoshi, Cheng Hu, Iksoo Huh, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Bong-Jo Kim, Yongkang Kim, Young Jin Kim, Min-Seok Kwon, Juyoung Lee, Selyeong Lee, Keng-Han Lin, Taylor J Maxwell, Yoshihiko Nagai, Xu Wang, Ryan P Welch, Joon Yoon, Weihua Zhang, Nir Barzilai, Benjamin F Voight, Bok-Ghee Han, Christopher P Jenkinson, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Johanna Kuusisto, Alisa Manning, Maggie C Y Ng, Nicholette D Palmer, Beverley Balkau, Alena Stancáková, Hanna E Abboud, Heiner Boeing, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Omri Gottesman, James Scott, Jason Carey, Phoenix Kwan, George Grant, Joshua D Smith, Benjamin M Neale, Shaun Purcell, Adam S Butterworth, Joanna M M Howson, Heung Man Lee, Yingchang Lu, Soo-Heon Kwak, Wei Zhao, John Danesh, Vincent K L Lam, Kyong Soo Park, Danish Saleheen, Wing Yee So, Claudia H T Tam, Uzma Afzal, David Aguilar, Rector Arya, Tin Aung, Edmund Chan, Carmen Navarro, Ching-Yu Cheng, Domenico Palli, Adolfo Correa, Joanne E Curran, Denis Rybin, Vidya S Farook, Sharon P Fowler, Barry I Freedman, Michael Griswold, Daniel Esten Hale, Pamela J Hicks, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Satish Kumar, Benjamin Lehne, Dorothée Thuillier, Wei Yen Lim, Jianjun Liu, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Marie Loh, Solomon K Musani, Sobha Puppala, William R Scott, Loïc Yengo, Sian-Tsung Tan, Herman A Taylor, Farook Thameem, Gregory Wilson, Tien Yin Wong, Pål Rasmus Njølstad, Jonathan C Levy, Massimo Mangino, Lori L Bonnycastle, Thomas Schwarzmayr, João Fadista, Gabriela L Surdulescu, Christian Herder, Christopher J Groves, Thomas Wieland, Jette Bork-Jensen, Ivan Brandslund, Cramer Christensen, Heikki A Koistinen, Alex S F Doney, Leena Kinnunen, Tõnu Esko, Andrew J Farmer, Liisa Hakaste, Dylan Hodgkiss, Jasmina Kravic, Valeriya Lyssenko, Mette Hollensted, Marit E Jørgensen, Torben Jørgensen, Claes Ladenvall, Johanne Marie Justesen, Annemari Käräjämäki, Jennifer Kriebel, Wolfgang Rathmann, Lars Lannfelt, Torsten Lauritzen, Narisu Narisu, Allan Linneberg, Olle Melander, Lili Milani, Matt Neville, Marju Orho-Melander, Lu Qi, Qibin Qi, Michael Roden, Olov Rolandsson, Amy Swift, Anders H Rosengren, Kathleen Stirrups, Andrew R Wood, Evelin Mihailov, Christine Blancher, Mauricio O Carneiro, Jared Maguire, Ryan Poplin, Khalid Shakir, Timothy Fennell, Mark DePristo, Martin Hrabé de Angelis, Panos Deloukas, Anette P Gjesing, Goo Jun, Peter Nilsson, Jacquelyn Murphy, Robert Onofrio, Barbara Thorand, Torben Hansen, Christa Meisinger, Frank B Hu, Bo Isomaa, Fredrik Karpe, Liming Liang, Annette Peters, Cornelia Huth, Stephen P O'Rahilly, Colin N A Palmer, Oluf Pedersen, Rainer Rauramaa, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Veikko Salomaa, Richard M Watanabe, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Richard N Bergman, Dwaipayan Bharadwaj, Erwin P Bottinger, Yoon Shin Cho, Giriraj R Chandak, Juliana C N Chan, Kee Seng Chia, Mark J Daly, Shah B Ebrahim, Claudia Langenberg, Paul Elliott, Kathleen A Jablonski, Donna M Lehman, Weiping Jia, Ronald C W Ma, Toni I Pollin, Manjinder Sandhu, Nikhil Tandon, Philippe Froguel, Inês Barroso, Yik Ying Teo, Eleftheria Zeggini, Ruth J F Loos, Kerrin S Small, Janina S Ried, Ralph A DeFronzo, Harald Grallert, Benjamin Glaser, Andres Metspalu, Nicholas J Wareham, Mark Walker, Eric Banks, Christian Gieger, Erik Ingelsson, Hae Kyung Im, Thomas Illig, Paul W Franks, Gemma Buck, Joseph Trakalo, David Buck, Inga Prokopenko, Reedik Mägi, Lars Lind, Yossi Farjoun, Katharine R Owen, Anna L Gloyn, Konstantin Strauch, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jaspal Singh Kooner, Jong-Young Lee, Taesung Park, Peter Donnelly, Andrew D Morris, Andrew T Hattersley, Donald W Bowden, Francis S Collins, Gil Atzmon, John C Chambers, Timothy D Spector, Markku Laakso, Tim M Strom, Graeme I Bell, John Blangero, Ravindranath Duggirala, E Shyong Tai, Gilean McVean, Craig L Hanis, James G Wilson, Mark Seielstad, Timothy M Frayling, James B Meigs, Nancy J Cox, Rob Sladek, Eric S Lander, Stacey Gabriel, Noël P Burtt, Karen L Mohlke, Thomas Meitinger, Leif Groop, Goncalo Abecasis, Jose C Florez, Laura J Scott, Andrew P Morris, Hyun Min Kang, Michael Boehnke, David Altshuler, Mark I McCarthy
The genetic architecture of common traits, including the number, frequency, and effect sizes of inherited variants that contribute to individual risk, has been long debated. Genome-wide association studies have identified scores of common variants associated with type 2 diabetes, but in aggregate, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of this disease. Here, to test the hypothesis that lower-frequency variants explain much of the remainder, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia performed whole-genome sequencing in 2,657 European individuals with and without diabetes, and exome sequencing in 12,940 individuals from five ancestry groups...
August 4, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27219686/diabetes-and-cancer-a-review-of-current-knowledge
#11
J Wojciechowska, W Krajewski, M Bolanowski, T Kręcicki, T Zatoński
Diabetes mellitus (DM), one of the most common life-threatening illnesses worldwide, is a group of metabolic diseases, characterized by sustained hyperglycemia. The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adults reached 387 millions in 2014 and is still rising. It is suggested there is a strong association between diabetes mellitus (especially type 2 diabetes mellitus) and carcinogenesis. The possible biological links between diabetes mellitus and cancer comprise hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and fat-induced chronic inflammation...
May 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26289061/recent-advances-in-paediatric-respiratory-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Andrew Turnbull, Ian M Balfour-Lynn
This review highlights important advances in paediatric respiratory medicine since 2014, excluding cystic fibrosis. It focuses mainly on the more common conditions, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchiolitis and preschool wheezing, asthma, pneumonia and sleep, and highlights some of the rarer conditions such as primary ciliary dyskinesia and interstitial lung disease (ILD).
February 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147921/fluoride-a-review-of-use-and-effects-on-health
#13
Domen Kanduti, Petra Sterbenk, Barbara Artnik
INTRODUCTION: Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual's health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. AIM: The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. METHODS: Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web pages and documents published from different international institutions...
April 2016: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199641/alzheimer-s-disease-and-hippocampal-adult-neurogenesis-exploring-shared-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Carolyn Hollands, Nancy Bartolotti, Orly Lazarov
New neurons incorporate into the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus throughout life. Neurogenesis is modulated by behavior and plays a major role in hippocampal plasticity. Along with older mature neurons, new neurons structure the dentate gyrus, and determine its function. Recent data suggest that the level of hippocampal neurogenesis is substantial in the human brain, suggesting that neurogenesis may have important implications for human cognition. In support of that, impaired neurogenesis compromises hippocampal function and plays a role in cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease mouse models...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27200051/photoactivation-the-light-driven-assembly-of-the-water-oxidation-complex-of-photosystem-ii
#15
REVIEW
Han Bao, Robert L Burnap
Photosynthetic water oxidation is catalyzed by the Mn4CaO5 cluster of photosystem II. The assembly of the Mn4O5Ca requires light and involves a sequential process called photoactivation. This process harnesses the charge-separation of the photochemical reaction center and the coordination environment provided by the amino acid side chains of the protein to oxidize and organize the incoming manganese ions to form the oxo-bridged metal cluster capable of H2O-oxidation. Although most aspects of this assembly process remain poorly understood, recent advances in the elucidation of the crystal structure of the fully assembled cyanobacterial PSII complex help in the interpretation of the rich history of experiments designed to understand this process...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27174989/a-high-yielding-strictly-regioselective-prebiotic-purine-nucleoside-formation-pathway
#16
Sidney Becker, Ines Thoma, Amrei Deutsch, Tim Gehrke, Peter Mayer, Hendrik Zipse, Thomas Carell
The origin of life is believed to have started with prebiotic molecules reacting along unidentified pathways to produce key molecules such as nucleosides. To date, a single prebiotic pathway to purine nucleosides had been proposed. It is considered to be inefficient due to missing regioselectivity and low yields. We report that the condensation of formamidopyrimidines (FaPys) with sugars provides the natural N-9 nucleosides with extreme regioselectivity and in good yields (60%). The FaPys are available from formic acid and aminopyrimidines, which are in turn available from prebiotic molecules that were also detected during the Rosetta comet mission...
May 13, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230643/molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-cardiovascular-disorders-in-diabetes
#17
Manasi S Shah, Michael Brownlee
The clinical correlations linking diabetes mellitus with accelerated atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, and increased post-myocardial infarction fatality rates are increasingly understood in mechanistic terms. The multiple mechanisms discussed in this review seem to share a common element: prolonged increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in diabetic cardiovascular cells. Intracellular hyperglycemia causes excessive ROS production. This activates nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which inhibits GAPDH, shunting early glycolytic intermediates into pathogenic signaling pathways...
May 27, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246588/the-exposome-concept-a-challenge-and-a-potential-driver-for-environmental-health-research
#18
Valérie Siroux, Lydiane Agier, Rémy Slama
The exposome concept was defined in 2005 as encompassing all environmental exposures from conception onwards, as a new strategy to evidence environmental disease risk factors. Although very appealing, the exposome concept is challenging in many respects. In terms of assessment, several hundreds of time-varying exposures need to be considered, but increasing the number of exposures assessed should not be done at the cost of increased exposure misclassification. Accurately assessing the exposome currently requires numerous measurements, which rely on different technologies; resulting in an expensive set of protocols...
June 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313049/biosensor-reveals-multiple-sources-for-mitochondrial-nad%C3%A2-%C2%BA
#19
Xiaolu A Cambronne, Melissa L Stewart, DongHo Kim, Amber M Jones-Brunette, Rory K Morgan, David L Farrens, Michael S Cohen, Richard H Goodman
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential substrate for sirtuins and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), which are NAD(+)-consuming enzymes localized in the nucleus, cytosol, and mitochondria. Fluctuations in NAD(+) concentrations within these subcellular compartments are thought to regulate the activity of NAD(+)-consuming enzymes; however, the challenge in measuring compartmentalized NAD(+) in cells has precluded direct evidence for this type of regulation. We describe the development of a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor for directly monitoring free NAD(+) concentrations in subcellular compartments...
June 17, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26961639/crispr-gene-editing-is-just-the-beginning
#20
Heidi Ledford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2016: Nature
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