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Fred Hasselman
Several competing aetiologies of developmental dyslexia suggest that the problems with acquiring literacy skills are causally entailed by low-level auditory and/or speech perception processes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diverging claims about the specific deficient peceptual processes under conditions of strong inference. Theoretically relevant acoustic features were extracted from a set of artificial speech stimuli that lie on a /bAk/-/dAk/ continuum. The features were tested on their ability to enable a simple classifier (Quadratic Discriminant Analysis) to reproduce the observed classification performance of average and dyslexic readers in a speech perception experiment...
2015: PeerJ
O A Olulade, D L Flowers, E M Napoliello, G F Eden
fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called "visual word form area", VWFA), is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009). Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
Yafit Gabay, Erik D Thiessen, Lori L Holt
PURPOSE: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is commonly thought to arise from phonological impairments. However, an emerging perspective is that a more general procedural learning deficit, not specific to phonological processing, may underlie DD. The current study examined if individuals with DD are capable of extracting statistical regularities across sequences of passively experienced speech and nonspeech sounds. Such statistical learning is believed to be domain-general, to draw upon procedural learning systems, and to relate to language outcomes...
June 2015: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Joseph W Houpt, Bethany L Sussman, James T Townsend, Sharlene D Newman
Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Jason M Nelson
The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of the developmental dyslexias (Wolf and Bowers, Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 415-438, 1999) was investigated with 149 adolescents and young adults (age range = 16 to 24 years) with dyslexia. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor model with separate naming speed (NS) and phonological awareness (PA) constructs was superior to a one-factor model, supporting the assumption within the DDH that NS is a source of reading dysfunction separable from PA...
October 2015: Annals of Dyslexia
Ahmed Elnakib, Ahmed Soliman, Matthew Nitzken, Manuel F Casanova, Georgy Gimel'farb, Ayman El-Baz
Developmental dyslexia is a brain disorder that is associated with a disability to read, which affects both the behavior and the learning abilities of children. Recent advances in MRI techniques have enabled imaging of different brain structures and correlating the results to clinical findings. The goal of this paper is to cover these imaging studies in order to provide a better understanding of dyslexia and its associated brain abnormalities. In addition, this survey covers the noninvasive MRI-based diagnostics methods that can offer early detection of dyslexia...
October 2014: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Maaike Vandermosten, Jolijn Vanderauwera, Catherine Theys, Astrid De Vos, Sophie Vanvooren, Stefan Sunaert, Jan Wouters, Pol Ghesquière
In adults and school-aged children, phonological aspects of reading seem to be sustained by left dorsal regions, while ventral regions seem to be involved in orthographic word recognition. Yet, given that the brain reorganises during reading acquisition, it is unknown when and how these reading routes emerge and whether neural deficits in dyslexia predate reading onset. Using diffusion MRI in 36 pre-readers with a family risk for dyslexia (FRD(+)) and 35 well matched pre-readers without a family risk (FRD(-)), our results show that phonological predictors of reading are sustained bilaterally by both ventral and dorsal tracts...
August 2015: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Mónica Giraldo-Chica, John P Hegarty, Keith A Schneider
Developmental dyslexia is a common learning disability characterized by normal intelligence but difficulty in skills associated with reading, writing and spelling. One of the most prominent, albeit controversial, theories of dyslexia is the magnocellular theory, which suggests that malfunction of the magnocellular system in the brain is responsible for the behavioral deficits. We sought to test the basis of this theory by directly measuring the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), the only location in the brain where the magnocellular and parvocellular streams are spatially disjoint...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
T L Richards, T J Grabowski, P Boord, K Yagle, M Askren, Z Mestre, P Robinson, O Welker, D Gulliford, W Nagy, V Berninger
Based on comprehensive testing and educational history, children in grades 4-9 (on average 12 years) were diagnosed with dysgraphia (persisting handwriting impairment) or dyslexia (persisting word spelling/reading impairment) or as typical writers and readers (controls). The dysgraphia group (n = 14) and dyslexia group (n = 17) were each compared to the control group (n = 9) and to each other in separate analyses. Four brain region seed points (left occipital temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, precuneus, and inferior frontal gyrus) were used in these analyses which were shown in a metaanalysis to be related to written word production on four indicators of white matter integrity and fMRI functional connectivity for four tasks (self-guided mind wandering during resting state, writing letter that follows a visually displayed letter in alphabet, writing missing letter to create a correctly spelled real word, and planning for composing after scanning on topic specified by researcher)...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
Robin L Peterson, Bruce F Pennington
This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed...
2015: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
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