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Gastroenterology

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By Jeff Bank Internal Medicine R2 at the University of Utah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194529/2017-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-infectious-diarrhea
#1
Andi L Shane, Rajal K Mody, John A Crump, Phillip I Tarr, Theodore S Steiner, Karen Kotloff, Joanne M Langley, Christine Wanke, Cirle Alcantara Warren, Allen C Cheng, Joseph Cantey, Larry K Pickering
These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
November 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092694/proton-pump-inhibitors-risks-of-long-term-use
#2
REVIEW
Leonardo Henry Eusebi, Stefano Rabitti, Maria Laura Artesiani, Dania Gelli, Marco Montagnani, Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Franco Bazzoli
Proton pump inhibitors are among the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs, and their use is increasing, in particular for long-term treatment, often being over-prescribed and used for inappropriate conditions. In recent years, considerable attention has been directed towards a wide range of adverse effects, and even when a potential underlying biological mechanism is plausible, the clinical evidence of the adverse effect is often weak. Several long-term side effects have been investigated ranging from interaction with other drugs, increased risk of infection, reduced intestinal absorption of vitamins and minerals, and more recently kidney damage and dementia...
July 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221664/mechanisms-of-damage-to-the-gastrointestinal-tract-from-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#3
REVIEW
Ingvar Bjarnason, Carmelo Scarpignato, Erik Holmgren, Michael Olszewski, Kim D Rainsford, Angel Lanas
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can damage the gastrointestinal tract, causing widespread morbidity and mortality. Although mechanisms of damage involve the activities of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1 or COX1) and PTGS1 (COX2), other factors are involved. We review mechanisms of gastrointestinal damage induction by NSAIDs, via COX-mediated and COX-independent processes. NSAIDs interact with phospholipids and uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, which initiates biochemical changes that impair function of the gastrointestinal barrier...
December 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830747/a-consumer-s-guide-for-probiotics-10-golden-rules-for-a-correct-use
#4
REVIEW
Marco Toscano, Roberta De Grandi, Luca Pastorelli, Maurizio Vecchi, Lorenzo Drago
Probiotics are used all over the world as their beneficial effects on the human organism have been widely demonstrated. Certain probiotics can down-regulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promote intestinal epithelial barrier functions, increasing an anti-inflammatory response and contributing to the host's overall health. The main mechanisms by which probiotic microorganisms can interact with the host are by modulating the immune system and the epithelial cell functions and interacting with intestinal gut microbiota...
November 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231192/defining-an-optimal-adherence-threshold-for-patients-taking-subcutaneous-anti-tnfs-for-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#5
Shail M Govani, Mohamed Noureldin, Peter D R Higgins, Michele Heisler, Sameer D Saini, Ryan W Stidham, Jennifer F Waljee, Akbar K Waljee
OBJECTIVES: In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using biological therapy, non-adherence leads to anti-drug antibody formation and reduced effectiveness. Little is known about the optimal level of adherence in IBD patients on biologic therapy. We aimed to identify the association between adherence and disease flare and determine an optimal level of adherence. METHODS: We analyzed claims data for IBD patients prescribed adalimumab (ADA) and certolizumab (CZP) from the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database from 2009 to 2013...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090868/tokyo-guidelines-2018-management-bundles-for-acute-cholangitis-and-cholecystitis
#6
LETTER
Toshihiko Mayumi, Kohji Okamoto, Tadahiro Takada, Steven M Strasberg, Joseph S Solomkin, David Schlossberg, Henry A Pitt, Masahiro Yoshida, Harumi Gomi, Fumihiko Miura, O James Garden, Seiki Kiriyama, Masamichi Yokoe, Itaru Endo, Horacio J Asbun, Yukio Iwashita, Taizo Hibi, Akiko Umezawa, Kenji Suzuki, Takao Itoi, Jiro Hata, Ho-Seong Han, Tsann-Long Hwang, Christos Dervenis, Koji Asai, Yasuhisa Mori, Wayne Shih-Wei Huang, Giulio Belli, Shuntaro Mukai, Palepu Jagannath, Daniel Cherqui, Kazuto Kozaka, Todd H Baron, Eduardo de Santibañes, Ryota Higuchi, Keita Wada, Dirk J Gouma, Daniel J Deziel, Kui-Hin Liau, Go Wakabayashi, Robert Padbury, Eduard Jonas, Avinash Nivritti Supe, Harjit Singh, Toshifumi Gabata, Angus C W Chan, Wan Yee Lau, Sheung Tat Fan, Miin-Fu Chen, Chen-Guo Ker, Yoo-Seok Yoon, In-Seok Choi, Myung-Hwan Kim, Dong-Sup Yoon, Seigo Kitano, Masafumi Inomata, Koichi Hirata, Kazuo Inui, Yoshinobu Sumiyama, Masakazu Yamamoto
Management bundles that define items or procedures strongly recommended in clinical practice have been used in many guidelines in recent years. Application of these bundles facilitates the adaptation of guidelines and helps improve the prognosis of target diseases. In Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13), we proposed management bundles for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. Here, in Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18), we redefine the management bundles for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. Critical parts of the bundles in TG18 include the diagnostic process, severity assessment, transfer of patients if necessary, and therapeutic approach at each time point...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215629/proton-pump-inhibitors-and-dementia-deciphering-the-data
#7
Paul Moayyedi, Maxine A Lewis
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective and suppressing acid, and therefore have efficacy against gastric acid-related disorders. The long-term safety of PPIs is less clear and there have been a number of studies raising concerns regarding risk of pneumonia, fracture, Clostridium difficile, chronic renal failure, and dementia. This latter concern is addressed by a study in this issue of AJG using health care registry data and found there was no association between PPI use and Alzheimer's dementia. Furthermore, there was no increased risk of dementia with long-term use of PPIs or higher doses of PPIs...
December 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111320/clinical-states-of-cirrhosis-and-competing-risks
#8
REVIEW
Gennaro D'Amico, Alberto Morabito, Mario D'Amico, Linda Pasta, Giuseppe Malizia, Paola Rebora, Maria Grazia Valsecchi
The clinical course of cirrhosis is mostly determined by the progressive increase of portal hypertension, hyperdynamic circulation, bacterial translocation and activation of systemic inflammation. Different disease states without a predictable sequence but with increasing death risk, related to the progression of these mechanisms may be recognized by hemodynamic or clinical characteristics, encompassing compensated and decompensated cirrhosis and a late decompensated state. Acute on chronic liver failure may occur either in decompensated or in compensated cirrhosis and is always associated with a high short term mortality...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158191/association-between-coffee-intake-after-diagnosis-of-colorectal-cancer-and-reduced-mortality
#9
Yang Hu, Ming Ding, Chen Yuan, Kana Wu, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Frank B Hu, Andrew T Chan, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Shuji Ogino, Charles S Fuchs, Edward L Giovannucci, Mingyang Song
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have examined the association between coffee intake and survival after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a prospective study to investigate the association between coffee intake after a diagnosis of CRC and mortality. METHODS: We collected data from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012), following 1599 patients diagnosed with stage 1 or 2 CRC. CRC was reported on questionnaires and ascertained by review of medical records and pathology reports; intake of food and beverages was determined from responses to semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires...
November 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097867/dysphagia-thinking-outside-the-box
#10
REVIEW
Hamish Philpott, Mayur Garg, Dunya Tomic, Smrithya Balasubramanian, Rami Sweis
Dysphagia is a common symptom that is important to recognise and appropriately manage, given that causes include life threatening oesophageal neoplasia, oropharyngeal dysfunction, the risk of aspiration, as well as chronic disabling gastroesophageal reflux (GORD). The predominant causes of dysphagia varies between cohorts depending on the interplay between genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors, and is changing with time. Currently in white Caucasian societies adopting a western lifestyle, obesity is common and thus associated gastroesophageal reflux disease is increasingly diagnosed...
October 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122851/guidelines-on-the-management-of-abnormal-liver-blood-tests
#11
Philip N Newsome, Rob Cramb, Suzanne M Davison, John F Dillon, Mark Foulerton, Edmund M Godfrey, Richard Hall, Ulrike Harrower, Mark Hudson, Andrew Langford, Anne Mackie, Robert Mitchell-Thain, Karen Sennett, Nicholas C Sheron, Julia Verne, Martine Walmsley, Andrew Yeoman
These updated guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines, which this document supersedes, were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises representatives from patient/carer groups (British Liver Trust, Liver4life, PBC Foundation and PSC Support), elected members of the BSG liver section (including representatives from Scotland and Wales), British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL), Specialist Advisory Committee in Clinical Biochemistry/Royal College of Pathology and Association for Clinical Biochemistry, British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN), Public Health England (implementation and screening), Royal College of General Practice, British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiologists (BSGAR) and Society of Acute Medicine...
January 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146523/factors-that-contribute-to-differences-in-survival-of-black-vs-white-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#12
Helmneh M Sineshaw, Kimmie Ng, W Dana Flanders, Otis W Brawley, Ahmedin Jemal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous studies reported that black vs white disparities in survival among elderly patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) were due to differences in tumor characteristics (tumor stage, grade, nodal status, and comorbidity) rather than differences in treatment. We sought to determine the sequential contribution of differences in insurance, comorbidity, tumor characteristics, and treatment receipt to the black-white survival disparity among patients with CRC in 18-64 years old...
November 13, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134968/-weekend-effect-in-patients-with-upper-gastrointestinal-hemorrhage-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Ashutosh Gupta, Rajender Agarwal, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
OBJECTIVES: "Weekend effect" refers to worse outcomes among patients presenting to the hospital on weekends or holidays. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies assessing the impact of the "weekend effect" in patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). METHODS: We searched key bibliographic databases using keywords and MeSH terms related to gastrointestinal hemorrhage and "weekend effect". Our primary analysis evaluated mortality in patients with UGIH who were hospitalized on the weekend or after-hours compared with a weekday...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134969/the-prevalence-and-impact-of-overlapping-rome-iv-diagnosed-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-on-somatization-quality-of-life-and-healthcare-utilization-a-cross-sectional-general-population-study-in-three-countries
#14
Imran Aziz, Olafur S Palsson, Hans Törnblom, Ami D Sperber, William E Whitehead, Magnus Simrén
OBJECTIVES: The population prevalence of Rome IV-diagnosed functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and their cumulative effect on health impairment is unknown. METHODS: An internet-based cross-sectional health survey was completed by 5,931 of 6,300 general population adults from three English-speaking countries (2100 each from USA, Canada, and UK). Quota-based sampling was used to generate demographically balanced and population representative samples with regards to age, sex, and education level...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112202/adherence-to-a-healthy-lifestyle-is-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-diverticulitis-among-men
#15
Po-Hong Liu, Yin Cao, Brieze R Keeley, Idy Tam, Kana Wu, Lisa L Strate, Edward L Giovannucci, Andrew T Chan
OBJECTIVES: Diverticulitis is a common disease with high clinical burden. We evaluated the joint contribution of multiple lifestyle factors to risks of incident diverticulitis. We also estimated the proportion of diverticulitis preventable by lifestyle modifications. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association between lifestyle factors (red meat, dietary fiber intake, vigorous physical activity (activity with metabolic equivalent ≥6), body mass index (BMI), and smoking) and risk of diverticulitis among participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100852/-spending-your-life-wisely-how-to-create-an-asset-management-plan
#16
Megan A Adams, John I Allen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087398/risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-celiac-disease-a-population-based-study
#17
Benjamin Lebwohl, Yael R Nobel, Peter H R Green, Martin J Blaser, Jonas F Ludvigsson
OBJECTIVES: Patients with celiac disease are at increased risk for infections such as tuberculosis, influenza, and pneumococcal pneumonia. However, little is known about the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with celiac disease. METHODS: We identified patients with celiac disease based on intestinal biopsies submitted to all pathology departments in Sweden over a 39-year period (from July 1969 through February 2008). We compared risk of CDI (based on stratified Cox proportional hazards models) among patients with celiac disease vs...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087399/proton-pump-inhibitor-therapy-for-eosinophilic-esophagitis-a-paradigm-shift
#18
Javier Molina-Infante, Alfredo J Lucendo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087400/colorectal-cancer-screening-in-the-non-syndromic-familial-risk-population-is-it-time-to-revise-the-clinical-guidelines
#19
Enrique Quintero, Antonio Z Gimeno-García
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063908/adherence-to-mediterranean-diet-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-effect-on-insulin-resistance
#20
Francesco Baratta, Daniele Pastori, Licia Polimeni, Tommaso Bucci, Fabrizio Ceci, Cinzia Calabrese, Ilaria Ernesti, Gaetano Pannitteri, Francesco Violi, Francesco Angelico, Maria Del Ben
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is increasing in western countries, because of changes in lifestyle and dietary habits. Mediterranean Diet (Med-Diet) is effective for cardiovascular prevention, but its relationship with NAFLD has been scarcely investigated. METHODS: We included 584 consecutive outpatients presenting with one or more cardiovascular risk factor such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), arterial hypertension, overweight/obesity, and dyslipidemia...
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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