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Pediatric nephrology

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Joel D Hernandez, Jonathan S Ellison, Thomas S Lendvay
The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis has been steadily increasing for the past several decades, with a concomitant concerning increase in health care costs and burden to children with this disease. Recent population-based studies have also demonstrated a change in the current trends of pediatric nephrolithiasis that is characterized by a significant increase in the number of girls now being affected. While changes in diet and lifestyle, obesity prevalence, and even imaging practices have been proposed to contribute to the recent increase in pediatric nephrolithiasis, a definite underlying cause remains elusive...
October 2015: JAMA Pediatrics
April P Padua, Josep Ryan G Macaraya, Leonila F Dans, Francisco E Anacleto
BACKGROUND: The administration of hypotonic saline solution for maintenance intravenous fluid (IVF) therapy has been the standard of care, but recent evidence has shown this treatment to be associated with hyponatremia-related complications. The aim of this systematic review was to determine which IVF, i.e., a hypotonic or an isotonic saline solution, poses less risk for the development of hyponatremia among hospitalized children who require maintenance IVF therapy. METHODS: Medline, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Current Controlled Trials, reference lists, and abstract proceedings were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hypotonic and isotonic saline solutions for maintenance IVF therapy in hospitalized children...
July 2015: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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