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Brendon O Watson, György Buzsáki
Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep...
2015: Daedalus
Jiu-Chiuan Chen, Mark A Espeland, Robert L Brunner, Laura C Lovato, Robert B Wallace, Xiaoyan Leng, Lawrence S Phillips, Jennifer G Robinson, Jane M Kotchen, Karen C Johnson, JoAnn E Manson, Marcia L Stefanick, Gloria E Sarto, W Jerry Mysiw
INTRODUCTION: Consistent evidence linking habitual sleep duration with risks of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia is lacking. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study on 7444 community-dwelling women (aged 65-80 y) with self-reported sleep duration, within the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study in 1995-2008. Incident MCI/dementia cases were ascertained by validated protocols. Cox models were used to adjust for multiple sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, depression, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and other clinical characteristics...
January 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Sara Sitara Qureshi, Basit Ansari, Masood A Qureshi, Raheela Rahmat Zohra
The purpose of the current study is to find out if subjective sleep complaints will have less cognitive functioning in older people (50 years and above). Sleep was assessed with the subscale Sleep Problems of the Symptoms Checklist-90 (Arrendell & Ettema 1986). Cognitive performance was measured with the Mini Mental Status Examination (Folstein, et al 1975) which is used as a dependent variable. Subjective complaints would be negatively associated with cognitive performance, since in elder people biological sleep is likely to be related with cognitive changes...
November 2014: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
E Savaskan
Dementia is characterized by cognitive and also behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). The most prominent BPSD are depression and apathy but sleep disorders also complicate the clinical course of dementia. These symptoms are a severe burden for patients and caregivers and are difficult to treat partly due to comorbidities. Common sleep disorders in dementia are insomnia, hypersomnia, circadian rhythm alterations and aberrant nocturnal motor behavior. Sleep duration and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are reduced...
June 2015: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Kristine Yaffe, Jasmine Nettiksimmons, Jerome Yesavage, Amy Byers
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a diagnosis of sleep disturbance is associated with dementia in older veterans. METHODS: For this retrospective cohort study, we obtained medical record data from the Department of Veterans Affairs National Patient Care Database for 200,000 randomly selected veterans aged 55 years and older. Prevalent cases of dementia from the baseline period (2000-2003) were excluded, leaving an analytic sample of 179,738 male veterans. Follow-up took place from 2004 to 2011...
June 2015: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Ricardo S Osorio, Tyler Gumb, Elizabeth Pirraglia, Andrew W Varga, Shou-En Lu, Jason Lim, Margaret E Wohlleber, Emma L Ducca, Viachaslau Koushyk, Lidia Glodzik, Lisa Mosconi, Indu Ayappa, David M Rapoport, Mony J de Leon
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the presence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with an earlier age at mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer disease (AD)-dementia onset in participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. We also examined whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use is associated with delayed onset of cognitive decline. METHODS: From the ADNI cohort, 3 subsets with progressively stringent criteria were created in a step-wise manner...
May 12, 2015: Neurology
Xavier Soler, Eduardo Gaio, Frank L Powell, Joe W Ramsdell, Jose S Loredo, Atul Malhotra, Andrew L Ries
RATIONALE: When obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) coexist in the so-called "overlap" syndrome, a high risk for mortality and morbidity has been reported. There is controversy about the prevalence of OSA in people affected by COPD. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate objective meaures of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with moderate to severe COPD to test the hypothesis that COPD is associated with an increased prevalence of OSA...
August 2015: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Jessica C Levenson, Daniel B Kay, Daniel J Buysse
Insomnia disorder is characterized by chronic dissatisfaction with sleep quantity or quality that is associated with difficulty falling asleep, frequent nighttime awakenings with difficulty returning to sleep, and/or awakening earlier in the morning than desired. Although progress has been made in our understanding of the nature, etiology, and pathophysiology of insomnia, there is still no universally accepted model. Greater understanding of the pathophysiology of insomnia may provide important information regarding how, and under what conditions, the disorder develops and is maintained as well as potential targets for prevention and treatment...
April 2015: Chest
Richard R Bootzin, Dana R Epstein
Sleep disturbance is intricately entwined with our sense of well-being, health, emotion regulation, performance and productivity, memory and cognitive functioning, and social interaction. A longitudinal perspective underscores the conclusion that persistent sleep disturbance, insomnia, at any time during the life span from infancy to old age has a lasting impact. We examine how insomnia develops, the evidence for competing explanations for understanding insomnia, and the evidence about psychological and behavioral treatments that are used to reduce insomnia and change daytime consequences...
2011: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Brittney Brown, Erick C Jones, Kyra P Clark, Felicia Jefferson
Sleep disturbances are found in a majority of individuals diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this literature review is to provide information about PTSD, in addition to assessing sleep quality. Current research observes that the lifetime prevalence of PTSD diagnosis in women is increasing. Although there are several studies that have been conducted to assess PTSD and sleep, there is a gap in the research that pertains to women, PTSD, and sleep quality. The current study will compile information on the subject to aid in decreasing the gender disparity in PTSD research, which is important for treating the entire PTSD population...
2014: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Laura D Straus, Sean P A Drummond, Carla M Nappi, Melissa M Jenkins, Sonya B Norman
Sleep disturbances are prevalent in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are associated with a number of adverse health consequences. Few studies have used comprehensive assessment methods to characterize sleep in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) veterans with PTSD. OEF/OIF/OND veterans with PTSD and sleep disturbance (n = 45) were compared to patients with primary insomnia (n = 25) and healthy control subjects (n = 27). Participants were assessed using questionnaire-based measures as well as daily subjective and objective measures of sleep...
February 2015: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Barry J Krakow, Victor A Ulibarri, Bret A Moore, Natalia D McIver
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are common disorders, but limited data address their co-morbidity. Emerging research indicates PTSD and SDB may co-occur more frequently than expected and may impact clinical outcomes. This review describes historical developments that first raised suspicions for a co-morbid relationship between PTSD and SDB, including barriers to the recognition and diagnosis of this co-morbidity. Objective diagnostic data from polysomnography studies in PTSD patients reveal widely varying prevalence rates for co-morbidity (0-90%)...
December 2015: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Peter J Colvonen, Tonya Masino, Sean P A Drummond, Ursula S Myers, Abigail C Angkaw, Sonya B Norman
OBJECTIVES: This study examined: (a) the relationship between self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a younger, Iraq and Afghanistan (OEF/OIF/OND) veteran sample seeking treatment for PTSD; and (b) the relationships between PTSD symptom scores and each risk factor of OSA (snoring, fatigue, high blood pressure/BMI). METHODS: Participants were 195 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans presenting to a VA outpatient PTSD clinic for evaluation...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Michael R Irwin
Sleep has a critical role in promoting health. Research over the past decade has documented that sleep disturbance has a powerful influence on the risk of infectious disease, the occurrence and progression of several major medical illnesses including cardiovascular disease and cancer, and the incidence of depression. Increasingly, the field has focused on identifying the biological mechanisms underlying these effects. This review highlights the impact of sleep on adaptive and innate immunity, with consideration of the dynamics of sleep disturbance, sleep restriction, and insomnia on (a) antiviral immune responses with consequences for vaccine responses and infectious disease risk and (b) proinflammatory immune responses with implications for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and depression...
January 3, 2015: Annual Review of Psychology
Daniel J Buysse
IMPORTANCE: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent health concerns in the population and in clinical practice. Clinicians may be reluctant to address insomnia because of its many potential causes, unfamiliarity with behavioral treatments, and concerns about pharmacologic treatments. OBJECTIVE: To review the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of insomnia in adults. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Systematic review to identify and summarize previously published quantitative reviews (meta-analyses) of behavioral and pharmacologic treatments for insomnia...
February 20, 2013: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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