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By MD Aware Emergency Medicine
Sean van Diepen, Jason N Katz, Nancy M Albert, Timothy D Henry, Alice K Jacobs, Navin K Kapur, Ahmet Kilic, Venu Menon, E Magnus Ohman, Nancy K Sweitzer, Holger Thiele, Jeffrey B Washam, Mauricio G Cohen
Cardiogenic shock is a high-acuity, potentially complex, and hemodynamically diverse state of end-organ hypoperfusion that is frequently associated with multisystem organ failure. Despite improving survival in recent years, patient morbidity and mortality remain high, and there are few evidence-based therapeutic interventions known to clearly improve patient outcomes. This scientific statement on cardiogenic shock summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, causes, and outcomes of cardiogenic shock; reviews contemporary best medical, surgical, mechanical circulatory support, and palliative care practices; advocates for the development of regionalized systems of care; and outlines future research priorities...
October 17, 2017: Circulation
Jonas Öhman, Veli-Pekka Harjola, Pasi Karjalainen, Johan Lassus
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a rapid cardiothoracic ultrasound protocol (CaTUS), combining echocardiographically derived E/e' and lung ultrasound (LUS), for diagnosing acute heart failure (AHF) in patients with undifferentiated dyspnea in an emergency department (ED). PATIENTS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 100 patients with undifferentiated dyspnea from a tertiary care ED, who all had CaTUS done immediately upon arrival in the ED...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
Brit Long, Joshua Oliver, Matthew Streitz, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Chest pain accounts for a significant percentage of emergency department (ED) presentations. The HEART score and pathway have demonstrated an ability to appropriately risk stratify and discharge from the ED a significant proportion of patients. OBJECTIVE: This review evaluates vital components of the HEART score and pathway, while discussing important considerations for current and future use. DISCUSSION: Chest pain is a common ED presentation, and several conditions associated with chest pain result in patient morbidity and mortality...
September 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kongkiat Chaikriangkrai, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha, Hye Yeon Jhun, Patompong Ungprasert, Gardar Sigurdsson, Faisal Nabi, John J Mahmarian, Su Min Chang
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a well-established test for risk stratifying asymptomatic patients. Recent studies also indicate that CACS may accurately risk stratify stable patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain; however, many were underpowered. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the prognostic value and accuracy of a zero (normal) CACS for identifying patients at acceptable low risk for future cardiovascular events who might be safely discharged home from the ED...
December 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Louise Cullen, Jaimi H Greenslade, Louven Menzies, Ashley Leong, Martin Than, Christopher Pemberton, Sally Aldous, John Pickering, Emily Dalton, Bianca Crosling, Rachelle Foreman, William A Parsonage
OBJECTIVE: To define the association between time taken to present to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms of possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 1-year outcomes. We also determined whether particular patient characteristics are associated with delays in seeking care after symptom onset. METHODS: We collected data, which included a customised case report form to record symptom onset, on adult patients presenting with suspected ACS to two EDs in Australia and New Zealand...
June 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Alexander C Fanaroff, Jennifer A Rymer, Sarah A Goldstein, David L Simel, L Kristin Newby
IMPORTANCE: About 10% of patients with acute chest pain are ultimately diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Early, accurate estimation of the probability of ACS in these patients using the clinical examination could prevent many hospital admissions among low-risk patients and ensure that high-risk patients are promptly treated. OBJECTIVE: To review systematically the accuracy of the initial history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and risk scores incorporating these elements with the first cardiac-specific troponin...
November 10, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Bryan Harvell, Nathan Henrie, Amy A Ernst, Steven J Weiss, Scott Oglesbee, Dusadee Sarangarm, Lorenzo Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Troponin elevation can be caused by etiologies other than acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Our hypothesis was that elevated troponins occur more frequently in non-ACS cases but that ACS cases (type 1 ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] and type 1 non-STEMI [NSTEMI]) have significantly higher troponin elevations. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort analysis of a random subset of all patients with elevated troponins (defined as ≥0.06 ng/mL) over a 1-year period from July 2013 to June 2014...
February 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Haluk Un, Mehmet Dogan, Omer Uz, Zafer Isilak, Mehmet Uzun
Hemodynamically unstable patients with supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs) should be treated with electrical cardioversion. If the patient is stable, acute termination of tachycardia can be achieved by vagal maneuvers or medical therapy. The Valsalva maneuver, carotid massage, and ice to the face are the most common vagal maneuvers. In our experience with patients, we observed that vagal stimulation increases with lying backward. Our suggested maneuver is based on quickly lying backward, from a seated position...
January 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Harold L Dauerman, Eric R Bates, Michael C Kontos, Shuang Li, J Lee Garvey, Timothy D Henry, Steven V Manoukian, Matthew T Roe
BACKGROUND: Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend transfer and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients within the time limit of first contact to device ≤ 120 minutes. We determined the hospital-level, patient-level, and process characteristics of timely versus delayed primary PCI for a diverse national sample of transfer patients confined to a travel distance that facilitates the process...
May 2015: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Allan J Walkey, D Kyle Hogarth, Gregory Y H Lip
Atrial fibrillation (AF) that newly occurs during critical illness presents challenges for both short- and long-term management. During critical illness, patients with new-onset AF are clinically evaluated for hemodynamic instability owing to the arrhythmia as well as for potentially reversible arrhythmia triggers. Hemodynamically significant AF that persists during critical illness may be treated with heart rate or rhythm control strategies. Recent evidence suggests that patients in whom AF develops during acute illness (eg, sepsis, postoperatively) have high long-term risks for AF recurrence and for AF-associated complications, such as stroke, heart failure, and death...
October 2015: Chest
Stephen W Waldo, James M McCabe, Cashel O'Brien, Kevin F Kennedy, Karen E Joynt, Robert W Yeh
BACKGROUND: Public reporting of procedural outcomes may create disincentives to provide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for critically ill patients. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association between public reporting with procedural management and outcomes among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we identified all patients with a primary diagnosis of AMI in states with public reporting (Massachusetts and New York) and regionally comparable states without public reporting (Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont) between 2005 and 2011...
March 24, 2015: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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