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Jasmeet P Hayes, Danielle R Miller, Ginette Lafleche, David H Salat, Mieke Verfaellie
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a common injury among returning troops due to the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. As most of the TBIs sustained are in the mild range, brain changes may not be detected by standard clinical imaging techniques such as CT. Furthermore, the functional significance of these types of injuries is currently being debated. However, accumulating evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to subtle white matter abnormalities and may be especially useful in detecting mild TBI (mTBI)...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
Zoya Marinova, Andreas Maercker
Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) presents with clinical features of full or partial PTSD (re-experiencing a traumatic event, avoiding reminders of the event, and a state of hyperarousal) together with symptoms from three additional clusters (problems in emotional regulation, negative self-concept, and problems in interpersonal relations). Complex PTSD is proposed as a new diagnostic entity in ICD-11 and typically occurs after prolonged and complex trauma. Here we shortly review current knowledge regarding the biological correlates of complex PTSD and compare it to the relevant findings in PTSD...
2015: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Kristine Yaffe, Jasmine Nettiksimmons, Jerome Yesavage, Amy Byers
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a diagnosis of sleep disturbance is associated with dementia in older veterans. METHODS: For this retrospective cohort study, we obtained medical record data from the Department of Veterans Affairs National Patient Care Database for 200,000 randomly selected veterans aged 55 years and older. Prevalent cases of dementia from the baseline period (2000-2003) were excluded, leaving an analytic sample of 179,738 male veterans. Follow-up took place from 2004 to 2011...
June 2015: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Shawn Marshall, Mark Bayley, Scott McCullagh, Diana Velikonja, Lindsay Berrigan, Donna Ouchterlony, Kelly Weegar
OBJECTIVE: To introduce a set of revised guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and persistent symptoms following concussive injuries. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The Guidelines for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Persistent Symptoms were made available in March 2011 based on literature and information up to 2008. A search for new clinical practice guidelines addressing mTBI and a systematic review of the literature evaluating treatment of persistent symptoms was conducted...
2015: Brain Injury: [BI]
Nikki H Stricker, Jenna E Keller, Diane T Castillo, Kathleen Y Haaland
Neurocognitive problems are common with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are important to understand because of their association with the success of PTSD treatment and its potential neural correlates. To our knowledge, this is the first neurocognitive study in an all-female U.S. veteran sample, some of whom had PTSD. We examined neurocognitive performance and assessed whether learning deficits, common in PTSD, were associated with executive functioning. Veterans with PTSD (n = 56) and without (n = 53) were evaluated for psychiatric and neurocognitive status...
April 2015: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Terence M Keane, Amy D Marshall, Casey T Taft
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results from exposure to a traumatic event that poses actual or threatened death or injury and produces intense fear, helplessness, or horror. U.S. population surveys reveal lifetime PTSD prevalence rates of 7% to 8%. Potential reasons for varying prevalence rates across gender, cultures, and samples exposed to different traumas are discussed. Drawing upon a conditioning model of PTSD, we review risk factors for PTSD, including pre-existing individual-based factors, features of the traumatic event, and posttrauma social support...
2006: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Chris R Brewin
Disturbances in aspects of memory described in current learning and cognitive theories are much more strongly associated with the presence of psychiatric disorder than with mere exposure to traumatic events. In posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are numerous associated changes that involve memory capacity, the content of memories for trauma, and a variety of memory processes. Whereas some changes appear to reflect the effects of the disorder, other evidence supports a predictive or causal role for memory disturbance...
2011: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Meaghan O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: The 2010 iteration of the Global Burden of Disease statistics (Murray et al., 2012) points to the growing impact of injury and highlights the mounting burden of psychiatric disorder. It is essential to examine the intersection between these two contributors to disease burden. METHODS: The Australian Injury Vulnerability Study collected data of over 1,000 injury patients from their initial hospitalization to 6 years post-injury. Structured clinical interviews were used to diagnose psychiatric disorder and self-report measures for disability and symptom severity...
2014: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Susanne Schaal, Anke Koebach, Harald Hinkel, Thomas Elbert
BACKGROUND: Compared to DSM-IV, the criteria for diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been modified in DSM-5. OBJECTIVE: The first aim of this study was to examine how these modifications impact rates of PTSD in a sample of Congolese ex-combatants. The second goal of this study was to investigate whether PTSD symptoms were associated with perpetrator-related acts or victim-related traumatic events. METHOD: Ninety-five male ex-combatants in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed...
2015: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Kinga E Fodor, Joanna Pozen, Joseph Ntaganira, Vincent Sezibera, Richard Neugebauer
The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Euro-American populations has been extensively studied, but confirmatory factor analytic studies from non-Western societies are lacking. Alternative models of DSM-IV symptoms were tested among Rwandan adults (N=465) who experienced trauma during the 1994 genocide. A cluster random survey was conducted with interviews held in Rwandan households. PTSD was assessed with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian version. Competing models were the DSM-IV, emotional numbing, dysphoria, aroused intrusion, and dysphoric arousal models...
May 2015: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Dinu-Stefan Teodorescu, Trond Heir, Johan Siqveland, Edvard Hauff, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Lars Lien
BACKGROUND: Traumatized refugees often report significant levels of chronic pain in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and more information is needed to understand pain in refugees exposed to traumatic events. This study aimed to assess the frequency of chronic pain among refugee psychiatric outpatients, and to compare outpatients with and without chronic pain on trauma exposure, psychiatric morbidity, and psychiatric symptom severity. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of sixty-one psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background using structured clinical diagnostic interviews to assess for traumatic events [Life Events Checklist (LEC)], PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) and complex PTSD [Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV PTSD Module (SCID-PTSD) and Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES)], chronic pain (SIDES Scale VI) and psychiatric symptoms [M...
2015: BMC Psychology
Mariel B Deutsch, Mario F Mendez, Edmond Teng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prior work in smaller cohorts suggests that traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a risk factor for frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). We sought to confirm and extend these results using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set. METHODS: We compared the TBI prevalence between FTD subjects and matched normal controls. Indices of cognitive, behavioral, functional, and global dementia severity were compared between FTD subjects with and without prior TBI...
2015: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Andrea L Roberts, Jessica C Agnew-Blais, Donna Spiegelman, Laura D Kubzansky, Susan M Mason, Sandro Galea, Frank B Hu, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Karestan C Koenen
IMPORTANCE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, debilitating mental disorder that has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and its risk factors, including obesity, in cross-sectional studies. If PTSD increases risk of incident T2D, enhanced surveillance in high-risk populations may be warranted. OBJECTIVE: To conduct one of the first longitudinal studies of PTSD and incidence of T2D in a civilian sample of women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Nurses' Health Study II, a US longitudinal cohort of women (Nā€‰=ā€‰49,739)...
March 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Johnathan L Saxe, Christopher L Perdue
Traumatic brain injuries and other blast-related injuries have been identified as the signature injury of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Some operational units in Iraq, especially those responsible for clearing roadways, were exposed to hundreds of blast incidents and thousands of individual doses of concussive energy during their lengthy deployments. Using operational records maintained by a single command element, the researchers conducted a retrospective cohort study evaluating the association between estimated individual exposures to blasts and the risk for postconcussion syndrome (PCS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
January 2015: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
Barry J Krakow, Victor A Ulibarri, Bret A Moore, Natalia D McIver
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are common disorders, but limited data address their co-morbidity. Emerging research indicates PTSD and SDB may co-occur more frequently than expected and may impact clinical outcomes. This review describes historical developments that first raised suspicions for a co-morbid relationship between PTSD and SDB, including barriers to the recognition and diagnosis of this co-morbidity. Objective diagnostic data from polysomnography studies in PTSD patients reveal widely varying prevalence rates for co-morbidity (0-90%)...
December 2015: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Peter J Colvonen, Tonya Masino, Sean P A Drummond, Ursula S Myers, Abigail C Angkaw, Sonya B Norman
OBJECTIVES: This study examined: (a) the relationship between self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a younger, Iraq and Afghanistan (OEF/OIF/OND) veteran sample seeking treatment for PTSD; and (b) the relationships between PTSD symptom scores and each risk factor of OSA (snoring, fatigue, high blood pressure/BMI). METHODS: Participants were 195 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans presenting to a VA outpatient PTSD clinic for evaluation...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Paul A J M de Bont, David P G van den Berg, Berber M van der Vleugel, Carlijn de Roos, Ad de Jongh, Mark van der Gaag, Agnes van Minnen
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in patients with a psychotic disorder. Because a PTSD diagnosis is often missed in patients with psychosis in routine care, a valid screening instrument could be helpful. AIMS: To determine the validity of the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ) as a screening tool for PTSD among individuals with psychotic disorders. METHOD: Among 2608 patients with a psychotic disorder, the rate of trauma exposure was determined and the TSQ was administered to screen for PTSD...
May 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Judith K Bass, Jeannie Annan, Sarah McIvor Murray, Debra Kaysen, Shelly Griffiths, Talita Cetinoglu, Karin Wachter, Laura K Murray, Paul A Bolton
BACKGROUND: Survivors of sexual violence have high rates of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although treatment for symptoms related to sexual violence has been shown to be effective in high-income countries, evidence is lacking in low-income, conflict-affected countries. METHODS: In this trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo, we randomly assigned 16 villages to provide cognitive processing therapy (1 individual session and 11 group sessions) or individual support to female sexual-violence survivors with high levels of PTSD symptoms and combined depression and anxiety symptoms...
June 6, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Samantha D Outcalt, Kurt Kroenke, Erin E Krebs, Neale R Chumbler, Jingwei Wu, Zhangsheng Yu, Matthew J Bair
Both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are highly comorbid with chronic pain and have deleterious effects on pain and treatment outcomes, but the nature of the relationships among chronic pain, PTSD, and depression has not been fully elucidated. This study examined 250 Veterans Affairs primary care patients with moderate to severe chronic musculoskeletal pain who participated in a randomized controlled pain treatment trial. Baseline data were analyzed to examine the independent associations of PTSD and major depression with multiple domains of pain, psychological status, quality of life, and disability...
June 2015: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Yuval Neria, Laura DiGrande, Ben G Adams
The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based on the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...
September 2011: American Psychologist
2015-03-28 23:10:20
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