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Neurobiology of Addiction

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5 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26276628/the-brain-on-drugs-from-reward-to-addiction
#1
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Marisela Morales
Advances in neuroscience identified addiction as a chronic brain disease with strong genetic, neurodevelopmental, and sociocultural components. We here discuss the circuit- and cell-level mechanisms of this condition and its co-option of pathways regulating reward, self-control, and affect. Drugs of abuse exert their initial reinforcing effects by triggering supraphysiologic surges of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens that activate the direct striatal pathway via D1 receptors and inhibit the indirect striato-cortical pathway via D2 receptors...
August 13, 2015: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21947443/the-hypothalamus-and-the-neurobiology-of-drug-seeking
#2
REVIEW
Nathan J Marchant, E Zayra Millan, Gavan P McNally
The hypothalamus is a neural structure critical for expression of motivated behaviours that ensure survival of the individual and the species. It is a heterogeneous structure, generally recognised to have four distinct regions in the rostrocaudal axis (preoptic, supraoptic, tuberal and mammillary). The tuberal hypothalamus in particular has been implicated in the neural control of appetitive motivation, including feeding and drug seeking. Here we review the role of the tuberal hypothalamus in appetitive motivation...
February 2012: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24456850/corticotropin-releasing-factor-a-key-role-in-the-neurobiology-of-addiction
#3
REVIEW
Eric P Zorrilla, Marian L Logrip, George F Koob
Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by loss of control over intake and dysregulation of stress-related brain emotional systems. Since the discovery by Wylie Vale and his colleagues of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the structurally-related urocortins, CRF systems have emerged as mediators of the body's response to stress. Relatedly, CRF systems have a prominent role in driving addiction via actions in the central extended amygdala, producing anxiety-like behavior, reward deficits, excessive, compulsive-like drug self-administration and stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking...
April 2014: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24088811/new-technologies-for-examining-the-role-of-neuronal-ensembles-in-drug-addiction-and-fear
#4
REVIEW
Fabio C Cruz, Eisuke Koya, Danielle H Guez-Barber, Jennifer M Bossert, Carl R Lupica, Yavin Shaham, Bruce T Hope
Correlational data suggest that learned associations are encoded within neuronal ensembles. However, it has been difficult to prove that neuronal ensembles mediate learned behaviours because traditional pharmacological and lesion methods, and even newer cell type-specific methods, affect both activated and non-activated neurons. In addition, previous studies on synaptic and molecular alterations induced by learning did not distinguish between behaviourally activated and non-activated neurons. Here, we describe three new approaches--Daun02 inactivation, FACS sorting of activated neurons and Fos-GFP transgenic rats--that have been used to selectively target and study activated neuronal ensembles in models of conditioned drug effects and relapse...
November 2013: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23764204/the-clinical-neurobiology-of-drug-craving
#5
REVIEW
Rajita Sinha
Drug craving has re-emerged as a relevant and important construct in the pathophysiology of addiction with its inclusion in DSM-V as a key clinical symptom of addictive disorders. This renewed focus has been due in part to the recent neurobiological evidence on craving-related neural activation and clinical evidence supporting its association with drug use, relapse, and recovery processes. This review covers the neurobiology of drug craving and relapse risk with a primary focus on cocaine addiction and a secondary emphasis on alcohol addiction...
August 2013: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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