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Karthiek R Narala, Sohail Hassan, Thomas A LaLonde, Peter A McCullough
Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries is common, extensive, and more unstable among patients with chronic renal impairment or chronic kidney disease (CKD). The initial presentation of coronary disease is often acute coronary syndrome (ACS) that tends to be more complicated and has a higher risk of death in this population. Medical treatment of ACS includes antianginal agents, antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulants, and pharmacotherapies that modify the natural history of ventricular remodeling after injury...
May 2013: Current Problems in Cardiology
Filippo Crea, Giovanna Liuzzo
Experimental models of atherogenesis have provided a growing body of information about molecular mechanisms of plaque growth; however, transition from coronary stability to instability is less well understood due to the lack of animal models reflective of human disease. The abrupt clinical presentation of acute coronary syndromes gives a strong signal of discontinuity in the natural history of atherothrombosis. The causes of such discontinuity are complex, probably multiple, and still largely unknown. A better knowledge of the causes of coronary instability might allow identification of new therapeutic targets aimed at the preservation of plaque stability in those subjects in whom primary prevention fails to prevent plaque growth...
January 8, 2013: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Elias B Hanna, David Luke Glancy
Heightened awareness of the characteristic patterns of ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion is paramount to quickly identifying life-threatening disorders. This paper reviews how to distinguish the various causes of these abnormalities.
June 2011: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Samuel C Siu, Candice K Silversides
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is the most common congenital cardiac defect. While the BAV can be found in isolation, it is often associated with other congenital cardiac lesions. The most frequent associated finding is dilation of the proximal ascending aorta secondary to abnormalities of the aortic media. Changes in the aortic media are present independent of whether the valve is functionally normal, stenotic, or incompetent. Although symptoms often manifest in adulthood, there is a wide spectrum of presentations ranging from severe disease detected in utero to asymptomatic disease in old age...
June 22, 2010: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Ryan P Morrissey, George A Diamond, Sanjay Kaul
On the basis of the evidence obtained from observational studies, randomized controlled trials and their meta-analyses, current guidelines recommend initiating high-dose statin therapy pre-discharge regardless of the baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Careful review of the evidence indicates that early initiation of high-dose statin therapy reduces recurrent ischemia and may reduce revascularization, but does not confer benefit in terms of hard clinical outcomes such as death or myocardial infarction in any of the randomized controlled trials, and may be associated with increased liver and muscle-related adverse outcomes leading to increased withdrawal and suboptimal long-term adherence...
October 6, 2009: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Frederique Bailliard, Robert H Anderson
Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital cardiac malformation that consists of an interventricular communication, also known as a ventricular septal defect, obstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract, override of the ventricular septum by the aortic root, and right ventricular hypertrophy. This combination of lesions occurs in 3 of every 10,000 live births, and accounts for 7-10% of all congenital cardiac malformations. Patients nowadays usually present as neonates, with cyanosis of varying intensity based on the degree of obstruction to flow of blood to the lungs...
2009: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Daniel E Becker
The use of dynamic electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is regarded as a standard of care during general anesthesia and is strongly encouraged when providing deep sedation. Although significant cardiovascular changes rarely if ever can be attributed to mild or moderate sedation techniques, the American Dental Association recommends ECG monitoring for patients with significant cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this continuing education article is to review basic principals of ECG monitoring and interpretation...
2006: Anesthesia Progress
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