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NTM ball shattering review 2015

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10 papers 0 to 25 followers
By Jason Mann No BS pulmonary critical care fellow
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25676515/pathogenesis-and-risk-factors-for-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer R Honda, Vijaya Knight, Edward D Chan
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections are broadly classified as skin and soft tissue infections, isolated lung disease, and visceral or disseminated disease. The degree of underlying immune abnormalities varies between each classification. Skin and soft tissue infections are usually the result of iatrogenic or accidental inoculation of NTM in otherwise normal hosts. Visceral and disseminated NTM disease invariably occurs in individuals with more severe immunosuppression. Although the focus of this article is to discuss the pathogenesis of NTM lung disease, the risk factors of visceral/disseminated NTM disease are also summarized, as they provide insights into host-defense mechanisms against these organisms...
March 2015: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25676516/epidemiology-of-human-pulmonary-infection-with-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-a-review
#2
REVIEW
D Rebecca Prevots, Theodore K Marras
Population-based data have documented a worldwide increase in the prevalence of human nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections since 2000. Mycobacterium avium complex is predominant in North America and East Asia, whereas in regions within Europe, M kansasii, M xenopi, and M malmoense are more common. Host factors important to the current epidemiology of NTM pulmonary disease include thoracic skeletal abnormalities, rheumatoid arthritis, and use of immunomodulatory drugs. Clustering of disease within families suggests a heritable genetic predisposition to disease susceptibility...
March 2015: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25676517/environmental-sources-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#3
REVIEW
Joseph O Falkinham
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) include over 150 species. The source for human infection is the environment. NTM are normal inhabitants of soil and drinking water. NTM grow and persist in many buildings. They are not contaminants of drinking water, but members of the natural drinking water microbial population. Infection occurs because humans share the same habitats. Because the ecology, antibiotic susceptibility, and virulence of individual species differs, identifying NTM isolates to species is important...
March 2015: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25676518/microbiological-diagnosis-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-pulmonary-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jakko van Ingen
Pulmonary disease is by far the most frequent disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). To diagnose NTM pulmonary disease (NTM-PD), patients should have symptoms and radiologic signs suggestive of NTM-PD, and cultures of multiple respiratory tract samples must grow the same NTM species. Thus, the microbiological laboratory has a central role in the diagnosis of NTM-PD. This review summarizes currently available data on techniques involved in the microbiological diagnosis of NTM-PD, and aims to provide a framework for optimal microbiological diagnosis...
March 2015: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25676519/medications-and-monitoring-in-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-infections
#5
REVIEW
Eric F Egelund, Kevin P Fennelly, Charles A Peloquin
The treatment of infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is challenging because multidrug regimens with limited efficacy and considerable toxicity are required. Current treatment of NTM is largely empiric. None of the NTM drugs were specifically developed for the treatment of NTM; the rationale for their use was often extrapolated from the treatment of tuberculosis. This article reviews key features of the drugs that are most commonly used for NTM infections, and provides monitoring parameters...
March 2015: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25676520/the-treatment-of-rapidly-growing-mycobacterial-infections
#6
REVIEW
Shannon H Kasperbauer, Mary Ann De Groote
Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) include a diverse group of species. We address the treatment of the most commonly isolated RGM-M abscessus complex, M fortuitum, and M chelonae. The M abscessus complex is composed of 3 closely related species: M abscessus senso stricto (hereafter M abscessus), M massiliense, and M bolletii. Most studies address treatment of M abscessus complex, which accounts for 80% of lung disease caused by RGM and is the second most common RGM to cause extrapulmonary disease (after M fortuitum)...
March 2015: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25676521/treatment-of-slowly-growing-mycobacteria
#7
REVIEW
Julie V Philley, David E Griffith
The most common nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung pathogen, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), requires antibiotic treatment regimens that are long and often arduous. M kansasii is the slowly growing NTM pathogen with the most predictably successful treatment outcomes, whereas other slowly growing NTM pathogens such as M xeonpi, M szulgai, and M malmoense are less predictably responsive to antibiotic regimens. M simiae is the most difficult of the common slowly growing NTM pathogens to eradicate. Surgical intervention for slowly growing mycobacterial lung infection has proved beneficial for some patients, but the optimal candidates and timing for surgical intervention remain unknown...
March 2015: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25676522/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-infections-in-immunosuppressed-hosts
#8
REVIEW
Emily Henkle, Kevin L Winthrop
Diseases and therapies that reduce cell-mediated immunity increase the risk of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease. Extrapulmonary NTM disease, including disseminated, skin, and catheter-related disease, is more common in immunosuppressed than immunocompetent patients. Mycobacterium avium complex remains the most common cause of NTM infection, but rapid growers including Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, and Mycobacterium fortuitum play an important role in skin and catheter-related infections...
March 2015: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25676523/nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Stacey L Martiniano, Jerry A Nick
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are important emerging cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens. Factors including the steady aging of the CF population, the apparent increase of NTM in the environment, and the potential for patient-to-patient transmission, may contribute to increased acquisition. Diagnosis of NTM disease is challenging due to disease overlap; thus, comprehensive care of the CF patient must be optimized to assess the clinical impact of the NTM (indolent versus active), and to improve response to treatment...
March 2015: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25676524/surgical-approach-to-pulmonary-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infections
#10
REVIEW
John D Mitchell
The incidence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease is increasing. Despite aggressive medical therapy, a subset of patients will experience treatment failure or suffer disabling or life-threatening symptoms. The use of anatomic lung resection in addition to optimal medical management may, in select cases, result in improved clinical outcomes. More data are needed to confirm this approach. For those with nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, treatment in a multidisciplinary setting including surgeons familiar with operative techniques specific to infectious lung disease will improve patient care...
March 2015: Clinics in Chest Medicine
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