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Yang Gao, Rónán O'Caoimh, Liam Healy, David M Kerins, Joseph Eustace, Gordon Guyatt, David Sammon, D William Molloy
OBJECTIVES: There is growing evidence that antihypertensive agents, particularly centrally acting ACE inhibitors (CACE-Is), which cross the blood-brain barrier, are associated with a reduced rate of cognitive decline. Given this, we compared the rates of cognitive decline in clinic patients with dementia receiving CACE-Is (CACE-I) with those not currently treated with CACE-Is (NoCACE-I), and with those who started CACE-Is, during their first 6 months of treatment (NewCACE-I). DESIGN: Observational case-control study...
2013: BMJ Open
Emily K Gordon, Lee A Fleisher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One million people die annually following noncardiac surgery and 4% of patients suffer an adverse cardiac event after surgery. As the number of people having surgery grows, our ability to risk stratify patients becomes more important, particularly in the setting of perioperative myocardial ischemia/necrosis. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent publications, an increased troponin following noncardiac surgery has been associated with a higher morbidity/mortality in the perioperative setting...
August 2013: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Perry J Pickhardt, B Dustin Pooler, Travis Lauder, Alejandro Muñoz del Rio, Richard J Bruce, Neil Binkley
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a prevalent but underdiagnosed condition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate computed tomography (CT)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) assessment compared with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures for identifying osteoporosis by using CT scans performed for other clinical indications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Single academic health center. PATIENTS: 1867 adults undergoing CT and DXA (n = 2067 pairs) within a 6-month period over 10 years...
April 16, 2013: Annals of Internal Medicine
Kyle P Murray, Jing J Zhao, Susan L Davis, Ravina Kullar, Keith S Kaye, Paul Lephart, Michael J Rybak
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have described decreased effectiveness with vancomycin treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) when the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is >1 µg/mL. METHODS: This matched, retrospective cohort study compared the clinical effectiveness of daptomycin with that of vancomycin for the treatment of MRSAB with vancomycin MICs >1 µg/mL. The primary outcome was clinical failure, defined as a composite of 30-day mortality or bacteremia persisting for ≥7 days...
June 2013: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Rachel M Werner, R Tamara Konetzka, Daniel Polsky
OBJECTIVE: Pay-for-performance (P4P) is commonly used to improve health care quality in the United States and is expected to be frequently implemented under the Affordable Care Act. However, evidence supporting its use is mixed with few large-scale, rigorous evaluations of P4P. This study tests the effect of P4P on quality of care in a large-scale setting-the implementation of P4P for nursing homes by state Medicaid agencies. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: 2001-2009 nursing home Minimum Data Set and Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting (OSCAR) datasets...
August 2013: Health Services Research
David Sullivan, Anders G Olsson, Rob Scott, Jae B Kim, Allen Xue, Val Gebski, Scott M Wasserman, Evan A Stein
CONTEXT: An estimated 10% to 20% of patients cannot tolerate statins or adequate doses to achieve treatment goals. Plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, promoting their degradation and increasing LDL cholesterol levels. In phase 1 studies, a human monoclonal antibody to PCSK9, AMG145, was well tolerated and reduced LDL cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of AMG145 in patients with statin intolerance due to muscle-related side effects...
December 19, 2012: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
William C Cushman, Gregory W Evans, Robert P Byington, David C Goff, Richard H Grimm, Jeffrey A Cutler, Denise G Simons-Morton, Jan N Basile, Marshall A Corson, Jeffrey L Probstfield, Lois Katz, Kevin A Peterson, William T Friedewald, John B Buse, J Thomas Bigger, Hertzel C Gerstein, Faramarz Ismail-Beigi
BACKGROUND: There is no evidence from randomized trials to support a strategy of lowering systolic blood pressure below 135 to 140 mm Hg in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether therapy targeting normal systolic pressure (i.e., <120 mm Hg) reduces major cardiovascular events in participants with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events. METHODS: A total of 4733 participants with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to intensive therapy, targeting a systolic pressure of less than 120 mm Hg, or standard therapy, targeting a systolic pressure of less than 140 mm Hg...
April 29, 2010: New England Journal of Medicine
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