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By Masoud Ahmadzad-Asl Assistant professor of psychiatry, Iran university of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Allison Beck Blackmer, James A Feinstein
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are defined as a group of disorders caused by changes in early brain development, resulting in behavioral and cognitive alterations in sensory and motor systems, speech, and language. NDDs affect approximately 1-2% of the general population. Up to 80% of children with NDDs are reported to have disrupted sleep; subsequent deleterious effects on daytime behaviors, cognition, growth, and overall development of the child are commonly reported. Examples of NDDs discussed in this review include autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, Rett syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Williams syndrome, and Smith-Magenis syndrome...
January 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Darren Hedley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Ralph G Walton, Woodrow C Monte
The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses...
October 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Tiraya Lerthattasilp, Thammanard Charernboon, Issarapa Chunsuwan, Panida Siriumpunkul
OBJECTIVE: To study depression prevalence and burden among caregivers of children with autistic spectrum disorder and the related factors. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Measures included questionnaires, CES-D and burden interview. Patients' diagnoses andfunctions were obtainedfrom childpsychiatrists and developmental pediatricians responsible for the patients. RESULTS: There were 51 participants. The depression prevalence was 5...
March 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Sophie Tessier, Andréane Lambert, Peter Scherzer, Boutheina Jemel, Roger Godbout
Relationship between REM sleep and memory was assessed in 13 neurotypical and 13 children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A neutral/positive/negative face recognition task was administered the evening before (learning and immediate recognition) and the morning after (delayed recognition) sleep. The number of rapid eye movements (REMs), beta and theta EEG activity over the visual areas were measured during REM sleep. Compared to neurotypical children, children with ASD showed more theta activity and longer reaction time (RT) for correct responses in delayed recognition of neutral faces...
September 2015: Biological Psychology
Karen Frankel Heffler, Leonard M Oestreicher
Earliest identifiable findings in autism indicate that the autistic brain develops differently from the typical brain in the first year of life, after a period of typical development. Twin studies suggest that autism has an environmental component contributing to causation. Increased availability of audiovisual (AV) materials and viewing practices of infants parallel the time frame of the rise in prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have shown an association between ASD and increased TV/cable screen exposure in infancy, suggesting AV exposure in infancy as a possible contributing cause of ASD...
June 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Abbas Heidary, Laleh Hosseini Shahidi, Ali Mohammadpuor
INTRODUCTION: Helping mothers who have children with autism spectrum disorders requires understanding of their lived experiences. This study aims to uncover the spiritual journey as a main theme in Iranian mothers' experiences. METHOD: This hermeneutic phenomenological study is a part of a larger study undertaken for partial fulfillment of the requirement for PhD dissertation in nursing. The main study was performed on 18 cases of Iranian mothers, with experience of caring for a child with an autism spectrum during 2011-2012...
2015: Global Journal of Health Science
Sven Sandin, Paul Lichtenstein, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Henrik Larsson, Christina M Hultman, Abraham Reichenberg
IMPORTANCE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aggregates in families, but the individual risk and to what extent this is caused by genetic factors or shared or nonshared environmental factors remains unresolved. OBJECTIVE: To provide estimates of familial aggregation and heritability of ASD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A population-based cohort including 2,049,973 Swedish children born 1982 through 2006. We identified 37,570 twin pairs, 2,642,064 full sibling pairs, 432,281 maternal and 445,531 paternal half sibling pairs, and 5,799,875 cousin pairs...
May 7, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Annette Estes, Jeffrey Munson, Sally J Rogers, Jessica Greenson, Jamie Winter, Geraldine Dawson
OBJECTIVE: We prospectively examined evidence for the sustained effects of early intervention based on a follow-up study of 39 children with ASD who began participation in a randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) at age 18 to 30 months. The intervention, conducted at a high level of intensity in-home for 2 years, showed evidence of efficacy immediately posttreatment. METHOD: This group of children was assessed at age 6 years, 2 years after the intervention ended, across multiple domains of functioning by clinicians naive to previous intervention group status...
July 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Charles A Nelson, Kandice J Varcin, Nicole K Coman, Immaculata De Vivo, Helen Tager-Flusberg
OBJECTIVE: Shortened telomeres have been linked to poorer health outcomes. Exposure to psychological stress is associated with accelerated telomere shortening, and a well-established body of evidence indicates that families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience heightened levels of psychological stress. Also, alterations in a number of biological processes implicated in telomere length dynamics (i.e., oxidative stress, DNA methylation) have been linked to ASD susceptibility...
July 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Eileen A Curran, Christina Dalman, Patricia M Kearney, Louise C Kenny, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan, Ali S Khashan
IMPORTANCE: Because the rates of cesarean section (CS) are increasing worldwide, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the long-term effects that mode of delivery may have on child development. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between obstetric mode of delivery and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Perinatal factors and ASD diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9),and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10),were identified from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and the Swedish National Patient Register...
September 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Michael G Aman, L Eugene Arnold, Jill A Hollway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Nim Tottenham, Kate Krasileva, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
IMPORTANCE: More than half of youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have sensory overresponsivity (SOR), an extreme negative reaction to sensory stimuli. However, little is known about the neurobiological basis of SOR, and there are few effective treatments. Understanding whether SOR is due to an initial heightened sensory response or to deficits in regulating emotional reactions to stimuli has important implications for intervention. OBJECTIVE: To determine differences in brain responses, habituation, and connectivity during exposure to mildly aversive sensory stimuli in youth with ASDs and SOR compared with youth with ASDs without SOR and compared with typically developing control subjects...
August 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Junko Matsuo, Yoko Kamio, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Miho Ota, Toshiya Teraishi, Hiroaki Hori, Anna Nagashima, Reiko Takei, Teruhiko Higuchi, Nobutaka Motohashi, Hiroshi Kunugi
Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity...
2015: PloS One
Marc Fakhoury
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders that is among the most severe in terms of prevalence, morbidity and impact to the society. It is characterized by complex behavioral phenotype and deficits in both social and cognitive functions. Although the exact cause of ASD is still not known, the main findings emphasize the role of genetic and environmental factors in the development of autistic behavior. Environmental factors are also likely to interact with the genetic profile and cause aberrant changes in brain growth, neuronal development, and functional connectivity...
June 2015: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Khaled Saad, Ahmed A Abdel-Rahman, Yasser M Elserogy, Abdulrahman A Al-Atram, John J Cannell, Geir Bjørklund, Mohamed K Abdel-Reheim, Hisham A K Othman, Amira A El-Houfey, Nafisa H R Abd El-Aziz, Khaled A Abd El-Baseer, Ahmed E Ahmed, Ahmed M Ali
OBJECTIVES: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by pervasive deficits in social interaction, impairment in verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotyped patterns of interests and activities. Vitamin-D deficiency was previously reported in autistic children. However, the data on the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the severity of autism are limited. METHODS: We performed a case-controlled cross-sectional analysis conducted on 122 ASD children, to assess their vitamin D status compared to controls and the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the severity of autism...
October 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Jason I Feinberg, Kelly M Bakulski, Andrew E Jaffe, Rakel Tryggvadottir, Shannon C Brown, Lynn R Goldman, Lisa A Croen, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Craig J Newschaffer, M Daniele Fallin, Andrew P Feinberg
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms such as altered DNA methylation have been suggested to play a role in autism, beginning with the classical association of Prader-Willi syndrome, an imprinting disorder, with autistic features. OBJECTIVES: Here we tested for the relationship of paternal sperm DNA methylation with autism risk in offspring, examining an enriched-risk cohort of fathers of autistic children. METHODS: We examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) in paternal semen biosamples obtained from an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) enriched-risk pregnancy cohort, the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI) cohort, to estimate associations between sperm DNAm and prospective ASD development, using a 12-month ASD symptoms assessment, the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI)...
August 2015: International Journal of Epidemiology
Anjali Jain, Jaclyn Marshall, Ami Buikema, Tim Bancroft, Jonathan P Kelly, Craig J Newschaffer
IMPORTANCE: Despite research showing no link between the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), beliefs that the vaccine causes autism persist, leading to lower vaccination levels. Parents who already have a child with ASD may be especially wary of vaccinations. OBJECTIVE: To report ASD occurrence by MMR vaccine status in a large sample of US children who have older siblings with and without ASD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective cohort study using an administrative claims database associated with a large commercial health plan...
April 21, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Johanna K Lake, Vanessa Vogan, Amanda Sawyer, Jonathan A Weiss, Yona Lunsky
OBJECTIVE: Psychotropic medications are frequently used to treat mental health and behavioral issues in adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although parents of individuals with ASD frequently take on medication management for their child, there is limited literature on parent perspectives of their child's medication use or their views about the healthcare services they receive, particularly in adulthood. The current study examined and compared parents of adolescents and of young adults with ASD regarding their child's psychotropic medication use and their views about healthcare services...
April 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Jacqueline Corcoran, Amber Berry, Stephanie Hill
Current US statistics indicate that 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (Centers for Disease Control (2014) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)). The lived experience of parents with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is important to know since quantitative studies have indicated that higher rates of mental disorders exist in this population as compared to parents of typically developing children (Yirmiya and Shaked (2005) Psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism: a meta-analysis...
December 2015: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
2015-04-04 12:47:29
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