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Dementia

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125 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210868/cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-a-new-emerging-complication-of-type-2-diabetes-the-diabetologist-s-perspective
#1
Rafael Simó, Andreea Ciudin, Olga Simó-Servat, Cristina Hernández
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two of the most common diseases of aging around the world. Given the frequency with which T2D and AD occur, the notion that people with T2D may be at increased risk for AD has large societal consequences, and understanding the mechanistic links between these diseases is imperative for the development of effective AD prevention and treatment strategies. Apart from being an accelerator of AD, T2D is associated with a progressive cognitive decline...
February 16, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164774/tauopathies-focus-on-changes-at-the-neurovascular-unit
#2
Alena Michalicova, William A Banks, Jaroslav Legath, Andrej Kovac
In the past, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) had been characterized mainly as a layer of endothelial cells forming the vessel/capillary wall of the brain. More recently, the BBB is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic and interactive system called the neurovascular unit (NVU), consisting of vascular cells, glial cells, and neurons. The list of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies involving BBB dysfunction is rapidly growing. The opening of the BBB and subsequent infiltration of serum components to the brain can lead to host of processes resulting in progressive synaptic and neuronal dysfunction and loss...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149044/in-vitro-anti-acetylcholinesterase-activity-of-an-aqueous-extract-of-unicaria-tomentosa-and-in-silico-study-of-its-active-constituents
#3
Suman Chowdhury, Shivani, Suresh Kumar
Depletion of acetylcholine in the central nervous system (CNS) is responsible for memory loss and cognition deficit. Enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is responsible for destruction of acetylcholine (Ach) in the brain. Many herbal plant extracts have been investigated for their potential use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by inhibiting AChE and upregulating the levels of Ach. The current study investigated the anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of an aqueous extract of Unicaria tomentosa bark which has not been reported so far in the literature...
2016: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690485/neurocognitive-consequences-of-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Christopher M Ryan, Eelco van Duinkerken, Caterina Rosano
Mild cognitive dysfunction is a well-established complication of diabetes and its management, although large numbers of psychologists and health professionals may be unaware of its existence, clinical implications, and etiology. Drawing on results from key studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, this article delineates the neurocognitive phenotypes characteristic of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and identifies the most plausible risk factors, both those that may be modifiable, like degree of metabolic control, and those that cannot be changed, like the age when a child or adult is diagnosed...
October 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155182/italians-do-it-worse-montreal-cognitive-assessment-moca-optimal-cut-off-scores-for-people-with-probable-alzheimer-s-disease-and-with-probable-cognitive-impairment
#5
Andrea Bosco, Giuseppina Spano, Alessandro O Caffò, Antonella Lopez, Ignazio Grattagliano, Giuseppe Saracino, Katia Pinto, Frans Hoogeveen, Giulio E Lancioni
Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is a test providing a brief screening for people with cognitive impairment due to aging or neurodegenerative syndromes. In Italy, as in the rest of the world, several validation studies of MoCA have been carried out. This study compared, for the first time in Italy, a sample of people with probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with healthy counterparts. The study also compared two community-dwelling groups of aged participants with and without probable cognitive impairment, as discriminated by two cut-off points of adjusted MMSE score...
February 2, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159219/aluminium-in-brain-tissue-in-familial-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Ambreen Mirza, Andrew King, Claire Troakes, Christopher Exley
The genetic predispositions which describe a diagnosis of familial Alzheimer's disease can be considered as cornerstones of the amyloid cascade hypothesis. Essentially they place the expression and metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein as the main tenet of disease aetiology. However, we do not know the cause of Alzheimer's disease and environmental factors may yet be shown to contribute towards its onset and progression. One such environmental factor is human exposure to aluminium and aluminium has been shown to be present in brain tissue in sporadic Alzheimer's disease...
March 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245482/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-alzheimer-disease-vascular-dementia-and-mixed-dementia
#7
Cassandra J Anor, Sean O'Connor, Amardeep Saund, David F Tang-Wai, Ron Keren, Maria Carmela Tartaglia
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), and are distressful to patients and caregivers. NPS are likely related to the underlying pathology. Previous studies suggest that frontal lobe lesions and vascular changes such as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) have a significant association with specific NPS. The current study aimed to compare NPS in patients with AD, VaD, and mixed AD/VaD, and to evaluate the differences in the prevalence of NPS in relation to frontal WMH volume...
March 1, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693701/category-and-design-fluency-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-performance-strategy-use-and-neural-correlates
#8
Jessica Peter, Jannis Kaiser, Verena Landerer, Lena Köstering, Christoph P Kaller, Bernhard Heimbach, Michael Hüll, Tobias Bormann, Stefan Klöppel
The exploration and retrieval of words during category fluency involves different strategies to improve or maintain performance. Deficits in that task, which are common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), mirror either impaired semantic memory or dysfunctional executive control mechanisms. Relating category fluency to tasks that place greater demands on either semantic knowledge or executive functions might help to determine the underlying cognitive process. The aims of this study were to compare performance and strategy use of 20 patients with aMCI to 30 healthy elderly controls (HC) and to identify the dominant component (either executive or semantic) for better task performance in category fluency...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124590/a-multicentre-italian-validation-study-in-aging-adults-with-down-syndrome-and-other-forms-of-intellectual-disabilities-dementia-screening-questionnaire-for-individuals-with-intellectual-disabilities
#9
Tiziano Gomiero, Marco Bertelli, Shoumitro Deb, Elisabeth Weger, Annachiara Marangoni, Elisa De Bastiani, Ulrico Mantesso, Luc Pieter De Vreese
BACKGROUND: The USA National Task Group (NTG) guidelines advocate the use of an adapted version of Dementia Screening Questionnaire for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (DSQIID) for dementia screening of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and with other forms of ID (non-DS). OBJECTIVE: In order to meet these guidelines, this study verifies the psychometric properties of an Italian version of the original DSQIID in a population composed of adults aged 40 years and over with DS and non-DS ID...
January 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393566/functional-disability-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Cutter A Lindbergh, Rodney K Dishman, L Stephen Miller
Accumulating evidence suggests that the pre-dementia syndrome mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by decrements in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The current review was a quantitative synthesis of the available literature to objectively characterize IADL disability in MCI while clarifying inconsistencies in findings across studies. It was hypothesized that individuals with MCI would display significantly greater functional impairment relative to cognitively intact controls. Candidate moderators specified a priori included functional assessment approach, MCI subtype, depressive symptoms, and language conducted...
June 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440936/glycated-haemoglobin-hba1c-diabetes-and-trajectories-of-change-in-episodic-memory-performance
#11
Colleen Pappas, Ross Andel, Frank J Infurna, Shyam Seetharaman
BACKGROUND: As the ageing population grows, it is important to identify strategies to moderate cognitive ageing. OBJECTIVE: We examined glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and diabetes in relation to level and change in episodic memory in older adults with and without diabetes. METHODS: Data from 4419 older adults with (n=950) and without (n=3469) diabetes participating in a nationally representative longitudinal panel study (the Health and Retirement Study) were examined...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432942/changes-in-insulin-and-insulin-signaling-in-alzheimer-s-disease-cause-or-consequence
#12
REVIEW
Molly Stanley, Shannon L Macauley, David M Holtzman
Individuals with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the causal relationship remains poorly understood. Alterations in insulin signaling (IS) are reported in the AD brain. Moreover, oligomers/fibrils of amyloid-β (Aβ) can lead to neuronal insulin resistance and intranasal insulin is being explored as a potential therapy for AD. Conversely, elevated insulin levels (ins) are found in AD patients and high insulin has been reported to increase Aβ levels and tau phosphorylation, which could exacerbate AD pathology...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350397/cerebral-hypoperfusion-and-glucose-hypometabolism-key-pathophysiological-modulators-promote-neurodegeneration-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Mak Adam Daulatzai
Aging, hypertension, diabetes, hypoxia/obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), obesity, vitamin B12/folate deficiency, depression, and traumatic brain injury synergistically promote diverse pathological mechanisms including cerebral hypoperfusion and glucose hypometabolism. These risk factors trigger neuroinflammation and oxidative-nitrosative stress that in turn decrease nitric oxide and enhance endothelin, Amyloid-β deposition, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and blood-brain barrier disruption. Proinflammatory cytokines, endothelin-1, and oxidative-nitrosative stress trigger several pathological feedforward and feedback loops...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883213/mild-versus-moderate-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-three-year-outcomes-in-a-routine-clinical-setting-of-cholinesterase-inhibitor-therapy
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Carina Wattmo, Lennart Minthon, Åsa K Wallin
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in cognitive and functional outcomes in the respective stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in novel therapies particularly for the milder phases of AD. Our aim was to describe and compare various aspects of disease progression in patients with mild versus moderate AD in routine clinical practice of cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) therapy. METHODS: This 3-year, prospective, observational, multicentre study included 1021 participants...
February 17, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26710236/differences-in-and-correlations-between-cognitive-abilities-and-brain-volumes-in-healthy-control-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-groups
#15
Soon-Cheol Chung, Mi-Hyun Choi, Hyung-Sik Kim, Jung-Chul Lee, Sung-Jun Park, Ul-Ho Jeong, Ji-Hye Baek, Seon-Young Gim, Young Chil Choi, Beob-Yi Lee, Dae-Woon Lim, Boseong Kim
The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in and correlations between cognitive abilities and brain volumes in healthy control (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) groups. The Korean Version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K), which is used to diagnose AD, was used to measure the cognitive abilities of the study subjects, and the volumes of typical brain components related to AD diagnosis-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM)-were acquired...
May 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527049/roles-of-arterial-stiffness-and-blood-pressure-in-hypertension-associated-cognitive-decline-in-healthy-adults
#16
Ihab Hajjar, Felicia C Goldstein, Greg S Martin, Arshed A Quyyumi
Although there is strong evidence that hypertension leads to cognitive decline, especially in the executive domain, the relationship between blood pressure and cognition has been conflicted. Hypertension is characterized by blood pressure elevation and increased arterial stiffness. We aimed at investigating whether arterial stiffness would be superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline and explaining the hypertension-executive decline association. A randomly selected asymptomatic population (n=591, age=49...
January 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26530222/relationship-between-glycated-hemoglobin-a1c-and-cognitive-function-in-nondemented-elderly-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Lingning Huang, Liyong Yang, Ximei Shen, Sunjie Yan
Elderly patients with type 2 diabetes are at a greater risk for cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the degree of hyperglycemia and cognitive status in nondemented, elderly diabetics. Between Jan 2013 and Dec 2014, 1174 geriatric patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the study (579 males; age ≥ 60 years; from Fuzhou, Fujian, China). Cognitive function was measured with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
April 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26425386/metabolic-alterations-associated-to-brain-dysfunction-in-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
João M N Duarte
From epidemiological studies it is known that diabetes patients display increased risk of developing dementia. Moreover, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are also accompanied by impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin signalling. Although there is plenty of evidence for a connection between insulin-resistant diabetes and AD, definitive linking mechanisms remain elusive. Cerebrovascular complications of diabetes, alterations in glucose homeostasis and insulin signalling, as well as recurrent hypoglycaemia are the factors that most likely affect brain function and structure...
September 2015: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26412218/neurobiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease-integrated-molecular-physiological-anatomical-biomarker-and-cognitive-dimensions
#19
REVIEW
Joel Raskin, Jeffrey Cummings, John Hardy, Kory Schuh, Robert A Dean
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with interrelated molecular, physiological, anatomical, biomarker, and cognitive dimensions. METHODS: This article reviews the biological changes (genetic, molecular, and cellular) underlying AD and their correlation with the clinical syndrome. RESULTS: Dementia associated with AD is related to the aberrant production, processing, and clearance of beta-amyloid and tau...
2015: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26478889/the-road-ahead-to-cure-alzheimer-s-disease-development-of-biological-markers-and-neuroimaging-methods-for-prevention-trials-across-all-stages-and-target-populations
#20
E Cavedo, S Lista, Z Khachaturian, P Aisen, P Amouyel, K Herholz, C R Jack, R Sperling, J Cummings, K Blennow, S O'Bryant, G B Frisoni, A Khachaturian, M Kivipelto, W Klunk, K Broich, S Andrieu, M Thiebaut de Schotten, J-F Mangin, A A Lammertsma, K Johnson, S Teipel, A Drzezga, A Bokde, O Colliot, H Bakardjian, H Zetterberg, B Dubois, B Vellas, L S Schneider, H Hampel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressing non-linear dynamic brain disease in which pathophysiological abnormalities, detectable in vivo by biological markers, precede overt clinical symptoms by many years to decades. Use of these biomarkers for the detection of early and preclinical AD has become of central importance following publication of two international expert working group's revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD, prodromal AD and preclinical AD...
December 2014: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
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