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Executive Functions and Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease

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135 papers 0 to 25 followers A collection of papers describing executive dysfunction (and related dysfunctions of intellective capacity) emerging from age related sub & cortical vasculopathies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170111/the-effects-of-lifelong-cognitive-lifestyle-on-executive-function-in-older-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#1
John V Hindle, Pamela A Martin-Forbes, Anthony Martyr, Alexandra J M Bastable, Kirstie L Pye, Virginia C Mueller Gathercole, Enlli M Thomas, Linda Clare
OBJECTIVE: Active lifelong cognitive lifestyles increase cognitive reserve and have beneficial effects on global cognition, cognitive decline and dementia risk in Parkinson's disease (PD). Executive function is particularly impaired even in early PD, and this impacts on quality of life. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in PD have not been studied previously. This study examined the association between lifelong cognitive lifestyle, as a proxy measure of cognitive reserve, and executive function in people with PD...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131162/resting-state-fmri-regional-homogeneity-correlates-with-cognition-measures-in-subcortical-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#2
Stefano Diciotti, Stefano Orsolini, Emilia Salvadori, Antonio Giorgio, Nicola Toschi, Stefano Ciulli, Andrea Ginestroni, Anna Poggesi, Nicola De Stefano, Leonardo Pantoni, Domenico Inzitari, Mario Mascalchi
BACKGROUND: The hyperintensity of cerebral white matter (WM) in T2-weighted MR images of elderly subjects due to small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with variable clinical features including mild cognitive impairment (MCI), also termed subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI). The latter is typically characterized by psychomotor slowing, attention deficits, and executive dysfunctions. We hypothesized that functional brain changes might be associated with these distinctive cognitive deficits in patients with SVCI...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196940/intravoxel-incoherent-motion-imaging-in-small-vessel-disease-microstructural-integrity-and-microvascular-perfusion-related-to-cognition
#3
C Eleana Zhang, Sau May Wong, Renske Uiterwijk, Julie Staals, Walter H Backes, Erik I Hoff, Tobien Schreuder, Cécile R L P N Jeukens, Jacobus F A Jansen, Robert J van Oostenbrugge
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with cognitive impairment. This may be because of decreased microstructural integrity and microvascular perfusion, but data on these relationships are scarce. We determined the relationship between cognition and microvascular perfusion and microstructural integrity in SVD patients, using intravoxel incoherent motion imaging-a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique designed to determine microvascular perfusion and microstructural integrity simultaneously...
February 14, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018214/total-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-mri-score-is-associated-with-cognitive-decline-in-executive-function-in-patients-with-hypertension
#4
Renske Uiterwijk, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Marjolein Huijts, Peter W De Leeuw, Abraham A Kroon, Julie Staals
Objectives: Hypertension is a major risk factor for white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces, which are MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Studies have shown associations between these individual MRI markers and cognitive functioning and decline. Recently, a "total SVD score" was proposed in which the different MRI markers were combined into one measure of SVD, to capture total SVD-related brain damage. We investigated if this SVD score was associated with cognitive decline over 4 years in patients with hypertension...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935154/disruption-of-rich-club-organisation-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#5
Anil M Tuladhar, Andrew Lawrence, David G Norris, Thomas R Barrick, Hugh S Markus, Frank-Erik de Leeuw
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is an important cause of vascular cognitive impairment. Recent studies have demonstrated that structural connectivity of brain networks in SVD is disrupted. However, little is known about the extent and location of the reduced connectivity in SVD. Here they investigate the rich club organisation-a set of highly connected and interconnected regions-and investigate whether there is preferential rich club disruption in SVD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognitive assessment were performed in a discovery sample of SVD patients (n = 115) and healthy control subjects (n = 50)...
December 9, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938433/deep-microbleeds-and-periventricular-white-matter-disintegrity-are-independent-predictors-of-attention-executive-dysfunction-in-non-dementia-patients-with-small-vessel-disease
#6
Wen-Wei Cao, Yao Wang, Quan Dong, Xue Chen, Yan-Sheng Li, Yan Zhou, Li Gao, Ye Deng, Qun Xu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the common cause of cognitive decline in the old population. MRI can be used to clarify its mechanisms. However, the surrogate markers of MRI for early cognitive impairment in SVD remain uncertain to date. We investigated the cognitive impacts of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and brain volumetric measurements in a cohort of post-stroke non-dementia SVD patients. METHODS: Fifty five non-dementia SVD patients were consecutively recruited and categorized into two groups as no cognitive impairment (NCI) (n = 23) or vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) (n = 32)...
December 12, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951523/cognitive-reserve-moderates-long-term-cognitive-and-functional-outcome-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#7
Hanna Jokinen, Susanna Melkas, Sofia Madureira, Ana Verdelho, José M Ferro, Franz Fazekas, Reinhold Schmidt, Philip Scheltens, Frederik Barkhof, Joanna M Wardlaw, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni, Timo Erkinjuntti
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is characterised by progressive white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cognitive decline and loss of functional independence. The correspondence between neuroimaging findings and the severity of clinical symptoms has been modest, however, and thus the outcome may be affected by various host factors. We investigated the predictive value of educational and occupational attainments as proxy measures of cognitive reserve on long-term cognitive and functional outcome in patients with different degrees of WMH...
December 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753809/ssa-03-4-the-brain-screening-in-patients-with-hypertension
#8
Yuda Turana
Observational studies have conveyed the connection between hypertension and cognitive impairment. Several forms of dementia are more frequent in hypertensive subjects or those with previous history of hypertension compared to subjects with normal blood pressure.In many studies, hypertension occuring in mid-life is a risk factor of dementia occuring in later age. Long-standing hypertension will induce structural damages in the brain. It is also widely known that hypertension attributes to small vessel diseases causing lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions associated with cognitive decline...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824925/impact-of-strategically-located-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-cognition-in-memory-clinic-patients-with-small-vessel-disease
#9
J Matthijs Biesbroek, Nick A Weaver, Saima Hilal, Hugo J Kuijf, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Xin Xu, Boon Yeow Tan, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Albert Postma, Geert Jan Biessels, Christopher P L H Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies on the impact of small vessel disease (SVD) on cognition generally focus on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume. The extent to which WMH location relates to cognitive performance has received less attention, but is likely to be functionally important. We examined the relation between WMH location and cognition in a memory clinic cohort of patients with sporadic SVD. METHODS: A total of 167 patients with SVD were recruited from memory clinics...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659190/influence-of-small-vessel-disease-and-microstructural-integrity-on-neurocognitive-functioning-in-older-individuals-the-dante-study-leiden
#10
J E F Moonen, J C Foster-Dingley, A A van den Berg-Huijsmans, W de Ruijter, A J M de Craen, J van der Grond, R C van der Mast
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small vessel disease is a major cause of neurocognitive dysfunction in the elderly. Small vessel disease may manifest as white matter hyperintensities, lacunar infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and atrophy, all of which are visible on conventional MR imaging or as microstructural changes determined by diffusion tensor imaging. This study investigated whether microstructural integrity is associated with neurocognitive dysfunction in older individuals, irrespective of the conventional features of small vessel disease...
September 22, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625380/strictly-lobar-cerebral-microbleeds-are-associated-with-cognitive-impairment
#11
Chih-Ping Chung, Kun-Hsien Chou, Wei-Ta Chen, Li-Kuo Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, Liang-Kung Chen, Ching-Po Lin, Pei-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Different distributions of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are associated with distinct pathological mechanisms. Lobar CMBs are thought to be related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy, whereas deep or infratentorial CMBs are related to hypertensive vasculopathy. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of CMBs and their locations on a variety of cognitive domains. METHODS: Study subjects were selected from the community-based I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538632/cerebral-microbleeds-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-small-vessel-disease-the-vascular-mild-cognitive-impairment-vmci-tuscany-study
#12
Raffaella Valenti, Alessandra Del Bene, Anna Poggesi, Andrea Ginestroni, Emilia Salvadori, Giovanni Pracucci, Laura Ciolli, Sandro Marini, Serena Nannucci, Marco Pasi, Francesca Pescini, Stefano Diciotti, Giovanni Orlandi, Mirco Cosottini, Alberto Chiti, Mario Mascalchi, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a neuroimaging expression of small vessel disease (SVD). We investigated in a cohort of SVD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): 1) the reliability of the Microbleed Anatomical Rating Scale (MARS); 2) the burden and location of CMBs and their association with cognitive performances, independent of other clinical and neuroimaging features. METHODS: Patients underwent clinical, neuropsychological (4 cognitive domains), and MRI assessments...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539302/risk-factors-and-cognitive-relevance-of-cortical-cerebral-microinfarcts-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke-or-transient-ischemic-attack
#13
Zhaolu Wang, Susanne J van Veluw, Adrian Wong, Wenyan Liu, Lin Shi, Jie Yang, Yunyun Xiong, Alexander Lau, Geert Jan Biessels, Vincent C T Mok
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It was recently demonstrated that cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) can be detected in vivo using 3.0 tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and the longitudinal cognitive consequence of cortical CMIs on 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging, in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. METHODS: A total of 231 patients undergoing 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging were included. Montreal Cognitive Assessment was used to evaluate global cognitive functions and cognitive domains (memory, language, and attention visuospatial and executive functions)...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12105362/efficacy-and-safety-of-memantine-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-vascular-dementia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-mmm-300
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jean-Marc Orgogozo, Anne-Sophie Rigaud, Albrecht Stöffler, Hans-Jorgen Möbius, Françoise Forette
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Based on the hypothesis of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity (excitotoxicity) in cerebral ischemia, this study examined the efficacy and tolerability of memantine, an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, in the treatment of mild to moderate vascular dementia. METHODS: In this multicenter, 28-week trial carried out in France, 321 patients received 10 mg/d memantine or placebo twice a day; 288 patients were valid for intent-to-treat analysis...
July 2002: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16191242/memantine-in-vascular-dementia
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hans Jörg Möbius, Albrecht Stöffler
The uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist memantine was tested against placebo in two randomized controlled trials. In total, 900 patients suffering from mild-to-moderate "probable" VaD (according to NINDS-AIREN criteria) were included. In these prospective, 2-arm parallel, multicenter trials conducted in the United Kingdom (MMM500) and in France (MMM300), patients suffering from "probable" vascular dementia (according to NINDS-AIREN criteria) were recruited. Active treatment in both trials was memantine at the standard daily dose of 10 mg b...
2003: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397577/progression-of-small-vessel-disease-correlates-with-cortical-thinning-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Heidi Foo, Elijah Mak, Ting Ting Yong, Ming-Ching Wen, Russell Jude Chander, Wing Lok Au, Louis Tan, Nagaendran Kandiah
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) is a risk factor for dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD), however the pathophysiological role of SVD in PD-dementia is unclear. We investigated the impact of baseline and progression of SVD on cortical thickness and the correlation to cognition. METHODS: Seventy-three mild PD patients with baseline and follow-up structural MRI scans, serial clinical and neuropsychological assessments were studied. SVD included the load of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes and perivascular spaces (PVS)...
June 30, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18250070/vascular-dementia
#17
REVIEW
Michael J Schneck
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's dementia (AD). It is characterized by loss of executive function with milder memory loss as compared with AD and is associated with cerebral brain infarction or hemorrhage. Treatment is predominantly focused on cardiovascular risk factor reduction, but anticholinesterase inhibitors and memantine may play a role. The data is most robust for donepezil.
January 2008: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16943169/vascular-cognitive-impairment
#18
REVIEW
John T O'Brien
Cerebrovascular disease is increasingly recognized as a common cause of cognitive impairment and dementia in later life either alone or in conjunction with other pathologies, most often Alzheimer disease (AD). Progress in the field has been limited by difficulties in terminology; for example, use of the term dementia necessitates the presence of memory impairment, which is the norm in AD, but not in cognitive disorders associated with cerebrovascular disease. The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been proposed as an umbrella term to recognize the broad spectrum of cognitive, and indeed behavioral, changes associated with vascular pathology...
September 2006: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371187/the-rehabilitation-of-attention-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-brain-subcortical-vascular-changes-using-the-attention-process-training-ii-the-rehatt-study-rationale-design-and-methodology
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Emilia Salvadori, Anna Poggesi, Raffaella Valenti, Eleonora Della Rocca, Stefano Diciotti, Mario Mascalchi, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni
UNLABELLED: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) may cause attentional and executive cognitive deficits. No drug is currently available to improve cognitive performance or to prevent dementia in SVD patients, and cognitive rehabilitation could be a promising approach. We aimed to investigate: (1) the effectiveness of the Attention Process Training-II program in the rehabilitation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and SVD; (2) the impact of the induced cognitive improvement on functionality and quality of life; (3) the effect of training on brain activity at rest and the possibility of a training-induced plasticity effect...
October 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354961/vascular-cognitive-impairment-a-cardiovascular-complication
#20
REVIEW
Adiukwu Frances, Ofori Sandra, Ugbomah Lucy
Over the past two decades, the term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been used to refer to a spectrum of cognitive decline characterized by executive dysfunction, associated with vascular pathology. With 30% of stroke survivors showing cognitive impairments, it is regarded as the most common cause of cognitive impairment. This is a narrative review of available literature citing sources from PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar. VCI has a high prevalence both before and after a stroke and is associated with great economic and caregiver burden...
June 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
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