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Executive Functions and Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease

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171 papers 0 to 25 followers A collection of papers describing executive dysfunction (and related dysfunctions of intellective capacity) emerging from age related sub & cortical vasculopathies
Ivonne Pedroso, Marité Garcia, Enrique Casabona, Lilia Morales, Maria Luisa Bringas, Leslie Pérez, Teresita Rodríguez, Ileana Sosa, Yordanka Ricardo, Arnoldo Padrón, Daniel Amaro
Introduction: Treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease (PD) can improve a patient's quality of life but cannot stop the progression of PD. We are looking for different alternatives that modify the natural course of the disease and recent research has demonstrated the neuroprotective properties of erythropoietin. In Cuba, the Center for Molecular Immunology (CIM) is a cutting edge scientific center where the recombinant form (EPOrh) and recombinant human erythropoietin with low sialic acid (NeuroEPO) are produced...
May 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Dominik Blum, Christian la Fougère, Andrea Pilotto, Walter Maetzler, Daniela Berg, Matthias Reimold, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
PURPOSE: Cognitive impairment (CI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a widespread reduction in cortical glucose metabolism and relative increases in the cerebellum and brainstem as measured using 18 F-fluorodesoxyglucose (FDG) PET. We separately analysed CI-related hypermetabolism and hypometabolism in comparison with neuropsychological test performance and investigated whether increased FDG uptake is a true feature of the disease or a normalization effect. METHODS: The study included 29 subjects (12 patients with PD, 10 patients with PD dementia and 7 healthy controls") who underwent FDG PET and comprehensive neuropsychological testing...
July 14, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Erica J Melief, Jonathan W McKinley, Jonathan Y Lam, Nicole M Whiteley, Alec W Gibson, John F Neumaier, Charles W Henschen, Richard D Palmiter, Nigel S Bamford, Martin Darvas
Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily associated with the degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons, but it is now appreciated that pathological processes like Lewy-body inclusions and cell loss affect several other brain regions, including the central lateral (CL) and centromedian/parafascicular (CM/PF) thalamic regions. These thalamic glutamatergic neurons provide a non-cortical excitatory input to the dorsal striatum, a major projection field of dopamine neurons. To determine how thalamostriatal signaling may contribute to cognitive and motor abnormalities found in PD, we used a viral vector approach to generate mice with loss of thalamostriatal glutamate signaling specifically restricted to the dorsal striatum (CAV2Cre - Slc17a6 lox/lox mice)...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
Christian Lambert, Eva Zeestraten, Owen Williams, Philip Benjamin, Andrew J Lawrence, Robin G Morris, Andrew D Mackinnon, Thomas R Barrick, Hugh S Markus
Sporadic cerebral small vessel disease is an important cause of vascular dementia, a syndrome of cognitive impairment together with vascular brain damage. At post-mortem pure vascular dementia is rare, with evidence of co-existing Alzheimer's disease pathology in 95% of cases. This work used MRI to characterize structural abnormalities during the preclinical phase of vascular dementia in symptomatic small vessel disease. 121 subjects were recruited into the St George's Cognition and Neuroimaging in Stroke study and followed up longitudinally for five years...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rutger Heinen, Naomi Vlegels, Jeroen de Bresser, Alexander Leemans, Geert Jan Biessels, Yael D Reijmer
Background and purpose: Mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in patients with small vessel disease (SVD) are still unknown. We hypothesized that cognition is affected by the cumulative effect of multiple SVD-related lesions on brain connectivity. We therefore assessed the relationship between the total SVD burden on MRI, global brain network efficiency, and cognition in memory clinic patients with vascular brain injury. Methods: 173 patients from the memory clinic of the University Medical Center Utrecht underwent a 3 T brain MRI scan (including diffusion MRI sequences) and neuropsychological testing...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Stefan Lc Geijselaers, Simone Js Sep, Miranda T Schram, Martin Pj van Boxtel, Thomas T van Sloten, Jos Op Het Roodt, Ronald Ma Henry, Koen D Reesink, Nicolaas C Schaper, Pieter C Dagnelie, Carla Jh van der Kallen, Geert Jan Biessels, Coen DA Stehouwer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Arterial remodelling aims at normalising circumferential wall stress (CWS). Greater CWS in the carotid artery has previously been associated with the prevalence and severity of cerebral small vessel disease, a major cause of ageing-related cognitive decline. Here we test the hypothesis that greater carotid CWS is associated with poorer cognitive performance. METHODS: We studied 722 individuals (60 ± 8 years, 55% men, 42.5% highly educated, blood pressure 137 ± 19/77 ± 11 mmHg, n = 197 with type 2 diabetes) who completed a neuropsychological assessment and underwent vascular ultrasound to measure the intima-media thickness (IMT) and interadventitial diameter (IAD) of the left common carotid artery at a plaque-free site...
September 2018: Atherosclerosis
Kai Wu, Ying Cai
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment, significantly reducing processing speed and executive function, is the critical consequence of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), in which genetic variations have been studied. In this study, we explore the role of SNP43 (G/A) and SNP63 (C/T) polymorphism in the CAPN10 on cognitive impairment process in cerebral SVD. METHODS: Cerebral SVD patients (n = 224) and healthy controls (n = 187) were recruited. The relationship between frequency distribution of SNP43 (G/A) and SNP63 (T/C) genotype and allele in CAPN10 gene, and cognitive impairment was examined...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Tammy M Scott, Rafeeque A Bhadelia, Wei Qiao Qiu, Marshal F Folstein, Irwin H Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that Alzheimer's disease (AD) has significant cerebrovascular etiopathogenesis. Understanding potentially modifiable risk factors for vascular disease can help design long-term intervention strategies for controlling or preventing cognitive dysfunction attributable to cerebrovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence and severity of markers of cerebrovascular pathology, its relationship to diagnostic categories of dementia, including AD, and association with the metabolic biomarker homocysteine...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ruta Nylander, Lena Kilander, Håkan Ahlström, Lars Lind, Elna-Marie Larsson
Background and Purpose : Signs of small vessel disease (SVD) are commonly seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in cognitively healthy elderly individuals, and the clinical relevance of these are often unclear. We have previously described three different MRI manifestations of SVD as well as cerebral perfusion in a longitudinal study of non-demented 75-year-old subjects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of these findings to cognition and executive function at age 75 and changes after 5 years...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Valentina Puglisi, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Luisa Vinciguerra, Manuela Pennisi, Lilla Bonanno, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Introduction: Late-life depression is a well-known risk factor for future dementia. Increasing evidences also show a link between cerebral hypoperfusion and neurodegeneration, although data on Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD)-derived measures in patients with "Vascular Depression" (VD) are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess and correlate TCD parameters with cognitive function and severity of subcortical ischemic vascular disease in a sample of VD patients. Methods: Seventy six patients (mean age 72...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
B Mankovsky, N Zherdova, E van den Berg, G-J Biessels, J de Bresser
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with cognitive dysfunction, but the underlying structural brain correlates are uncertain. This study examined the association between cognitive functioning and structural brain abnormalities in people with long-standing Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Ninety-three people with Type 2 diabetes (age 62.3 ± 5.4 years, diabetes duration 9.7 ± 6.7 years; HbA1c 65 ± 10 mmol/mol, 8.1 ± 1.3%) were included. Cognitive functioning was assessed by a test battery covering the domains memory, processing speed and executive functioning...
September 19, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Meng Ying Cui, Yang Lin, Ji Yao Sheng, Xuewen Zhang, Ran Ji Cui
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with the syndrome of cognitive and functional decline. Pharmacotherapy has always been in a dominant position for the treatment of AD. However, in most cases, drug therapy is accompanied with clinical delays when older adults have suffered from cognitive decline in episodic memory, working memory, and executive function. On the other hand, accumulating evidence suggests that exercise intervention may ameliorate the progression of cognitive impairment in aging ones while the standard strategy is lacking based on different levels of cognitive decline especially in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Daniel J Tozer, Eva Zeestraten, Andrew J Lawrence, Thomas R Barrick, Hugh S Markus
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful to assess disease severity in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), identify those individuals who are most likely to progress to dementia, monitor disease progression, and act as surrogate markers to test new therapies. Texture analysis extracts information on the relationship between signal intensities of neighboring voxels. A potential advantage over techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, is that it can be used on clinically obtained magnetic resonance sequences...
July 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Annemieke Ter Telgte, Esther M C van Leijsen, Kim Wiegertjes, Catharina J M Klijn, Anil M Tuladhar, Frank-Erik de Leeuw
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is commonly observed on neuroimaging among elderly individuals and is recognized as a major vascular contributor to dementia, cognitive decline, gait impairment, mood disturbance and stroke. However, clinical symptoms are often highly inconsistent in nature and severity among patients with similar degrees of SVD on brain imaging. Here, we provide a new framework based on new advances in structural and functional neuroimaging that aims to explain the remarkable clinical variation in SVD...
July 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Isobel T French, Kalai A Muthusamy
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is situated in the upper pons in the dorsolateral portion of the ponto-mesencephalic tegmentum. Its main mass is positioned at the trochlear nucleus level, and is part of the mesenphalic locomotor region (MLR) in the upper brainstem. The human PPN is divided into two subnuclei, the pars compacta (PPNc) and pars dissipatus (PPNd), and constitutes both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons with afferent and efferent projections to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum, and spinal cord...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Michela Sforza, Francesca Assogna, Domiziana Rinaldi, Giuliano Sette, Stefania Tagliente, Francesco E Pontieri
Orthostatic hypotension is a frequent non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, with negative prognostic role on cognitive functions. Here we measured the acute effects of orthostatic hypotension on executive functions in Parkinson's disease patients devoid of hypertension, carotid artery stenosis, and significant chronic cerebrovascular pathology. Measurements were carried out during regular visits in outpatient setting. Twenty-eight Parkinson's disease patients were recruited and studied along scheduled outpatient visits...
August 2018: Neurological Sciences
Tanja Stojkovic, Elka Stefanova, Ivan Soldatovic, Vladana Markovic, Iva Stankovic, Igor Petrovic, Federica Agosta, Sebastiano Galantucci, Massimo Filippi, Vladimir Kostic
OBJECTIVE: To determine frequency and type of cognitive disorders in cross-sectional analysis of a Parkinson's disease (PD) cohort, and explore its relations to motor symptoms, modifiable vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WML) volume. METHODS: In a group of 133 PD patients, mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and dementia (PDD) were diagnosed according to Movement Disorders Society Task Force criteria (level 2 for PD-MCI). Detailed motor measurements were applied, including rigidity, axial, bradykinesia, tremor and postural instability gait disorders (PIGD) scores...
June 2018: Journal of Neurology
Anders Wallin, Gustavo C Román, Margaret Esiri, Petronella Kettunen, Johan Svensson, George P Paraskevas, Elisabeth Kapaki
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder well characterized from the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological viewpoints. SSVD is considered the most prevalent ischemic brain disorder, increasing in frequency with age. Vascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, elevated homocysteine, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ischemic white matter lesions are the hallmark of SSVD; other pathological lesions include arteriolosclerosis, dilatation of perivascular spaces, venous collagenosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microbleeds, microinfarcts, lacunes, and large infarcts...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
C Eleana Zhang, Sau May Wong, Renske Uiterwijk, Walter H Backes, Jacobus F A Jansen, Cécile R L P N Jeukens, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Julie Staals
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage increases with age and is involved in the pathophysiology of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD). We examined the relationship between BBB leakage and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume and cognition, in cSVD patients and healthy controls. Seventy-seven patients with clinically overt cSVD and thirty-nine age matched healthy controls underwent dynamic contract-enhanced and structural brain MRI and neuropsychological assessment. We quantified BBB leakage volume and rate in normal appearing white matter (NAWM), WMH and cortical grey matter (CGM)...
March 23, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Elles Douven, Pauline Aalten, Julie Staals, Syenna H J Schievink, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Frans R J Verhey, Sebastian Köhler
OBJECTIVE: To examine, first, whether the co-occurrence of executive dysfunction (ED) and poststroke depression (PSD) shows different associations with neuroimaging markers and the course of depression and executive function, and second, whether it is associated with a different course on other cognitive domains and quality of life. METHODS: The present study included 245 stroke patients (35.9% female, mean age 67.5 years (SD=11.9). All patients completed neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric assessment 3 months poststroke, which were repeated at 6-month and 12-month follow-up...
August 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
2018-02-19 00:30:49
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