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Executive Functions and Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease

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160 papers 0 to 25 followers A collection of papers describing executive dysfunction (and related dysfunctions of intellective capacity) emerging from age related sub & cortical vasculopathies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713339/exercise-intervention-associated-with-cognitive-improvement-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Meng Ying Cui, Yang Lin, Ji Yao Sheng, Xuewen Zhang, Ran Ji Cui
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with the syndrome of cognitive and functional decline. Pharmacotherapy has always been in a dominant position for the treatment of AD. However, in most cases, drug therapy is accompanied with clinical delays when older adults have suffered from cognitive decline in episodic memory, working memory, and executive function. On the other hand, accumulating evidence suggests that exercise intervention may ameliorate the progression of cognitive impairment in aging ones while the standard strategy is lacking based on different levels of cognitive decline especially in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866751/texture-analysis-of-t1-weighted-and-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-images-detects-abnormalities-that-correlate-with-cognitive-decline-in-small-vessel-disease
#2
Daniel J Tozer, Eva Zeestraten, Andrew J Lawrence, Thomas R Barrick, Hugh S Markus
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful to assess disease severity in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), identify those individuals who are most likely to progress to dementia, monitor disease progression, and act as surrogate markers to test new therapies. Texture analysis extracts information on the relationship between signal intensities of neighboring voxels. A potential advantage over techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, is that it can be used on clinically obtained magnetic resonance sequences...
July 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802354/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-from-a-focal-to-a-global-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Annemieke Ter Telgte, Esther M C van Leijsen, Kim Wiegertjes, Catharina J M Klijn, Anil M Tuladhar, Frank-Erik de Leeuw
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is commonly observed on neuroimaging among elderly individuals and is recognized as a major vascular contributor to dementia, cognitive decline, gait impairment, mood disturbance and stroke. However, clinical symptoms are often highly inconsistent in nature and severity among patients with similar degrees of SVD on brain imaging. Here, we provide a new framework based on new advances in structural and functional neuroimaging that aims to explain the remarkable clinical variation in SVD...
July 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755338/a-review-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Isobel T French, Kalai A Muthusamy
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is situated in the upper pons in the dorsolateral portion of the ponto-mesencephalic tegmentum. Its main mass is positioned at the trochlear nucleus level, and is part of the mesenphalic locomotor region (MLR) in the upper brainstem. The human PPN is divided into two subnuclei, the pars compacta (PPNc) and pars dissipatus (PPNd), and constitutes both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons with afferent and efferent projections to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum, and spinal cord...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627942/orthostatic-hypotension-acutely-impairs-executive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Michela Sforza, Francesca Assogna, Domiziana Rinaldi, Giuliano Sette, Stefania Tagliente, Francesco E Pontieri
Orthostatic hypotension is a frequent non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, with negative prognostic role on cognitive functions. Here we measured the acute effects of orthostatic hypotension on executive functions in Parkinson's disease patients devoid of hypertension, carotid artery stenosis, and significant chronic cerebrovascular pathology. Measurements were carried out during regular visits in outpatient setting. Twenty-eight Parkinson's disease patients were recruited and studied along scheduled outpatient visits...
August 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572571/exploring-the-relationship-between-motor-impairment-vascular-burden-and-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Tanja Stojkovic, Elka Stefanova, Ivan Soldatovic, Vladana Markovic, Iva Stankovic, Igor Petrovic, Federica Agosta, Sebastiano Galantucci, Massimo Filippi, Vladimir Kostic
OBJECTIVE: To determine frequency and type of cognitive disorders in cross-sectional analysis of a Parkinson's disease (PD) cohort, and explore its relations to motor symptoms, modifiable vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WML) volume. METHODS: In a group of 133 PD patients, mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and dementia (PDD) were diagnosed according to Movement Disorders Society Task Force criteria (level 2 for PD-MCI). Detailed motor measurements were applied, including rigidity, axial, bradykinesia, tremor and postural instability gait disorders (PIGD) scores...
June 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562536/update-on-vascular-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-subcortical-small-vessel-disease
#7
Anders Wallin, Gustavo C Román, Margaret Esiri, Petronella Kettunen, Johan Svensson, George P Paraskevas, Elisabeth Kapaki
Subcortical small-vessel disease (SSVD) is a disorder well characterized from the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological viewpoints. SSVD is considered the most prevalent ischemic brain disorder, increasing in frequency with age. Vascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, elevated homocysteine, and obstructive sleep apnea. Ischemic white matter lesions are the hallmark of SSVD; other pathological lesions include arteriolosclerosis, dilatation of perivascular spaces, venous collagenosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microbleeds, microinfarcts, lacunes, and large infarcts...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572621/blood-brain-barrier-leakage-in-relation-to-white-matter-hyperintensity-volume-and-cognition-in-small-vessel-disease-and-normal-aging
#8
C Eleana Zhang, Sau May Wong, Renske Uiterwijk, Walter H Backes, Jacobus F A Jansen, Cécile R L P N Jeukens, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Julie Staals
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage increases with age and is involved in the pathophysiology of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD). We examined the relationship between BBB leakage and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume and cognition, in cSVD patients and healthy controls. Seventy-seven patients with clinically overt cSVD and thirty-nine age matched healthy controls underwent dynamic contract-enhanced and structural brain MRI and neuropsychological assessment. We quantified BBB leakage volume and rate in normal appearing white matter (NAWM), WMH and cortical grey matter (CGM)...
March 23, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439160/co-occurrence-of-depressive-symptoms-and-executive-dysfunction-after-stroke-associations-with-brain-pathology-and-prognosis
#9
Elles Douven, Pauline Aalten, Julie Staals, Syenna H J Schievink, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Frans R J Verhey, Sebastian Köhler
OBJECTIVE: To examine, first, whether the co-occurrence of executive dysfunction (ED) and poststroke depression (PSD) shows different associations with neuroimaging markers and the course of depression and executive function, and second, whether it is associated with a different course on other cognitive domains and quality of life. METHODS: The present study included 245 stroke patients (35.9% female, mean age 67.5 years (SD=11.9). All patients completed neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric assessment 3 months poststroke, which were repeated at 6-month and 12-month follow-up...
August 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373479/orthostatic-hypotension-in-older-persons-is-not-associated-with-cognitive-functioning-features-of-cerebral-damage-or-cerebral-blood-flow
#10
Jessica C Foster-Dingley, Justine E F Moonen, Wouter de Ruijter, Roos C van der Mast, Jeroen van der Grond
OBJECTIVE: Particularly in old age, orthostatic hypotension has been related to worse cognitive functioning, possibly caused by reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study investigates whether orthostatic hypotension in older people is associated with cognitive dysfunction and, if so, whether this association is mediated by cerebral vascular damage and/or decreased CBF. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty participants of the Discontinuation of ANtihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People (DANTE) Study Leiden (mean age 81 years, all using antihypertensive medication and with mild cognitive deficits), and MRI data from 214 participants of the nested DANTE MRI sub-study...
May 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353013/bottom-up-gamma-maintenance-in-various-disorders
#11
REVIEW
E Garcia-Rill, S Mahaffey, James R Hyde, F J Urbano
Maintained gamma band activity is a key element of higher brain function, participating in perception, executive function, and memory. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), as part of the reticular activating system (RAS), is a major source of the "bottom-up" flow of gamma activity to higher regions. However, interruption of gamma band activity is associated with a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review will focus on the role of the PPN in activating higher regions to induce arousal and descending pathways to modulate posture and locomotion...
January 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083274/executive-dysfunction-and-blockage-of-brain-microvessels-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#12
Kristopher D Langdon, Chris A Cordova, Shirley Granter-Button, Jamie D Boyd, James Peeling, Timothy H Murphy, Dale Corbett
Most research focuses on overt stroke caused by blockage of major blood vessels. Less attention has been paid to small vessel disease which gives rise to covert stroke that often leads to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). One reason for this may be the relative lack of relevant animal models. Herein, we describe, a model of VCI induced in middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a diet high in saturated fats, salt and refined sugar (HFSS). In Experiment 1, rats were fed HFSS and subjected to a small mediodorsal (MD) thalamic stroke with or without concomitant permanent bilateral carotid artery occlusion...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042490/remote-ischemic-conditioning-may-improve-outcomes-of-patients-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yuan Wang, Ran Meng, Haiqing Song, Gang Liu, Yang Hua, Dehua Cui, Lemin Zheng, Wuwei Feng, David S Liebeskind, Marc Fisher, Xunming Ji
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in patients with cerebral small-vessel disease. METHODS: Thirty patients with cerebral small-vessel disease-related mild cognitive impairment were enrolled in this prospective, randomized controlled study for 1 year. Besides routine medical treatment, participants were randomized into the experimental group (n=14) undergoing 5 cycles consisting of ischemia followed by reperfusion for 5 minutes on both upper limbs twice daily for 1 year or the control group (n=16) who were treated with sham ischemia-reperfusion cycles...
November 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993004/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-related-cognitive-impairment-the-search-for-a-specific-neuropsychological-pattern
#14
REVIEW
M Planton, N Raposo, J-F Albucher, J Pariente
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is diagnosed in stroke units after lobar intracerebral hemorrhage. CAA can also be diagnosed in memory clinics when patients are referred for cognitive impairment assessment, and may be a reason for admission to emergency or neurology departments because of rapidly progressive cognitive or neurological decline, or a transient focal neurological episode. CAA may even be observed in older community-dwelling individuals. Neuropsychological impairment in CAA has been described over the past 20 years...
November 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937045/carotid-atherosclerosis-and-cognitive-impairment-in-nonstroke-patients
#15
REVIEW
Wei-Hong Chen, Wei Jin, Pei-Yuan Lyu, Yang Liu, Rui Li, Ming Hu, Xiang-Jian Xiao
OBJECTIVE: As a vascular risk factor, carotid atherosclerosis is crucial to cognitive impairment. While carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery plaque, and carotid stenosis can reflect carotid atherosclerosis in different stages, this review aimed to explore researches on the role of carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery plaque, and carotid stenosis in the progress of cognitive impairment in nonstroke patients and tried to illustrate the possible mechanisms. DATA SOURCES: We searched the PubMed database for recently published research articles up to July 2017, with the key words of "carotid atherosclerosis," "carotid intima-media thickness," "carotid plaque," "carotid stenosis," "nonstroke," and "cognitive impairment...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899662/baseline-association-of-motoric-cognitive-risk-syndrome-with-sustained-attention-memory-and-global-cognition
#16
Fiachra J Maguire, Isabelle Killane, Andrew P Creagh, Orna Donoghue, Rose Anne Kenny, Richard B Reilly
OBJECTIVES: Slow gait has been shown to be a good predictor of declining cognitive function in healthy older adults. Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is a new construct incorporating slow gait and subjective cognitive complaints in individuals without dementia who have preserved activities of daily living. This analysis investigated the prevalence of MCR and factors associated with MCR in a nationally representative population. In addition, cross-sectional associations between MCR and cognitive domains, an relationship yet to be fully elucidated in literature, was investigated...
January 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861335/diffusion-tensor-image-segmentation-of-the-cerebrum-provides-a-single-measure-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-severity-related-to-cognitive-change
#17
Owen A Williams, Eva A Zeestraten, Philip Benjamin, Christian Lambert, Andrew J Lawrence, Andrew D Mackinnon, Robin G Morris, Hugh S Markus, Rebecca A Charlton, Thomas R Barrick
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the primary cause of vascular cognitive impairment and is associated with decline in executive function (EF) and information processing speed (IPS). Imaging biomarkers are needed that can monitor and identify individuals at risk of severe cognitive decline. Recently there has been interest in combining several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of SVD into a unitary score to describe disease severity. Here we apply a diffusion tensor image (DTI) segmentation technique (DSEG) to describe SVD related changes in a single unitary score across the whole cerebrum, to investigate its relationship with cognitive change over a three-year period...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802933/cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Claire O'Callaghan, Simon J G Lewis
Cognitive decline is now recognized as a common nonmotor symptom of Parkinson's disease, and it has been the subject of increasing research in recent decades. Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease can be distinguished as dopaminergically mediated executive dysfunction seen in the milder stages vs a global dementia syndrome that can occur with disease progression. The neural basis of these deficits has been explored from the perspective of multimodal imaging techniques to measure the structural, functional, and metabolic correlates of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715552/large-perivascular-spaces-visible-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-progression-and-risk-of-dementia-the-age-gene-environment-susceptibility-reykjavik-study
#19
Jie Ding, Sigurður Sigurðsson, Pálmi V Jónsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Andreas Charidimou, Oscar L Lopez, Mark A van Buchem, Vilmundur Guðnason, Lenore J Launer
Importance: With advancing age, an increased visibility of perivascular spaces (PVSs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is hypothesized to represent impaired drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain and may reflect underlying cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). However, whether large perivascular spaces (L-PVSs) (>3 mm in diameter) visible on MRI are associated with SVD and cognitive deterioration in older individuals is unknown. Objective: To examine whether L-PVSs are associated with the progression of the established MRI markers of SVD, cognitive decline, and increased risk of dementia...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731439/antihypertensive-treatment-is-associated-with-mri-derived-markers-of-neurodegeneration-and-impaired-cognition-a-propensity-weighted-cohort-study
#20
Jodi D Edwards, Joel Ramirez, Brandy L Callahan, Sheldon W Tobe, Paul Oh, Courtney Berezuk, Krista Lanctôt, Walter Swardfager, Sean Nestor, Alexander Kiss, Stephen Strother, Sandra E Black
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral small vessel disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are common anti-hypertensive treatments, but have differential effects on cortical amyloid. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between anti-hypertensive treatment, brain volume, and cognition, using a propensity-weighted analysis to account for confounding by indication...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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