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Fluid Therapy

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Parthasarathi Gayatri, Satyajeet Misra, Girish Menon, Appavoo Arulvelan, Jissa V Thulaseedharan
BACKGROUND: Mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) are routinely used during craniotomy. Both increase myocardial preload and reduce afterload, and may improve cardiac output. It is not currently known whether this results in an improvement in the global myocardial function. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of a single equiosmolar bolus of 20% mannitol (5 mL/kg) or 3% HS (5 mL/kg) on the global myocardial function by tissue Doppler-derived myocardial performance index (TD-MPI) in patients undergoing craniotomy...
July 2014: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Gilles Francony, Bertrand Fauvage, Dominique Falcon, Charles Canet, Henri Dilou, Pierre Lavagne, Claude Jacquot, Jean-Francois Payen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of equimolar doses of 20% mannitol solution and of 7.45% hypertonic saline solution (HSS) in the treatment of patients with sustained elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). DESIGN: Parallel, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Two intensive care units in a university hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 20 stable patients with a sustained ICP of >20 mm Hg secondary to traumatic brain injury (n = 17) or stroke (n = 3)...
March 2008: Critical Care Medicine
Halinder S Mangat, Roger Härtl
Hyperosmolar agents are commonly used as an initial treatment for the management of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). They have an excellent adverse-effect profile compared to other therapies, such as hyperventilation and barbiturates, which carry the risk of reducing cerebral perfusion. The hyperosmolar agent mannitol has been used for several decades to reduce raised ICP, and there is accumulating evidence from pilot studies suggesting beneficial effects of hypertonic saline (HTS) for similar purposes...
May 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Hooman Kamel, Babak B Navi, Kazuma Nakagawa, J Claude Hemphill, Nerissa U Ko
OBJECTIVES: Randomized trials have suggested that hypertonic saline solutions may be superior to mannitol for the treatment of elevated intracranial pressure, but their impact on clinical practice has been limited, partly by their small size. We therefore combined their findings in a meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: We searched for relevant studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized trials were included if they directly compared equiosmolar doses of hypertonic sodium solutions to mannitol for the treatment of elevated intracranial pressure in human subjects undergoing quantitative intracranial pressure measurement...
March 2011: Critical Care Medicine
Behnood Bikdeli, Kelly M Strait, Kumar Dharmarajan, Shu-Xia Li, Purav Mody, Chohreh Partovian, Steven G Coca, Nancy Kim, Leora I Horwitz, Jeffrey M Testani, Harlan M Krumholz
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the use of intravenous fluids in the early care of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (HF) who are treated with loop diuretics. BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluids are routinely provided to many hospitalized patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with HF to 346 hospitals from 2009 to 2010. We assessed the use of intravenous fluids during the first 2 days of hospitalization...
February 2015: JACC. Heart Failure
Faheem W Guirgis, Deborah J Williams, Matthew Hale, Abubakr A Bajwa, Adil Shujaat, Nisha Patel, Colleen J Kalynych, Alan E Jones, Robert L Wears, Sunita Dodani
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest a relationship between chloride-rich intravenous fluids and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of intravenous fluid chloride content to kidney function in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed to determine (1) quantity and type of bolus intravenous fluids, (2) serum creatinine (Cr) at presentation and upon discharge, and (3) need for emergent hemodialysis (HD) or renal replacement therapy (RRT)...
March 2015: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
April P Padua, Josep Ryan G Macaraya, Leonila F Dans, Francisco E Anacleto
BACKGROUND: The administration of hypotonic saline solution for maintenance intravenous fluid (IVF) therapy has been the standard of care, but recent evidence has shown this treatment to be associated with hyponatremia-related complications. The aim of this systematic review was to determine which IVF, i.e., a hypotonic or an isotonic saline solution, poses less risk for the development of hyponatremia among hospitalized children who require maintenance IVF therapy. METHODS: Medline, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Current Controlled Trials, reference lists, and abstract proceedings were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hypotonic and isotonic saline solutions for maintenance IVF therapy in hospitalized children...
July 2015: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Paul Frost
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Paul J Young, Michael Joannidis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Intensive Care Medicine
A Perner, E Junttila, M Haney, K Hreinsson, R Kvåle, P O Vandvik, M H Møller
BACKGROUND: The task force on Acute Circulatory Failure of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine produced this guideline with recommendations concerning the use of crystalloid vs. colloid solutions in adult critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure. METHODS: Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was used to grade the quality of evidence and to determine the strengths of the recommendations...
March 2015: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
J A Myburgh
The administration of intravenous fluids for resuscitation is the most common intervention in acute medicine. There is increasing evidence that the type of fluid may directly affect patient-centred outcomes. There is a lack of evidence that colloids confer clinical benefit over crystalloids and they may be associated with harm. Hydroxyethyl starch preparations are associated with increased mortality and use of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients, particularly those with sepsis; albumin is associated with increased mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury...
January 2015: Journal of Internal Medicine
K Raghunathan, P T Murray, W S Beattie, D N Lobo, J Myburgh, R Sladen, J A Kellum, M G Mythen, A D Shaw
Fluid management during critical illness is a dynamic process that may be conceptualized as occurring in four phases: rescue, optimization, stabilization, and de-escalation (mobilization). The selection and administration of resuscitation fluids is one component of this complex physiological sequence directed at restoring depleted intravascular volume. Presently, the selection of i.v. fluid is usually dictated more by local practice patterns than by evidence. The debate on fluid choice has primarily focused on evaluating outcome differences between 'crystalloids vs colloids'...
November 2014: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Sandra L Peake, Anthony Delaney, Michael Bailey, Rinaldo Bellomo, Peter A Cameron, D James Cooper, Alisa M Higgins, Anna Holdgate, Belinda D Howe, Steven A R Webb, Patricia Williams
BACKGROUND: Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) has been endorsed in the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign as a key strategy to decrease mortality among patients presenting to the emergency department with septic shock. However, its effectiveness is uncertain. METHODS: In this trial conducted at 51 centers (mostly in Australia or New Zealand), we randomly assigned patients presenting to the emergency department with early septic shock to receive either EGDT or usual care...
October 16, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Christopher W Seymour, Colin R Cooke, Susan R Heckbert, John A Spertus, Clifton W Callaway, Christian Martin-Gill, Donald M Yealy, Thomas D Rea, Derek C Angus
INTRODUCTION: Prompt treatment of severe sepsis in the Emergency Department reduces deaths, but the role of prehospital fluid resuscitation is unknown. We sought to determine the risk-adjusted association between prehospital fluid administration and hospital mortality among emergency medical services (EMS) patients admitted with severe sepsis. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational study of patients hospitalized with severe sepsis on admission among 45,394 adult EMS encounters taken to 15 hospitals from 11/2009 to 12/2010 by a two-tier EMS system in King County, Washington...
2014: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
E A Hoste, K Maitland, C S Brudney, R Mehta, J-L Vincent, D Yates, J A Kellum, M G Mythen, A D Shaw
I.V. fluid therapy plays a fundamental role in the management of hospitalized patients. While the correct use of i.v. fluids can be lifesaving, recent literature demonstrates that fluid therapy is not without risks. Indeed, the use of certain types and volumes of fluid can increase the risk of harm, and even death, in some patient groups. Data from a recent audit show us that the inappropriate use of fluids may occur in up to 20% of patients receiving fluid therapy. The delegates of the 12th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Conference sought to obtain consensus on the use of i...
November 2014: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Janice Gabriel
Hypodermoclysis, or the subcutaneous administration of fluids, is a method of rehydration that is not routinely used in the UK. Yet it is a simple and effective method of fluid administration for individuals with mild-to-moderate dehydration, especially for the frail and elderly ( Sasson and Shvartzman, 2001 ). Subcutaneous infusion is an alternative route of parenteral administration. It provides a number of advantages over the intravenous route for those individuals unable to tolerate enteral fluids, as it is associated with fewer complications, as well as a wider range of infusion sites...
July 2014: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Robert C McDermid, Karthik Raghunathan, Adam Romanovsky, Andrew D Shaw, Sean M Bagshaw
Fluid therapy is perhaps the most common intervention received by acutely ill hospitalized patients; however, a number of critical questions on the efficacy and safety of the type and dose remain. In this review, recent insights derived from randomized trials in terms of fluid type, dose and toxicity are discussed. We contend that the prescription of fluid therapy is context-specific and that any fluid can be harmful if administered inappropriately. When contrasting ''crystalloid vs colloid'', differences in efficacy are modest but differences in safety are significant...
February 4, 2014: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Karthik Raghunathan, Andrew Shaw, Brian Nathanson, Til Stürmer, Alan Brookhart, Mihaela S Stefan, Soko Setoguchi, Chris Beadles, Peter K Lindenauer
OBJECTIVE: Isotonic saline is the most commonly used crystalloid in the ICU, but recent evidence suggests that balanced fluids like Lactated Ringer's solution may be preferable. We examined the association between choice of crystalloids and in-hospital mortality during the resuscitation of critically ill adults with sepsis. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with sepsis, not undergoing any surgical procedures, and treated in an ICU by hospital day 2...
July 2014: Critical Care Medicine
Irene Kwan, Frances Bunn, Paul Chinnock, Ian Roberts
BACKGROUND: Treatment of haemorrhagic shock involves maintaining blood pressure and tissue perfusion until bleeding is controlled. Different resuscitation strategies have been used to maintain the blood pressure in trauma patients until bleeding is controlled. However, while maintaining blood pressure may prevent shock, it may worsen bleeding. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect on mortality and coagulation times of two intravenous fluid administration strategies in the management of haemorrhagic hypovolaemia, early compared to delayed administration and larger compared to smaller volume of fluid administered...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
2015-03-06 19:31:15
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