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Neuroimaging in Psychiatry

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7 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
Premika S W Boedhoe, Lianne Schmaal, Yoshinari Abe, Stephanie H Ameis, Paul D Arnold, Marcelo C Batistuzzo, Francesco Benedetti, Jan C Beucke, Irene Bollettini, Anushree Bose, Silvia Brem, Anna Calvo, Yuqi Cheng, Kang Ik K Cho, Sara Dallaspezia, Damiaan Denys, Kate D Fitzgerald, Jean-Paul Fouche, Mònica Giménez, Patricia Gruner, Gregory L Hanna, Derrek P Hibar, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Hao Hu, Chaim Huyser, Keisuke Ikari, Neda Jahanshad, Norbert Kathmann, Christian Kaufmann, Kathrin Koch, Jun Soo Kwon, Luisa Lazaro, Yanni Liu, Christine Lochner, Rachel Marsh, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, David Mataix-Cols, José M Menchón, Luciano Minuzzi, Takashi Nakamae, Tomohiro Nakao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Fabrizio Piras, Federica Piras, Christopher Pittenger, Y C Janardhan Reddy, Joao R Sato, H Blair Simpson, Noam Soreni, Carles Soriano-Mas, Gianfranco Spalletta, Michael C Stevens, Philip R Szeszko, David F Tolin, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Susanne Walitza, Zhen Wang, Guido A van Wingen, Jian Xu, Xiufeng Xu, Je-Yeon Yun, Qing Zhao, Paul M Thompson, Dan J Stein, Odile A van den Heuvel
OBJECTIVE: Structural brain imaging studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have produced inconsistent findings. This may be partially due to limited statistical power from relatively small samples and clinical heterogeneity related to variation in illness profile and developmental stage. To address these limitations, the authors conducted meta- and mega-analyses of data from OCD sites worldwide. METHOD: T1 images from 1,830 OCD patients and 1,759 control subjects were analyzed, using coordinated and standardized processing, to identify subcortical brain volumes that differ between OCD patients and healthy subjects...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Karolien Goffin, Koen van Laere
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a functional nuclear imaging technique that allows visualization and quantification of different in vivo physiologic and pathologic features of brain neurobiology. It has been used for many years in diagnosis of several neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, we discuss the current state-of-the-art of SPECT imaging of brain perfusion and dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging. Brain perfusion SPECT imaging plays an important role in the localization of the seizure onset zone in patients with refractory epilepsy...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Luke J Norman, Christina Carlisi, Steve Lukito, Heledd Hart, David Mataix-Cols, Joaquim Radua, Katya Rubia
IMPORTANCE: Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share impaired inhibitory control. However, it is unknown whether impairments are mediated by shared or disorder-specific neurostructural and neurofunctional abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: To establish shared and disorder-specific structural, functional, and overlapping multimodal abnormalities in these 2 disorders through a voxel-based meta-analytic comparison of whole-brain gray matter volume (GMV) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of inhibition in patients with ADHD and OCD...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Chris H Miller, J Paul Hamilton, Matthew D Sacchet, Ian H Gotlib
IMPORTANCE: Despite its high prevalence and morbidity, the underlying neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) in youth is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To identify in youth diagnosed as having MDD the most reliable neural abnormalities reported in existing functional neuroimaging studies and characterize their relations with specific psychological dysfunctions. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in PubMed and Web of Science to identify relevant studies published from November 2006 through February 2015...
October 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Anqi Qiu, Susumu Mori, Michael I Miller
The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants...
January 3, 2015: Annual Review of Psychology
Tim Hahn, Tilo Kircher, Benjamin Straube, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Carsten Konrad, Andreas Ströhle, André Wittmann, Bettina Pfleiderer, Andreas Reif, Volker Arolt, Ulrike Lueken
IMPORTANCE: Although neuroimaging research has made substantial progress in identifying the large-scale neural substrate of anxiety disorders, its value for clinical application lags behind expectations. Machine-learning approaches have predictive potential for individual-patient prognostic purposes and might thus aid translational efforts in psychiatric research. OBJECTIVE: To predict treatment response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on an individual-patient level based on functional magnetic resonance imaging data in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG)...
January 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Martha J Farah, J Benjamin Hutchinson, Elizabeth A Phelps, Anthony D Wagner
Functional MRI (fMRI)-based lie detection has been marketed as a tool for enhancing personnel selection, strengthening national security and protecting personal reputations, and at least three US courts have been asked to admit the results of lie detection scans as evidence during trials. How well does fMRI-based lie detection perform, and how should the courts, and society more generally, respond? Here, we address various questions — some of which are based on a meta-analysis of published studies — concerning the scientific state of the art in fMRI-based lie detection and its legal status, and discuss broader ethical and societal implications...
February 2014: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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