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K Rehm, I Sunesara, G D Marshall
Exercise training can alter immune function. Marathon training has been associated with an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and an increased activity of inflammatory-based diseases, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare levels of circulating CD4+  T cell subsets in the periphery of marathon-trained runners and matched non-marathon controls. 19 recreational marathoners that were 4 weeks from running a marathon and 19 demographically-matched healthy control subjects had the percentage of CD4+ T cell subpopulations (T helper 1, T helper 2, T helper 1/T helper 2 ratio, regulatory T cells, CD4+ IL10+, and CD4+ TGFβ+ (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) measured by flow cytometry...
October 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
M Khodaee, J Spittler, K VanBaak, B G Changstrom, J C Hill
Serum biomarkers fluctuate as a result of running marathons, but their changes during ultramarathons have not been adequately studied. We collected blood samples from 20 participants before and 21 participants after the 161-km ultramarathon in Leadville, Colorado in August 2013. Using a portable analyzer, we measured cardiac troponin I (cTnl), hematologic, and metabolic biomarkers. Out of 10 runners for whom we collected both pre- and post-race samples, 8 were able to successfully complete the race. Mean cTnl increased from 0...
November 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Junetsu Ogasawara, Tetsuya Izawa, Tomonobu Sakurai, Takuya Sakurai, Ken Shirato, Yoshinaga Ishibashi, Hitoshi Ishida, Hideki Ohno, Takako Kizaki
Physical exercise accelerates the mobilization of free fatty acids from white adipocytes to provide fuel for energy. This happens in several tissues and helps to regulate a whole-body state of metabolism. Under these conditions, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TG) that is found in white adipocytes is known to be augmented via the activation of these lipolytic events, which is referred to as the "lipolytic cascade." Indeed, evidence has shown that the lipolytic responses in white adipocytes are upregulated by continuous exercise training (ET) through the adaptive changes in molecules that constitute the lipolytic cascade...
2015: Journal of Obesity
P Zimmer, W Bloch, A Schenk, E M Zopf, U Hildebrandt, F Streckmann, J Beulertz, C Koliamitra, F Schollmayer, F Baumann
Exercise has been proven to reduce the risk and progression of various diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that exercise affects the cytokine profile and changes distribution and function of tumor-competitive immune cells. Initial studies have shown that different exercise interventions are associated with epigenetic modifications in different tissues and cell types, such as muscle, fat, brain and blood. The present investigation examines the effect of an intense endurance run (half marathon) on global epigenetic modifications in natural killer (NK) cells in 14 cancer patients compared to 14 healthy controls...
June 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
W A Welch, S J Strath, A M Swartz
Determine the congruent validity and intra- and inter-day reliability of RMR measures assessed by the ParvoMedics Trueone 2 400 hood dilution method (Parvo) and Cosmed K4b(2) (Cosmed) breath-by-breath metabolic systems. Participants underwent 6 RMR assessments over 2 consecutive mornings, 3 with the Parvo (Day 1: Parvo 1; Day 2: Parvo 2, 3), 3 with the Cosmed (Day 1: Cosmed 1; Day 2: Cosmed 2, 3). Measured VE, FEO(2), FECO(2), VO(2), VCO(2), kcal/day, and HR values were averaged over a minimum of 10 min...
May 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
David Montero, Candela Diaz-Cañestro, Carsten Lundby
PURPOSE: Although endurance training (ET) commonly augments maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max), it remains unclear whether such increase is associated with that of maximal cardiac output (Qmax) alone or along with arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-V˙O2diff). Herein, we sought to systematically review and determine the effects of ET on V˙O2max, Qmax, and a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise, and on their associations, in healthy young subjects. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science (from their inception until September 2014) for articles assessing the effects of ET lasting ≥3 wk on V˙O2max and Qmax and/or a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise in healthy young adults (mean age <40 yr)...
October 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Bethany Howard, Elisabeth A H Winkler, Parneet Sethi, Valerie Carson, Nicola D Ridgers, J O Salmon, Genevieve N Healy, Neville Owen, David W Dunstan
PURPOSE: Light-intensity physical activity (LIPA) accounts for much of adults' waking hours (≈40%) and substantially contributes to overall daily energy expenditure. Encompassing activity behaviors of low intensity (standing with little movement) to those of higher intensity (slow walking), LIPA is ubiquitous, yet little is known about how associations with health may vary depending on its intensity. We examined the associations of objectively assessed LIPA (categorized as either low LIPA [LLPA] or high LIPA [HLPA]) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers...
October 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
U S Stotzer, M F C Rodrigues, M M Domingos, G H G Silva, F O Duarte, C V G Gatto, A C G O Duarte, G E Shiguemoto, S E A Perez, H S Selistre-de-Araujo
Ovarian hormone loss is associated with a shift in fat distribution to intra-abdomin al adipose tissue (intra-AAT) depots and with lipid metabolism disorders, which predisposes individuals to developing insulin resistance. Resistance training (RT) prevents increases in intra-AAT after ovarian hormone loss. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ovariectomy and RT on gene expression related to lipogenesis and fat oxidation in the intra-AAT of ovariectomized rats...
March 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
J F Ortega, V E Fernández-Elías, N Hamouti, J G Pallarés, R Mora-Rodriguez
This study investigated which exercise mode (continuous or sprint interval) is more effective for improving insulin sensitivity. Ten young, healthy men underwent a non-exercise trial (CON) and 3 exercise trials in a cross-over, randomized design that included 1 sprint interval exercise trial (SIE; 4 all-out 30-s sprints) and 2 continuous exercise trials at 46% VO2peak (CELOW) and 77% VO2peak (CEHIGH). Insulin sensitivity was assessed using intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) 30 min, 24 h and 48 h post-exercise...
March 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
N Sousa, R Mendes, C Abrantes, J Sampaio, J Oliveira
UNLABELLED: This study compared the effects of 2 long-term training programs on blood lipid profiles in overweight older adults. 59 older men with BMI≥25 and <35 kg/m(2) ages 65-75 years were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group (ATG, n=19), a mixed aerobic and resistance training group (MTG, n=20), or a control group (n=20). Both programs were moderate-to-vigorous intensity, involving 60-min training sessions 3 days/week for 32 weeks. Blood lipids were measured on 5 different occasions...
December 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
C Zinner, P Wahl, S Achtzehn, J L Reed, J Mester
The aim was to compare the acute hormonal response to a single HIT session at the beginning and end of a HIT shock microcycle. 13 male junior triathletes (15.8±1.8 yrs.) performed 16 HIT sessions within a 2 week period. Venous blood samples were collected before and after the first and last HIT session. Significant increases in cortisol (first session +89.7%; last session +70.3%) and hGH (first session +435.1%; last session +314.6%) concentrations were observed after both training sessions (P<0.05). The acute responses of cortisol, hGH, T3, and fT3 were not different between the first and last HIT sessions (P=1...
April 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Marisa Coelho, Teresa Oliveira, Ruben Fernandes
Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example)...
April 20, 2013: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
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