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Addictions

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34 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Gregory Cohen Psychiatry resident at University of Toronto
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617066/the-mixed-opioid-receptor-antagonist-naltrexone-mitigates-stimulant-induced-euphoria-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-naltrexone
#1
Thomas J Spencer, Pradeep Bhide, Jinmin Zhu, Stephen V Faraone, Maura Fitzgerald, Amy M Yule, Mai Uchida, Andrea E Spencer, Anna M Hall, Ariana J Koster, Leah Feinberg, Sarah Kassabian, Barbara Storch, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Supratherapeutic doses of methylphenidate activate μ-opioid receptors, which are linked to euphoria. This study assessed whether naltrexone, a mixed μ-opioid antagonist, may attenuate the euphoric effects of stimulants, thereby minimizing their abuse potential in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone in adults with DSM-IV ADHD receiving open treatment with a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate (January 2013 to June 2015)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562086/3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-as-a-psychiatric-treatment
#2
Gillinder Bedi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515439/clinical-interpretations-of-patient-experience-in-a-trial-of-psilocybin-assisted-psychotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#3
Michael P Bogenschutz, Samantha K Podrebarac, Jessie H Duane, Sean S Amegadzie, Tara C Malone, Lindsey T Owens, Stephen Ross, Sarah E Mennenga
After a hiatus of some 40 years, clinical research has resumed on the use of classic hallucinogens to treat addiction. Following completion of a small open-label feasibility study, we are currently conducting a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of psilocybin-assisted treatment of alcohol use disorder. Although treatment effects cannot be analyzed until the study is complete, descriptive case studies provide a useful window into the therapeutic process of psychedelic-assisted treatment of addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27210031/psilocybin-with-psychological-support-for-treatment-resistant-depression-an-open-label-feasibility-study
#4
Robin L Carhart-Harris, Mark Bolstridge, James Rucker, Camilla M J Day, David Erritzoe, Mendel Kaelen, Michael Bloomfield, James A Rickard, Ben Forbes, Amanda Feilding, David Taylor, Steve Pilling, Valerie H Curran, David J Nutt
BACKGROUND: Psilocybin is a serotonin receptor agonist that occurs naturally in some mushroom species. Recent studies have assessed the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for various conditions, including end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence, with promising preliminary results. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression. METHODS: In this open-label feasibility trial, 12 patients (six men, six women) with moderate-to-severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting...
July 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23906994/substance-use-disorders-increase-the-odds-of-subsequent-mood-disorders
#5
Aileen Kenneson, Jennifer S Funderburk, Stephen A Maisto
BACKGROUND: There is a well-known association between mood disorders and substance use disorders (SUD), but little research has been conducted on SUDs as risk factors for the development of subsequent mood disorders. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication study. Diagnoses were determined using DSM-IV criteria. Odds ratios (aORs) of subsequently developing mood disorders were adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Data from 5217 individuals were included (6...
December 1, 2013: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325505/clinical-interpretation-of-urine-drug-tests-what-clinicians-need-to-know-about-urine-drug-screens
#6
REVIEW
Karen E Moeller, Julie C Kissack, Rabia S Atayee, Kelly C Lee
Urine drug testing is frequently used in clinical, employment, educational, and legal settings and misinterpretation of test results can result in significant adverse consequences for the individual who is being tested. Advances in drug testing technology combined with a rise in the number of novel misused substances present challenges to clinicians to appropriately interpret urine drug test results. Authors searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify published literature written in English between 1946 and 2016, using urine drug test, screen, false-positive, false-negative, abuse, and individual drugs of abuse as key words...
May 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624112/opposing-roles-of-rapid-dopamine-signaling-across-the-rostral-caudal-axis-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-in-drug-induced-negative-affect
#7
Seth W Hurley, Elizabeth A West, Regina M Carelli
BACKGROUND: Negative reinforcement theories of drug addiction posit that addicts use drugs to alleviate negative mood states. In a preclinical model developed in our laboratory, rats exhibit negative affect to a normally rewarding taste cue when it predicts impending but delayed cocaine. The emergence of this state is accompanied by a reduction in dopamine concentration in the rostral nucleus accumbens shell. However, the rostral and caudal regions of the shell have been implicated in promoting opposing appetitive and aversive states, respectively...
December 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470503/stigma-and-self-stigma-in-addiction
#8
Steve Matthews, Robyn Dwyer, Anke Snoek
Addictions are commonly accompanied by a sense of shame or self-stigmatization. Self-stigmatization results from public stigmatization in a process leading to the internalization of the social opprobrium attaching to the negative stereotypes associated with addiction. We offer an account of how this process works in terms of a range of looping effects, and this leads to our main claim that for a significant range of cases public stigma figures in the social construction of addiction. This rests on a social constructivist account in which those affected by public stigmatization internalize its norms...
June 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297025/association-of-stimulant-use-with-dopaminergic-alterations-in-users-of-cocaine-amphetamine-or-methamphetamine-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Abhishekh H Ashok, Yuya Mizuno, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
Importance: Stimulant use disorder is common, affecting between 0.3% and 1.1% of the population, and costs more than $85 billion per year globally. There are no licensed treatments to date. Several lines of evidence implicate the dopamine system in the pathogenesis of substance use disorder. Therefore, understanding the nature of dopamine dysfunction seen in stimulant users has the potential to aid the development of new therapeutics. Objective: To comprehensively review the in vivo imaging evidence for dopaminergic alterations in stimulant (cocaine, amphetamine, or methamphetamine) abuse or dependence...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980118/role-of-taar1-within-the-subregions-of-the-mesocorticolimbic-dopaminergic-system-in-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#10
Jian-Feng Liu, Justin N Siemian, Robert Seaman, Yanan Zhang, Jun-Xu Li
A novel G-protein coupled receptor, trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), has been shown to be a promising target to prevent stimulant relapse. Our recent studies showed that systemic administration of TAAR1 agonists decreased abuse-related behaviors of cocaine. However, the role of TAAR1 in specific subregions of the reward system in drug addiction is unknown. Here, using a local pharmacological activation method, we assessed the role of TAAR1 within the subregions of the mesocorticolimbic system, i.e...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20116457/a-multi-site-two-phase-prescription-opioid-addiction-treatment-study-poats-rationale-design-and-methodology
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Roger D Weiss, Jennifer Sharpe Potter, Scott E Provost, Zhen Huang, Petra Jacobs, Albert Hasson, Robert Lindblad, Hilary Smith Connery, Kristi Prather, Walter Ling
The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network launched the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) in response to rising rates of prescription opioid dependence and gaps in understanding the optimal course of treatment for this population. POATS employed a multi-site, two-phase adaptive, sequential treatment design to approximate clinical practice. The study took place at 10 community treatment programs around the United States. Participants included men and women age > or =18 who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition criteria for dependence upon prescription opioids, with physiologic features; those with a prominent history of heroin use (according to pre-specified criteria) were excluded...
March 2010: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25409384/a-molecular-basis-for-nicotine-as-a-gateway-drug
#12
LETTER
Denise B Kandel, Eric R Kandel
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 371, Issue 21, Page 2038-2039, November 2014.
November 20, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181061/dopamine-regulation-of-lateral-inhibition-between-striatal-neurons-gates-the-stimulant-actions-of-cocaine
#13
Lauren K Dobbs, Alanna R Kaplan, Julia C Lemos, Aya Matsui, Marcelo Rubinstein, Veronica A Alvarez
Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) form inhibitory synapses on neighboring striatal neurons through axon collaterals. The functional relevance of this lateral inhibition and its regulation by dopamine remains elusive. We show that synchronized stimulation of collateral transmission from multiple indirect-pathway MSNs (iMSNs) potently inhibits action potentials in direct-pathway MSNs (dMSNs) in the nucleus accumbens. Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) suppress lateral inhibition from iMSNs to disinhibit dMSNs, which are known to facilitate locomotion...
June 1, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649845/on-bias-in-alcohol-epidemiology-and-the-search-for-the-perfect-study
#14
Michael Roerecke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26576956/the-integration-of-medical-toxicology-and-addiction-medicine-a-new-era-in-patient-care
#15
REVIEW
JoAn R Laes
Medical toxicologists are frequently called upon to treat patients who are addicted to alcohol, tobacco, or other substances across many care settings. Medical toxicologists provide service to their patients through the identification, treatment, and prevention of addiction and its co-morbidities, and practice opportunities are quite varied. Training in addiction medicine can be obtained during or after medical toxicology fellowship through resources offered by the American Society of Addiction Medicine. Additionally, the American Board of Addiction Medicine offers certification in the specialty of addiction medicine to candidates across a wide range of medical specialties...
March 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298371/cross-hemispheric-dopamine-projections-have-functional-significance
#16
Megan E Fox, Maria A Mikhailova, Caroline E Bass, Pavel Takmakov, Raul R Gainetdinov, Evgeny A Budygin, R Mark Wightman
Dopamine signaling occurs on a subsecond timescale, and its dysregulation is implicated in pathologies ranging from drug addiction to Parkinson's disease. Anatomic evidence suggests that some dopamine neurons have cross-hemispheric projections, but the significance of these projections is unknown. Here we report unprecedented interhemispheric communication in the midbrain dopamine system of awake and anesthetized rats. In the anesthetized rats, optogenetic and electrical stimulation of dopamine cells elicited physiologically relevant dopamine release in the contralateral striatum...
June 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464203/treatment-of-opioid-use-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Marc A Schuckit
This article provides an overview of the current treatment of opioid-related conditions, including treatments provided by general practitioners and by specialists in substance-use disorders. The recent dramatic increase in misuse of prescription analgesics, the easy accessibility of opioids such as..
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898727/legalizing-marijuana
#18
EDITORIAL
Marco Leyton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095547/drug-addiction-an-affective-cognitive-disorder-in-need-of-a-cure
#19
REVIEW
Liana Fattore, Marco Diana
Drug addiction is a compulsive behavioral abnormality. In spite of pharmacological treatments and psychosocial support to reduce or eliminate drug intake, addiction tends to persist over time. Preclinical and human observations have converged on the hypothesis that addiction represents the pathological deterioration of neural processes that normally serve affective and cognitive functioning. The major elements of persistent compulsive drug use are hypothesized to be structural, cellular and molecular that underlie enduring changes in several forebrain circuits that receive input from midbrain dopamine neurons and are involved in affective (e...
June 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102239/cannabis-psychosis-and-mortality-a-cohort-study-of-50-373-swedish-men
#20
Edison Manrique-Garcia, Antonio Ponce de Leon, Christina Dalman, Sven Andréasson, Peter Allebeck
OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed 1) the overall risk of death among cannabis users compared with nonusers and the extent to which psychosis affects excess mortality; 2) mortality among persons with psychotic disorders and the extent to which cannabis use affects excess mortality; and 3) the interaction effect of cannabis use and diagnosis of psychotic disorders on mortality. METHOD: This was a longitudinal study of 50,373 Swedish male military conscripts (ages 18-19) who were followed in the National Cause of Death Register up to around age 60...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
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