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By Gregory Cohen Psychiatry resident at University of Toronto
Michael Roerecke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Addiction
JoAn R Laes
Medical toxicologists are frequently called upon to treat patients who are addicted to alcohol, tobacco, or other substances across many care settings. Medical toxicologists provide service to their patients through the identification, treatment, and prevention of addiction and its co-morbidities, and practice opportunities are quite varied. Training in addiction medicine can be obtained during or after medical toxicology fellowship through resources offered by the American Society of Addiction Medicine. Additionally, the American Board of Addiction Medicine offers certification in the specialty of addiction medicine to candidates across a wide range of medical specialties...
March 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Megan E Fox, Maria A Mikhailova, Caroline E Bass, Pavel Takmakov, Raul R Gainetdinov, Evgeny A Budygin, R Mark Wightman
Dopamine signaling occurs on a subsecond timescale, and its dysregulation is implicated in pathologies ranging from drug addiction to Parkinson's disease. Anatomic evidence suggests that some dopamine neurons have cross-hemispheric projections, but the significance of these projections is unknown. Here we report unprecedented interhemispheric communication in the midbrain dopamine system of awake and anesthetized rats. In the anesthetized rats, optogenetic and electrical stimulation of dopamine cells elicited physiologically relevant dopamine release in the contralateral striatum...
June 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marc A Schuckit
This article provides an overview of the current treatment of opioid-related conditions, including treatments provided by general practitioners and by specialists in substance-use disorders. The recent dramatic increase in misuse of prescription analgesics, the easy accessibility of opioids such as..
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Marco Leyton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Liana Fattore, Marco Diana
Drug addiction is a compulsive behavioral abnormality. In spite of pharmacological treatments and psychosocial support to reduce or eliminate drug intake, addiction tends to persist over time. Preclinical and human observations have converged on the hypothesis that addiction represents the pathological deterioration of neural processes that normally serve affective and cognitive functioning. The major elements of persistent compulsive drug use are hypothesized to be structural, cellular and molecular that underlie enduring changes in several forebrain circuits that receive input from midbrain dopamine neurons and are involved in affective (e...
June 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Edison Manrique-Garcia, Antonio Ponce de Leon, Christina Dalman, Sven Andréasson, Peter Allebeck
OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed 1) the overall risk of death among cannabis users compared with nonusers and the extent to which psychosis affects excess mortality; 2) mortality among persons with psychotic disorders and the extent to which cannabis use affects excess mortality; and 3) the interaction effect of cannabis use and diagnosis of psychotic disorders on mortality. METHOD: This was a longitudinal study of 50,373 Swedish male military conscripts (ages 18-19) who were followed in the National Cause of Death Register up to around age 60...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Nora D Volkow, Marisela Morales
Advances in neuroscience identified addiction as a chronic brain disease with strong genetic, neurodevelopmental, and sociocultural components. We here discuss the circuit- and cell-level mechanisms of this condition and its co-option of pathways regulating reward, self-control, and affect. Drugs of abuse exert their initial reinforcing effects by triggering supraphysiologic surges of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens that activate the direct striatal pathway via D1 receptors and inhibit the indirect striato-cortical pathway via D2 receptors...
August 13, 2015: Cell
Mark S Gold, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Kenneth Blum
This article focuses on the shared molecular and neurogenetics of food and drug addiction tied to the understanding of reward deficiency syndrome. Reward deficiency syndrome describes a hypodopaminergic trait/state that provides a rationale for commonality in approaches for treating long-term reduced dopamine function across the reward brain regions. The identification of the role of DNA polymorphic associations with reward circuitry has resulted in new understanding of all addictive behaviors.
September 2015: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Gerald Zernig, Barbara S Pinheiro
Impaired social interaction is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric disorders. In substance use disorders, impaired social interaction is triply harmful (a) because addicts increasingly prefer the drug of abuse to the natural reward of drug-free social interaction, thus worsening the progression of the disease by increasing their drug consumption, (b) because treatment adherence and, consequently, treatment success itself depends on the ability of the recovering addict to maintain social interaction and adhere to treatment, and (c) because socially interacting with an individual suffering from a substance use disorder may be harmful for others...
September 2015: Behavioural Pharmacology
Natsuko Hitora-Imamura, Yuki Miura, Chie Teshirogi, Yuji Ikegaya, Norio Matsuki, Hiroshi Nomura
Prevention of relapses is a major challenge in treating anxiety disorders. Fear reinstatement can cause relapse in spite of successful fear reduction through extinction-based exposure therapy. By utilising a contextual fear-conditioning task in mice, we found that reinstatement was accompanied by decreased c-Fos expression in the infralimbic cortex (IL) with reduction of synaptic input and enhanced c-Fos expression in the medial subdivision of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeM). Moreover, we found that IL dopamine plays a key role in reinstatement...
2015: ELife
T W Robbins, L Clark
Behavioral addictions are slowly becoming recognized as a valid category of psychiatric disorder as shown by the recent allocation of pathological gambling to this category in DSM-5. However, several other types of psychiatric disorder proposed to be examples of behavioral addictions have yet to be accorded this formal acknowledgment and are dispersed across other sections of the DSM-5. This brief review marks this important point in the evolution of this concept and looks to future investigation of behavioral addictions with the theoretical frameworks currently being used successfully to investigate substance addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder, in a potentially new spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders...
February 2015: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Vladan Starcevic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Mark Olfson, Marissa King, Michael Schoenbaum
IMPORTANCE: Although concern exists regarding the rate of benzodiazepine use, especially long-term use by older adults, little information is available concerning patterns of benzodiazepine use in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To describe benzodiazepine prescription patterns in the United States focusing on patient age and duration of use. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective descriptive analysis of benzodiazepine prescriptions was performed with the 2008 LifeLink LRx Longitudinal Prescription database (IMS Health Inc), which includes approximately 60% of all retail pharmacies in the United States...
February 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Gwenn S Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2014: American Journal of Psychiatry
Anna Lembke
Prescription opioid abuse is an epidemic in the United States. In 2010, there were reportedly as many as 2.4 million opioid abusers in this country, and the number of new abusers had increased by 225% between 1992 and 2000. Sixty percent of the opioids that are abused are obtained directly or..
October 25, 2012: New England Journal of Medicine
Andrea Anzalone, José E Lizardi-Ortiz, Maria Ramos, Claudia De Mei, F Woodward Hopf, Ciro Iaccarino, Briac Halbout, Jacob Jacobsen, Chisato Kinoshita, Marc Welter, Marc G Caron, Antonello Bonci, David Sulzer, Emiliana Borrelli
Dysfunctions of dopaminergic homeostasis leading to either low or high dopamine (DA) levels are causally linked to Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction. Major sites of DA synthesis are the mesencephalic neurons originating in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area; these structures send major projections to the dorsal striatum (DSt) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), respectively. DA finely tunes its own synthesis and release by activating DA D2 receptors (D2R). To date, this critical D2R-dependent function was thought to be solely due to activation of D2Rs on dopaminergic neurons (D2 autoreceptors); instead, using site-specific D2R knock-out mice, we uncover that D2 heteroreceptors located on non-DAergic medium spiny neurons participate in the control of DA levels...
June 27, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S Fowler, Dardo Tomasi
A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability...
2012: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Nasir H Naqvi, Antoine Bechara
We have recently shown that damage to the insula leads to a profound disruption of addiction to cigarette smoking (Naqvi et al., Science 315:531-534, 2007). Yet, there is little understanding of why the insula should play such an important role in an addictive behavior. A broad literature (much of it reviewed in this issue) has addressed the role of the insula in processes related to conscious interoception, emotional experience, and decision-making. Here, we review evidence for the role of the insula in drug addiction, and propose a novel theoretical framework for addiction in which the insula represents the interoceptive effects of drug taking, making this information available to conscious awareness, memory and executive functions...
June 2010: Brain Structure & Function
Nasir H Naqvi, David Rudrauf, Hanna Damasio, Antoine Bechara
A number of brain systems have been implicated in addictive behavior, but none have yet been shown to be necessary for maintaining the addiction to cigarette smoking. We found that smokers with brain damage involving the insula, a region implicated in conscious urges, were more likely than smokers with brain damage not involving the insula to undergo a disruption of smoking addiction, characterized by the ability to quit smoking easily, immediately, without relapse, and without persistence of the urge to smoke...
January 26, 2007: Science
2015-02-24 15:57:28
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