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Parkinson

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By Marianne De Nobel i'm a physician in the elderly care at an Hospice and in a nursing home, with people with dementia and /or chronic diseases also i'm working in the primary care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017205/meige-s-syndrome-history-epidemiology-clinical-features-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Sanjay Pandey, Soumya Sharma
'Meige's syndrome' is a type of cranial dystonia characterized by blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia and can be associated with complex movement of lower facial muscles, mouth, jaw, tongue, pharyngeal and cervical muscles. Frequently, blepharospasm is the earliest clinical manifestation, which spreads over a period of time to involve other cranial and extra-cranial muscles. Common characteristics of this syndrome are well known, but their variety is wide. Different eponyms such as "Breughel syndrome", "Wood syndrome", "Blepharospasm plus", "Segmental cranial dystonia" and "Segmental cranio-cervical dystonia" have been used to describe this entity with numerous anatomical variations...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028643/parkinson-s-a-syndrome-rather-than-a-disease
#2
REVIEW
Nataliya Titova, C Padmakumar, Simon J G Lewis, K Ray Chaudhuri
Emerging concepts suggest that a multitude of pathology ranging from misfolding of alpha-synuclein to neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurotransmitter driven alteration of brain neuronal networks lead to a syndrome that is commonly known as Parkinson's disease. The complex underlying pathology which may involve degeneration of non-dopaminergic pathways leads to the expression of a range of non-motor symptoms from the prodromal stage of Parkinson's to the palliative stage. Non-motor clinical subtypes, cognitive and non-cognitive, have now been proposed paving the way for possible subtype specific and non-motor treatments, a key unmet need currently...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848117/capgras-syndrome-in-parkinson-s-disease-two-new-cases-and-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Antonino Cannas, Mario Meloni, Marcello Mario Mascia, Paolo Solla, Luigi Cocco, Antonella Muroni, Gianluca Floris, Francesca Di Stefano, Francesco Marrosu
The Capgras syndrome (CS) is a rare psychiatric disorder. CS is classified as a delusional misidentification syndrome. Initially, CS was described in paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. CS has also been reported in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia. To date, there are very few descriptions of the occurrence of CS in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), with or without dementia. Considering the recent observation of two new cases in PD patients, a systematic overview of the literature published between 1976 and 2016 reporting CS in PD was conducted...
November 15, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911002/what-is-quality-of-life-and-how-do-we-measure-it-relevance-to-parkinson-s-disease-and-movement-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Pablo Martinez-Martin
Health-related quality of life is a patient-reported outcome that complements clinical evaluation and provides information about disease activity and effects of the treatment. The objective of this review is to present the conceptual framework, the measures, and some of their most relevant applications in the field of Parkinson's disease and movement disorders. Health-related quality of life is a subjective, individual, and multidimensional construct, and its main dimensions are physical, mental, and social, besides global perceptions of health and personal domains...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738546/mini-review-anticholinergic-activity-as-a-behavioral-pathology-of-lewy-body-disease-and-proposal-of-the-concept-of-anticholinergic-spectrum-disorders
#5
Koji Hori, Kimiko Konishi, Misa Hosoi, Hiroi Tomioka, Masayuki Tani, Yuka Kitajima, Mitsugu Hachisu
Given the relationship between anticholinergic activity (AA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we rereview our hypothesis of the endogenous appearance of AA in AD. Briefly, because acetylcholine (ACh) regulates not only cognitive function but also the inflammatory system, when ACh downregulation reaches a critical level, inflammation increases, triggering the appearance of cytokines with AA. Moreover, based on a case report of a patient with mild AD and slightly deteriorated ACh, we also speculate that AA can appear endogenously in Lewy body disease due to the dual action of the downregulation of ACh and hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26945525/measurement-instruments-to-assess-posture-gait-and-balance-in-parkinson-s-disease-critique-and-recommendations
#6
REVIEW
Bastiaan R Bloem, Johan Marinus, Quincy Almeida, Lee Dibble, Alice Nieuwboer, Bart Post, Evzen Ruzicka, Christopher Goetz, Glenn Stebbins, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Anette Schrag
BACKGROUND: Disorders of posture, gait, and balance in Parkinson's disease (PD) are common and debilitating. This MDS-commissioned task force assessed clinimetric properties of existing rating scales, questionnaires, and timed tests that assess these features in PD. METHODS: A literature review was conducted. Identified instruments were evaluated systematically and classified as "recommended," "suggested," or "listed." Inclusion of rating scales was restricted to those that could be used readily in clinical research and practice...
September 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873359/constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease-subjective-symptoms-objective-markers-and-new-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Karoline Knudsen, Klaus Krogh, Karen Østergaard, Per Borghammer
Constipation is among the first nonmotor symptoms to develop in the prodromal phase of PD. Pathological alpha-synuclein deposition is present throughout the gastrointestinal tract up to 20 years preceding diagnosis. Nevertheless, constipation in the context of PD remains ill defined and poorly understood. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of subjective symptoms and objective measures of constipation in PD. More than 10 different definitions of constipation have been used in the PD literature, making generalizations difficult...
November 22, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779784/pisa-syndrome-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-integrated-approach-from-pathophysiology-to-management
#8
REVIEW
Michele Tinazzi, Christian Geroin, Marialuisa Gandolfi, Nicola Smania, Stefano Tamburin, Francesca Morgante, Alfonso Fasano
Pisa syndrome was first described in 1972 in patients treated with neuroleptics. Since 2003, when it was first reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Pisa syndrome has progressively drawn the attention of clinicians and researchers. Although emerging evidence has partially clarified its prevalence and pathophysiology, the current debate revolves around diagnostic criteria and assessment and the effectiveness of pharmacological, surgical, and rehabilitative approaches. Contrary to initial thought, Pisa syndrome is common among PD patients, with an estimated prevalence of 8...
December 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830568/psychosis-in-parkinson-disease-a-review-of-etiology-phenomenology-and-management
#9
REVIEW
Niyatee Samudra, Neepa Patel, Kyle B Womack, Pravin Khemani, Shilpa Chitnis
Parkinson disease psychosis (PDP) is a common phenomenon in Parkinson disease (PD) patients treated with dopaminergic drugs, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It also correlates with depression and dementia, and can contribute to considerable caregiver stress and burnout. While symptoms can be relieved by decreasing doses or number of anti-PD medications, this may lead to an unacceptable worsening of motor function. When general medical or psychiatric conditions have been ruled out, and decreasing dopaminergic agents is not effective in treating psychosis, therapies include atypical antipsychotics, primarily clozapine and quetiapine...
December 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683476/palliative-care-for-parkinson-s-disease-patient-and-carer-s-perspectives-explored-through-qualitative-interview
#10
Siobhan Fox, Alison Cashell, W George Kernohan, Marie Lynch, Ciara McGlade, Tony O'Brien, Sean S O'Sullivan, Mary J Foley, Suzanne Timmons
BACKGROUND: Palliative care is recommended for non-malignant illnesses, including Parkinson's disease. However, past research with healthcare workers highlights unmet palliative needs in this population and referral rates to Specialist Palliative Care are low. Some healthcare workers perceive a 'fear' in their patients about introducing palliative care. However, less is known about the views of people with Parkinson's disease and their carers about palliative care. AIM: (1) To explore the palliative care and related issues most affecting people with Parkinson's disease and their families and (2) to examine perceptions about/understanding of palliative care...
September 28, 2016: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629356/current-understanding-of-psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Oluwadamilola O Ojo, Hubert H Fernandez
Psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the greatest determinants of nursing home placement and caregiver stress. Traditionally associated with medications with dopaminergic effect, it has now been linked to other medications and other stressors e.g. systemic illnesses. The development of hallucinations in a PD patient can herald the onset of dementia and usually predicts increased mortality risk. Medication reduction in PD psychosis usually reduces the symptoms; however, this comes at the cost of worsening motor function...
October 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679448/treatment-options-for-urogenital-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Amit Batla, Natalie Tayim, Mahreen Pakzad, Jalesh N Panicker
Urogenital dysfunction is commonly reported in Parkinson's disease (PD), and history taking and a bladder diary form the cornerstone of evaluation. The assessment of lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms include urinalysis, ultrasonography, and urodynamic studies and help to evaluate concomitant urological pathologies such as benign prostate enlargement. Antimuscarinic medications are the first line treatment for overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and solifenacin has been specifically studied in PD. Antimuscarininc drugs may exacerbate PD-related constipation and xerostomia, and caution is advised when using these medications in individuals where cognitive impairment is suspected...
October 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577098/current-and-experimental-treatments-of-parkinson-disease-a-guide-for-neuroscientists
#13
Wolfgang Oertel, Jörg B Schulz
Over a period of more than 50 years, the symptomatic treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) has been optimized using pharmacotherapy, deep brain stimulation, and physiotherapy. The arsenal of pharmacotherapies includes L-Dopa, several dopamine agonists, inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), and amantadine. In the later course of the disease, motor complications occur, at which stage different oral formulations of L-Dopa or dopamine agonists with long half-life, a transdermal application or parenteral pumps for continuous drug supply can be subscribed...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497913/parkinson-s-disease-autoimmunity-and-neuroinflammation
#14
REVIEW
Armando De Virgilio, Antonio Greco, Giovanni Fabbrini, Maurizio Inghilleri, Maria Ida Rizzo, Andrea Gallo, Michela Conte, Chiara Rosato, Mario Ciniglio Appiani, Marco de Vincentiis
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that causes the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The resulting dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia leads to a movement disorder that is characterized by classical parkinsonian motor symptoms. Parkinson's disease is recognized as the most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. PD ethiopathogenesis remains to be elucidated and has been connected to genetic, environmental and immunologic conditions. The past decade has provided evidence for a significant role of the immune system in PD pathogenesis, either through inflammation or an autoimmune response...
October 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497841/low-frequency-deep-brain-stimulation-for-movement-disorders
#15
José Fidel Baizabal-Carvallo, Marlene Alonso-Juarez
INTRODUCTION: Traditionally, deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders (MDs) is provided using stimulation frequencies equal to or above 100 Hz. However, recent evidence suggests that relatively low-frequency stimulation (LFS) below 100 Hz is an option to treat some patients with MDs. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to review the clinical and pathophysiological evidence supporting the use of stimulation frequencies below 100 Hz in different MDs. RESULTS: Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus at 60 Hz has provided benefit in gait and other axial symptoms such as swallowing and speech...
October 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504054/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-antipsychotic-medications-in-the-treatment-of-psychosis-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Nevena Divac, Radan Stojanović, Katarina Savić Vujović, Branislava Medić, Aleksandar Damjanović, Milica Prostran
Psychotic symptoms are present in up to 50% of patients with Parkinson's disease. These symptoms have detrimental effects on patients' and caregivers' quality of life and may predict mortality. The pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in Parkinson's disease is complex, but the use of dopaminergic medications is one of the risk factors. The treatment of psychotic symptoms in Parkinson's disease is complicated due to the ability of antipsychotic medications to worsen motor symptoms. The efficacy of clozapine in the treatment of psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease has been confirmed in several clinical trials; however, the adverse effects and the necessity of blood count monitoring are the reasons why the use of this drug is challenging...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505015/side-effects-of-a-dopamine-agonist-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease-a-mini-review-of-clinical-pharmacology
#17
REVIEW
Josip Anđelo Borovac
Dopamine agonists (DA) are therapeutic agents that are commonly used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). They can reduce undesired motor fluctuations and delay the administration of levodopa therapy. However, this drug family is associated with specific side effects that can significantly diminish the quality of life among PD patients. Some of them impose significant risks for individuals who have a history of cardiovascular diseases, psychosis, and depression, or those older patients who suffer from renal or hepatic insufficiency...
March 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515029/therapies-for-parkinson-s-diseases-alternatives-to-current-pharmacological-interventions
#18
Song Li, Jie Dong, Cheng Cheng, Weidong Le
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder caused by the selective and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although PD has been heavily researched, the precise etiology and pathogenesis for PD are still inconclusive. Consequently, current pharmacological treatments for PD are largely symptomatic rather than preventive and there is still no cure for this disease nowadays. Moreover, nonmotor symptoms caused by intrinsic PD pathology or side effects induced by currently used pharmacological interventions are gaining increasing attention and urgently need to be treated due to their influence on quality of life...
November 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537920/effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-on-autonomic-function
#19
REVIEW
Adam Basiago, Devin K Binder
Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) into a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system...
August 16, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539167/psychiatric-and-cognitive-effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Adam Nassery, Christina A Palmese, Harini Sarva, Mark Groves, Joan Miravite, Brian Harris Kopell
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and essential tremor (ET). While motor benefits are well documented, cognitive and psychiatric side effects from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS for PD are increasingly recognized. Underlying disease, medications, microlesions, and post-surgical stimulation likely all contribute to non-motor symptoms (NMS).
October 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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