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Substance use disorders

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21 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
Deborah S Hasin, Bradley T Kerridge, Tulshi D Saha, Boji Huang, Roger Pickering, Sharon M Smith, Jeesun Jung, Haitao Zhang, Bridget F Grant
OBJECTIVE: Attitudes toward marijuana are changing, the prevalence of DSM-IV cannabis use disorder has increased, and DSM-5 modified the cannabis use disorder criteria. Therefore, updated information is needed on the prevalence, demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment for DSM-5 cannabis use disorder. METHOD: In 2012-2013, 36,309 participants ≥18 years old were interviewed in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Bridget F Grant, Tulshi D Saha, W June Ruan, Risë B Goldstein, S Patricia Chou, Jeesun Jung, Haitao Zhang, Sharon M Smith, Roger P Pickering, Boji Huang, Deborah S Hasin
IMPORTANCE: Current information on the prevalence and sociodemographic and clinical profiles of individuals in the general population with DSM-5 drug use disorder (DUD) is limited. Given the present societal and economic context in the United States and the new diagnostic system, up-to-date national information is needed from a single uniform data source. OBJECTIVE: To present nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment of DSM-5 DUD diagnoses overall and by severity level...
January 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Bridget F Grant, Risë B Goldstein, Tulshi D Saha, S Patricia Chou, Jeesun Jung, Haitao Zhang, Roger P Pickering, W June Ruan, Sharon M Smith, Boji Huang, Deborah S Hasin
IMPORTANCE: National epidemiologic information from recently collected data on the new DSM-5 classification of alcohol use disorder (AUD) using a reliable, valid, and uniform data source is needed. OBJECTIVE: To present nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, associated disability, and treatment of DSM-5 AUD diagnoses overall and according to severity level (mild, moderate, or severe). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted face-to-face interviews with a representative US noninstitutionalized civilian adult (≥18 years) sample (N = 36 309) as the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III)...
August 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Jason P Connor, Paul S Haber, Wayne D Hall
Alcohol use disorders are common in developed countries, where alcohol is cheap, readily available, and heavily promoted. Common, mild disorders often remit in young adulthood, but more severe disorders can become chronic and need long-term medical and psychological management. Doctors are uniquely placed to opportunistically assess and manage alcohol use disorders, but in practice diagnosis and treatment are often delayed. Brief behavioural intervention is effective in primary care for hazardous drinkers and individuals with mild disorders...
March 5, 2016: Lancet
Nora D Volkow, Marisela Morales
Advances in neuroscience identified addiction as a chronic brain disease with strong genetic, neurodevelopmental, and sociocultural components. We here discuss the circuit- and cell-level mechanisms of this condition and its co-option of pathways regulating reward, self-control, and affect. Drugs of abuse exert their initial reinforcing effects by triggering supraphysiologic surges of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens that activate the direct striatal pathway via D1 receptors and inhibit the indirect striato-cortical pathway via D2 receptors...
August 13, 2015: Cell
Catherine D Darker, Brion P Sweeney, Joe M Barry, Michael F Farrell, Erica Donnelly-Swift
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) have a sedative and hypnotic effect upon people. Short term use can be beneficial but long term BZD use is common, with several risks in addition to the potential for dependence in both opiate and non-opiate dependent patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for treating BZD harmful use, abuse or dependence compared to pharmacological interventions, no intervention, placebo or a different psychosocial intervention on reducing the use of BZDs in opiate dependent and non-opiate dependent groups...
May 11, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Juan Sanchez-Ramos
Psychomotor stimulants are drugs that act on the central nervous system (CNS) to increase alertness, elevate mood, and produce a sense of well-being. These drugs also decrease appetite and the need for sleep. Stimulants can enhance stamina and improve performance in tasks that have been impaired by fatigue or boredom. Approved therapeutic applications of stimulants include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. These agents also possess potent reinforcing properties that can result in excessive self-administration and abuse...
2015: International Review of Neurobiology
Atbin Djamshidian
Psychostimulants are a heterogeneous group of drugs known not only for its arousal and motor activity enhancing effects but also for its high risk of abuse. In susceptible individuals, chronic use can cause addiction leading to devastating physical, psychological, and social health consequences. This chapter will focus on the neurobehavioral consequences of psychostimulant abuse. Different models and theories of addiction and possible underlying mechanisms as well as changed in decision making on neuropsychological tasks have been discussed...
2015: International Review of Neurobiology
Jaanus Harro
Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities...
2015: International Review of Neurobiology
Katrin Sikk, Pille Taba
Methcathinone abuse is a significant cause of parkinsonism among young patients in the Eastern European countries. The drug is synthesized from over-the-counter cold remedies containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. The final mixture contains a high concentration of manganese if potassium permanganate is used as the oxidant agent. Though manganese is an essential trace element and its homeostasis is well maintained, exposure to a high level of manganese is neurotoxic. The use of manganese-contaminated methcathinone may cause permanent neurological damage and severe disability...
2015: International Review of Neurobiology
Shaobin Yu, Ling Zhu, Qiang Shen, Xue Bai, Xuhui Di
Methamphetamine (METH) is a sympathomimetic amine that belongs to phenethylamine and amphetamine class of psychoactive drugs, which are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic, and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, METH produces persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin release in nerve terminals, gliosis, and apoptosis. This review summarized the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excessive dopamine, ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction, protein nitration, endoplasmic reticulum stress, p53 expression, inflammatory molecular, D3 receptor, microtubule deacetylation, and HIV-1 Tat protein that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage...
2015: Behavioural Neurology
Louisa Degenhardt, Harvey A Whiteford, Alize J Ferrari, Amanda J Baxter, Fiona J Charlson, Wayne D Hall, Greg Freedman, Roy Burstein, Nicole Johns, Rebecca E Engell, Abraham Flaxman, Christopher J L Murray, Theo Vos
BACKGROUND: No systematic attempts have been made to estimate the global and regional prevalence of amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and opioid dependence, and quantify their burden. We aimed to assess the prevalence and burden of drug dependence, as measured in years of life lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). METHODS: We conducted systematic reviews of the epidemiology of drug dependence, and analysed results with Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) Bayesian meta-regression technique (DisMod-MR) to estimate population-level prevalence of dependence and use...
November 9, 2013: Lancet
Jennifer H Hsieh, Dan J Stein, Fleur M Howells
Chronic methamphetamine abuse commonly leads to psychosis, with positive and cognitive symptoms that are similar to those of schizophrenia. Methamphetamine induced psychosis (MAP) can persist and diagnoses of MAP often change to a diagnosis of schizophrenia over time. Studies in schizophrenia have found much evidence of cortical GABAergic dysfunction. Methamphetamine psychosis is a well studied model for schizophrenia, however there is little research on the effects of methamphetamine on cortical GABAergic function in the model, and the neurobiology of MAP is unknown...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Samara A M Bobzean, Aliza K DeNobrega, Linda I Perrotti
Epidemiological data demonstrate that while women report lower rates of drug use than men, the number of current drug users and abusers who are women continues to increase. In addition women progress through the phases of addiction differently than men; women transition from casual drug use to addiction faster, are more reactive to stimuli that trigger relapse, and have higher rates of relapse then men. Sex differences in physiological and psychological responses to drugs of abuse are well documented and it is well established that estrogen effects on dopamine (DA) systems are largely responsible for these sex differences...
September 2014: Experimental Neurology
Nathan J Marchant, E Zayra Millan, Gavan P McNally
The hypothalamus is a neural structure critical for expression of motivated behaviours that ensure survival of the individual and the species. It is a heterogeneous structure, generally recognised to have four distinct regions in the rostrocaudal axis (preoptic, supraoptic, tuberal and mammillary). The tuberal hypothalamus in particular has been implicated in the neural control of appetitive motivation, including feeding and drug seeking. Here we review the role of the tuberal hypothalamus in appetitive motivation...
February 2012: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Xavier Noël, Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara
Recent concepts of addiction to drugs (e.g. cocaine) and non-drugs (e.g. gambling) have proposed that these behaviors are the product of an imbalance between three separate, but interacting, neural systems: an impulsive, largely amygdala-striatum dependent, neural system that promotes automatic, habitual and salient behaviors; a reflective, mainly prefrontal cortex dependent, neural system for decision-making, forecasting the future consequences of a behavior, and inhibitory control; and the insula that integrates interoception states into conscious feelings and into decision-making processes that are involved in uncertain risk and reward...
August 2013: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Rajita Sinha
Drug craving has re-emerged as a relevant and important construct in the pathophysiology of addiction with its inclusion in DSM-V as a key clinical symptom of addictive disorders. This renewed focus has been due in part to the recent neurobiological evidence on craving-related neural activation and clinical evidence supporting its association with drug use, relapse, and recovery processes. This review covers the neurobiology of drug craving and relapse risk with a primary focus on cocaine addiction and a secondary emphasis on alcohol addiction...
August 2013: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Emily L Zale, Stephen A Maisto, Joseph W Ditre
Pain and alcohol use are both highly prevalent in the general population, and pain-alcohol interrelations are of increasing empirical interest. Previous research has identified associations between pain and alcohol dependence, and the current review provides novel contributions to this emerging domain by incorporating studies that have tested relations between pain and low-to-moderate alcohol consumption, and by identifying potential psychosocial mechanisms of action. Specifically, we sought to integrate evidence of pain-alcohol relations derived from two directions of empirical inquiry (i...
April 2015: Clinical Psychology Review
Mia Romano, Lorna Peters
Motivational interviewing (MI) has proven useful in the treatment of a variety of mental health problems, however the mechanisms of MI's success within these populations remain unknown. This review is a first attempt to investigate and meta-analyse MI mechanisms of change research conducted with participants who suffer mood, anxiety, psychotic, eating disorders, and comorbid conditions. Twenty studies met inclusion criteria and examined a range of potential MI mechanisms, including patient motivation and confidence, patient resistance, and engagement...
June 2015: Clinical Psychology Review
Christine Yuodelis-Flores, Richard K Ries
BACKGROUND: Addiction specialists frequently find themselves faced with suicidal behavior in their addictions patients. Although many addiction treatment programs will not accept clients with recent suicidal behavior, up to 40% of patients seeking treatment for substance dependence report a history of suicide attempt(s).(1-3) Risk factors for suicide have been studied in the general population and among people with mental illness, less is known about risk factors in those with substance use disorders and co-occurring disorders...
March 2015: American Journal on Addictions
2015-02-13 20:29:30
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