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Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

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22 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
Eileen P Ryan, Joseph M Otonichar
Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders...
July 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Rachel M Hiller, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Pasco Fearon, Sarah Lobo, Anna McKinnon, Abigail Fraser, Sarah L Halligan
BACKGROUND: Understanding the natural course of child and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has significant implications for the identification of, and intervention for, at-risk youth. We used a meta-analytic approach to examine longitudinal changes in youth PTSD prevalence and symptoms over the first 12 months posttrauma. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to identify longitudinal studies of PTSD in young people (5-18 years old), excluding treatment trials...
August 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Eduardo F Gallo, Jonathan Posner
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and hyperactivity or impulsivity. The heterogeneity of its clinical manifestations and the differential responses to treatment and varied prognoses have long suggested myriad underlying causes. Over the past decade, clinical and basic research efforts have uncovered many behavioural and neurobiological alterations associated with ADHD, from genes to higher order neural networks...
June 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Liangwei Xia, Shuqiao Yao
Numerous studies have reported on the roles of genetic factors in the development of depression in adolescents and young adults. However, there are few systematic reviews that update our understanding of adolescent depression with the biological findings identifying the roles of gene expression and/or polymorphism(s). This review systematically summarized the findings that clearly identified the contribution of a gene to the risk of depression in adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years old and young adults between the ages of 20 and 25 years old...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jack C Rogers, Stéphane A De Brito
IMPORTANCE: A large number of structural neuroimaging studies have used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify gray matter abnormalities in youths with conduct problems (CP), but the findings have been disparate and few have been replicated. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of published whole-brain structural neuroimaging studies on youths with CP that used VBM methods to facilitate replication and aid further analyses by researchers. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases were searched for VBM studies published from January 1, 2007, through March 31, 2015...
January 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Delia Fuhrmann, Lisa J Knoll, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Most research on sensitive periods has focussed on early sensory, motor, and language development, but it has recently been suggested that adolescence might represent a second ‘window of opportunity’ in brain development. Here, we explore three candidate areas of development that are proposed to undergo sensitive periods in adolescence: memory, the effects of social stress, and drug use. We describe rodent studies, neuroimaging, and large-scale behavioural studies in humans that have yielded data that are consistent with heightened neuroplasticity in adolescence...
October 2015: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Chris H Miller, J Paul Hamilton, Matthew D Sacchet, Ian H Gotlib
IMPORTANCE: Despite its high prevalence and morbidity, the underlying neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) in youth is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To identify in youth diagnosed as having MDD the most reliable neural abnormalities reported in existing functional neuroimaging studies and characterize their relations with specific psychological dysfunctions. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in PubMed and Web of Science to identify relevant studies published from November 2006 through February 2015...
October 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Anjali L Varigonda, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Matthew J Taylor, Nick Freemantle, Catherine Coughlin, Michael H Bloch
OBJECTIVE: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first-line pharmacological treatment for pediatric major depressive disorder (MDD). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the following: the time-course of response to SSRIs in pediatric depression; whether higher doses of SSRIs are associated with an improved response in pediatric depression; differences in efficacy between SSRI agents; and whether the time-course and magnitude of response to SSRIs is different in pediatric and adult patients with MDD...
July 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Praveetha Patalay, Peter Fonagy, Jessica Deighton, Jay Belsky, Panos Vostanis, Miranda Wolpert
BACKGROUND: Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. AIMS: To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. METHOD: Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13...
July 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
John P Ackerman, Sandy M McBee-Strayer, Kristen Mendoza, Jack Stevens, Arielle H Sheftall, John V Campo, Jeffrey A Bridge
OBJECTIVE: Suicide among adolescents is a major public health problem. Decision-making deficits may play an important role in vulnerability to suicidal behavior, but few studies have examined decision-making performance in youth at risk for suicide. In this study, we seek to extend recent findings that adolescent suicide attempters process risk evaluations differently than adolescents who have not attempted suicide. METHODS: We assessed decision-making in 14 adolescent suicide attempters and 14 non-attempter comparison subjects, ages 15-19, using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT)...
March 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Lauren B Swineford, Audrey Thurm, Gillian Baird, Amy M Wetherby, Susan Swedo
Social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SCD) is a new diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The purpose of this review is to describe and synthesize the relevant literature from language and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research relating to pragmatic language impairment and other previously used terms that relate to SCD. The long-standing debate regarding how social communication/pragmatic impairments overlap and/or differ from language impairments, ASD, and other neurodevelopmental disorders is examined...
2014: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Michael H Bloch, Eric A Storch
OBJECTIVE: To review the assessment and treatment of treatment-refractory pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD: A PubMed search was conducted to identify controlled trials in pediatric OCD. In addition, practice guidelines for the treatment of adults and children were further reviewed for references in treatment-refractory OCD across the lifespan. RESULTS: Pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) were found to be effective treatments for pediatric OCD...
April 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Paul A Tiffin, Charlotte E W Kitchen
The schizophrenias are uncommon before the age of 14 but incidence/prevalence figures are lacking. The 1-year incidence, clinical features and short-term outcomes in childhood-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorder were evaluated via the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Surveillance System. Fifteen children with a provisional diagnosis were reported. Outcome data were obtained for 12 individuals, 8 of whom met the diagnostic criteria, equating to an estimated incidence of 0.21/100 000 (95% CI 0.08-0.34). Delusions and thought disorder were a more consistent predictor of 'caseness' than hallucinations...
June 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Courtney Benjamin Wolk, Philip C Kendall, Rinad S Beidas
OBJECTIVE: Evidence for an independent relationship between anxiety and suicidality has been mixed. Few studies have examined this relationship in youth seeking treatment for anxiety. The present study examined the relationship between response to treatment for an anxiety disorder in childhood and suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts at a follow-up interval of 7 to 19 years. We hypothesized that successful treatment for an anxiety disorder in childhood would be protective against later suicidality...
March 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
Progress in treating and preventing mental disorders may follow from research that integrates development, genetics, and neuroscience. This review first delineates how longitudinal research has identified three particular groups of disorders shown to differ on the basis of symptom trajectories and risk-factor profiles. In the next section, the review describes how research on genetic contributions to psychopathology has elucidated the nature of risk for two groups of disorders, the neurodevelopmental and psychotic disorders...
January 3, 2015: Annual Review of Psychology
Anqi Qiu, Susumu Mori, Michael I Miller
The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants...
January 3, 2015: Annual Review of Psychology
Ellen L Bassuk, Molly K Richard, Alexander Tsertsvadze
OBJECTIVE: The numbers of children experiencing homelessness have increased. To develop responsive interventions, we must understand their mental health/behavioral needs. The purpose of this systematic review was to update the evidence base by identifying, appraising, and summarizing studies on the prevalence of mental health issues among homeless children, comparing these individuals to low-income-housed children, and discussing research, practice, and policy implications. METHOD: We searched 3 electronic databases and included empirical studies investigating the prevalence of mental illness in homeless children in the United States (1990-2014)...
February 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Jarid Goodman, Rachel Marsh, Bradley S Peterson, Mark G Packard
Extensive evidence indicates that mammalian memory is organized into multiple brains systems, including a 'cognitive' memory system that depends on the hippocampus and a stimulus-response 'habit' memory system that depends on the dorsolateral striatum. Dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory may in part influence the development and expression of some human psychopathologies, particularly those characterized by strong habit-like behavioral features. The present review considers this hypothesis as it pertains to psychopathologies that typically emerge during childhood and adolescence...
June 2014: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Kairi Kõlves, Diego De Leo
BACKGROUND: Limited research is focused on suicides in children aged below 15 years. AIMS: To analyse worldwide suicide rates in children aged 10-14 years in two decades: 1990-1999 and 2000-2009. METHOD: Suicide data for 81 countries or territories were retrieved from the World Health Organization Mortality Database, and population data from the World Bank data-set. RESULTS: In the past two decades the suicide rate per 100 000 in boys aged 10-14 years in 81 countries has shown a minor decline (from 1...
October 2014: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Monica Luciana
Since this journal's inception, the field of adolescent brain development has flourished, as researchers have investigated the underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Explanations based on translational models initially attributed such behaviors to executive control deficiencies and poor frontal lobe function. This conclusion was bolstered by evidence that the prefrontal cortex and its interconnections are among the last brain regions to structurally and functionally mature. As substantial heterogeneity of prefrontal function was revealed, applications of neuroeconomic theory to adolescent development led to dual systems models of behavior...
November 2013: Development and Psychopathology
2015-02-13 19:40:24
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