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Neuropsychiatry

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53 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889010/neuropsychiatric-aspects-of-concussion
#1
REVIEW
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Amir Garakani, Lawrence S Gross, Marcia K Goin, Janet Pine, Andrew E Slaby, Calvin R Sumner, David A Baron
Over the past decade, concussion has become the most widely discussed injury in contact sports. However, concussions also occur in several other settings, such as non-contact sports, elderly individuals, young children, military personnel, and victims of domestic violence. Concussion is frequently undiagnosed as a cause of psychiatric morbidity, especially when the patient has no history of loss of consciousness or direct head trauma. Almost all of the extant literature focuses on traumatic brain injury and assumes that concussion is merely a mild form of traumatic brain injury, which has resulted in a lack of understanding about what concussion is, and how to diagnose, monitor, and treat its varied neuropsychiatric symptoms...
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799297/neuroendocrine-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Eduardo De Pablo-Fernández, David P Breen, Pierre M Bouloux, Roger A Barker, Thomas Foltynie, Thomas T Warner
Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773353/suicide-in-tourette-s-and-chronic-tic-disorders
#3
Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Mina Rydell, Bo Runeson, Gustaf Brander, Christian Rück, Brian M D'Onofrio, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, David Mataix-Cols
BACKGROUND: Persons with neuropsychiatric disorders are at increased risk of suicide, but there is little data concerning Tourette's and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD). We aimed to quantify the risk of suicidal behavior in a large nationwide cohort of patients with TD/CTD, establish the contribution of psychiatric comorbidity to this risk, and identify predictors of suicide. METHODS: Using a validated algorithm, we identified 7736 TD/CTD cases in the Swedish National Patient Register during a 44-year period (1969-2013)...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663851/changes-in-mental-state-and-behaviour-in-huntington-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Clare M Eddy, Ellice G Parkinson, Hugh E Rickards
Changes in mental state and behaviour have been acknowledged in Huntington's disease since the original monograph in 1872 provided evidence of disinhibition and impaired social cognition. Behavioural problems can manifest before obvious motor symptoms and are frequently the most disabling part of the illness. Although pharmacological treatments are used routinely for psychiatric difficulties in Huntington's disease, the scientific evidence base for their use is somewhat sparse. Moreover, effective treatments for apathy and cognitive decline do not currently exist...
November 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671483/the-frontotemporal-syndrome-of-als-is-associated-with-poor-survival
#5
Rosanne Govaarts, Emma Beeldman, Mike J Kampelmacher, Marie-Jose van Tol, Leonard H van den Berg, Anneke J van der Kooi, Peter J Wijkstra, Marianne Zijnen-Suyker, Nicolle A M Cobben, Ben A Schmand, Rob J de Haan, Marianne de Visser, Joost Raaphorst
Thirty percent of ALS patients have a frontotemporal syndrome (FS), defined as behavioral changes or cognitive impairment. Despite previous studies, there are no firm conclusions on the effect of the FS on survival and the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in ALS. We examined the effect of the FS on survival and the start and duration of NIV in ALS. Behavioral changes were defined as >22 points on the ALS-Frontotemporal-Dementia-Questionnaire or ≥3 points on ≥2 items of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory...
December 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504054/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-antipsychotic-medications-in-the-treatment-of-psychosis-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Nevena Divac, Radan Stojanović, Katarina Savić Vujović, Branislava Medić, Aleksandar Damjanović, Milica Prostran
Psychotic symptoms are present in up to 50% of patients with Parkinson's disease. These symptoms have detrimental effects on patients' and caregivers' quality of life and may predict mortality. The pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in Parkinson's disease is complex, but the use of dopaminergic medications is one of the risk factors. The treatment of psychotic symptoms in Parkinson's disease is complicated due to the ability of antipsychotic medications to worsen motor symptoms. The efficacy of clozapine in the treatment of psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease has been confirmed in several clinical trials; however, the adverse effects and the necessity of blood count monitoring are the reasons why the use of this drug is challenging...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491532/longitudinal-course-of-behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Rianne M van der Linde, Tom Dening, Blossom C M Stephan, A Matthew Prina, Elizabeth Evans, Carol Brayne
BACKGROUND: More information about the pattern of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in the course of dementia is needed to inform patients and clinicians and to design future interventions. AIMS: To determine the persistence and incidence of BPSD and their relation to cognitive function, in individuals with dementia or in cohorts investigated for dementia onset. METHOD: A systematic literature review analysed the baseline prevalence, persistence and incidence of 11 symptoms...
November 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495203/movement-disorders-presenting-in-childhood
#8
Manju A Kurian, Russell C Dale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of movement disorders that present in childhood. Key clinical features are discussed, and a brief guide to management strategies is provided. Recent advances in the field of pediatric movement disorders are also a focus of the article. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in genetic technologies and cell biology have contributed greatly to the elucidation of underlying disease mechanisms in childhood movement disorders. This article discusses the expanding spectrum of both genetic and acquired movement disorders that present in childhood, including benign, acquired, genetic, and psychogenic movement disorders...
August 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495207/wilson-disease
#9
Ronald F Pfeiffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the clinical features of Wilson disease, focusing on the neurologic and psychiatric abnormalities, and addresses the diagnostic workup and treatment approaches to managing the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The list of known mutations causing Wilson disease continues to grow, but advances in genetic testing may soon make it feasible to routinely perform genetic testing on individuals suspected of having Wilson disease. SUMMARY: Wilson disease is a rare genetic disorder with protean manifestations that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any individual presenting with unexplained neurologic, psychiatric, or hepatic dysfunction...
August 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400367/association-of-traumatic-brain-injury-with-late-life-neurodegenerative-conditions-and-neuropathologic-findings
#10
Paul K Crane, Laura E Gibbons, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Emily Trittschuh, James B Leverenz, C Dirk Keene, Joshua Sonnen, Thomas J Montine, David A Bennett, Sue Leurgans, Julie A Schneider, Eric B Larson
IMPORTANCE: The late effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are of great interest, but studies characterizing these effects are limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with an increased risk for clinical and neuropathologic findings of Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), and other dementias. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study analyzed data from the Religious Orders Study (ROS), Memory and Aging Project (MAP), and Adult Changes in Thought study (ACT)...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26834476/uncovering-the-etiology-of-conversion-disorder-insights-from-functional-neuroimaging
#11
REVIEW
Maryam Ejareh Dar, Richard Aa Kanaan
Conversion disorder (CD) is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256296/catecholamines-and-cognition-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
REVIEW
Peter O Jenkins, Mitul A Mehta, David J Sharp
Cognitive problems are one of the main causes of ongoing disability after traumatic brain injury. The heterogeneity of the injuries sustained and the variability of the resulting cognitive deficits makes treating these problems difficult. Identifying the underlying pathology allows a targeted treatment approach aimed at cognitive enhancement. For example, damage to neuromodulatory neurotransmitter systems is common after traumatic brain injury and is an important cause of cognitive impairment. Here, we discuss the evidence implicating disruption of the catecholamines (dopamine and noradrenaline) and review the efficacy of catecholaminergic drugs in treating post-traumatic brain injury cognitive impairments...
September 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898322/comorbidity-between-neurological-illness-and-psychiatric-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Dale C Hesdorffer
Psychiatric disorders are common in many neurological disorders, including epilepsy, migraine, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and stroke. These comorbidities increase disease burden and may complicate the treatment of the combined disorders. Initial studies of the comorbidity of psychiatric and neurological disorders were cross-sectional, and time order of the associations was impossible to elucidate. More recent work has clarified time associations between psychiatric disorders and neurological disorders, particularly in epilepsy and stroke where epidemiological evidence suggests that there is a bidirectional relationship...
June 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112682/autoimmunity-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#14
Ester Coutinho, Angela Vincent
The immune system's role in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders has been the subject of research for many decades. Despite suggestive evidence from genetic, epidemiologic, and immunologic studies, those findings did not translate into clinical practice. Recent recognition of antibody-mediated central nervous system (CNS) disorders has fueled the search for a subgroup of patients with an antibody-mediated psychiatric illness. This chapter focuses on the current understanding of autoimmune CNS disorders and how they may be relevant to psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia and autism...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996600/nonepileptic-seizures-an-updated-review
#15
REVIEW
David L Perez, W Curt LaFrance
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are a functional neurological disorder/conversion disorder subtype, which are neurobehavioral conditions at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Significant advancements over the past decade have been made in the diagnosis, management, and neurobiological understanding of PNES. This article reviews published PNES research focusing on semiologic features that distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures, consensus diagnostic criteria, the intersection of PNES and other comorbidities, neurobiological studies, evidence-based treatment interventions, and outcome studies...
June 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25134879/medical-conditions-with-neuropsychiatric-manifestations
#16
REVIEW
Margaret L Isaac, Eric B Larson
Medical disease sometimes affects patients through neuropsychiatric manifestations. When neuropsychiatric symptoms are predominant, identifying medical disease early in the illness course is imperative because many of these conditions are reversible with appropriate treatment. A high index of suspicion is required on the part of clinicians, particularly when patients also present with physical signs or unexplained symptoms that might suggest a broader, systemic process. The processes that most commonly cause neuropsychiatric symptoms include infectious, autoimmune, endocrinologic, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases...
September 2014: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25145892/psychiatric-signs-and-symptoms-in-treatable-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
S Nia
Possible underlying organic causes of psychiatric symptoms can be overlooked in the clinical setting. It is important to increase awareness amongst psychiatric and neurological professionals with regard to certain inborn errors of metabolism as, in some cases, disease-specific therapies are available that can, for instance, treat underlying metabolic causes. The following article describes the basic pathophysiology, clinical and neurological features, and available diagnostic procedures of six treatable metabolic diseases that are associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms: Wilson's disease, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, porphyrias, homocysteinemia, urea cycle disorders, and Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C)...
September 2014: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25998113/young-onset-dementia-epidemiology-applied-to-neuropsychiatry-practice
#18
REVIEW
Bhargavi Devineni, Chiadi U Onyike
A substantial number of adults suffer young-onset dementia (YOD). The diversity of types and syndromes makes recognition and diagnosis difficult. An algorithmic approach to interpreting clinical data, informed by clinical epidemiology, integrates data pertaining to defining syndromes and their chronology and tempo, family history, and other neuropsychiatric features and neurologic signs, is used to reach a preliminary diagnosis and direct diagnostic tests and their interpretation. Screening for YOD in the psychiatric context is a rational process in which vigilance is combined with careful searches for red flags that signal a neurodegenerative etiology...
June 2015: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206231/a-systematic-review-of-neuropsychiatric-comorbidities-in-patients-with-both-epilepsy-and-intellectual-disability
#19
REVIEW
Jans S van Ool, Francesca M Snoeijen-Schouwenaars, Helenius J Schelhaas, In Y Tan, Albert P Aldenkamp, Jos G M Hendriksen
Epilepsy is a neurological condition that is particularly common in people with intellectual disability (ID). The care for people with both epilepsy and ID is often complicated by the presence of neuropsychiatric disorders, defined as psychiatric symptoms, psychiatric disorders, and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between epilepsy or epilepsy-related factors and neuropsychiatric comorbidities in patients with ID and between ID and neuropsychiatric comorbidities in patients with epilepsy...
July 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133416/the-american-psychiatric-association-practice-guideline-on-the-use-of-antipsychotics-to-treat-agitation-or-psychosis-in-patients-with-dementia
#20
Victor I Reus, Laura J Fochtmann, A Evan Eyler, Donald M Hilty, Marcela Horvitz-Lennon, Michael D Jibson, Oscar L Lopez, Jane Mahoney, Jagoda Pasic, Zaldy S Tan, Cheryl D Wills, Richard Rhoads, Joel Yager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
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