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12 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
Murray B Stein, Chia-Yen Chen, Robert J Ursano, Tianxi Cai, Joel Gelernter, Steven G Heeringa, Sonia Jain, Kevin P Jensen, Adam X Maihofer, Colter Mitchell, Caroline M Nievergelt, Matthew K Nock, Benjamin M Neale, Renato Polimanti, Stephan Ripke, Xiaoying Sun, Michael L Thomas, Qian Wang, Erin B Ware, Susan Borja, Ronald C Kessler, Jordan W Smoller
IMPORTANCE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, serious public health concern, particularly in the military. The identification of genetic risk factors for PTSD may provide important insights into the biological foundation of vulnerability and comorbidity. OBJECTIVE: To discover genetic loci associated with the lifetime risk for PTSD in 2 cohorts from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Two coordinated genome-wide association studies of mental health in the US military contributed participants...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Rachel M Hiller, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Pasco Fearon, Sarah Lobo, Anna McKinnon, Abigail Fraser, Sarah L Halligan
BACKGROUND: Understanding the natural course of child and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has significant implications for the identification of, and intervention for, at-risk youth. We used a meta-analytic approach to examine longitudinal changes in youth PTSD prevalence and symptoms over the first 12 months posttrauma. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to identify longitudinal studies of PTSD in young people (5-18 years old), excluding treatment trials...
August 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Charles R Marmar, William Schlenger, Clare Henn-Haase, Meng Qian, Emily Purchia, Meng Li, Nida Corry, Christianna S Williams, Chia-Lin Ho, Danny Horesh, Karen-Inge Karstoft, Arieh Shalev, Richard A Kulka
IMPORTANCE: The long-term course of readjustment problems in military personnel has not been evaluated in a nationally representative sample. The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is a congressionally mandated assessment of Vietnam veterans who underwent previous assessment in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, course, and comorbidities of war-zone posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) across a 25-year interval...
September 2015: JAMA Psychiatry
Mallory E Bowers, Kerry J Ressler
Posttraumatic stress disorder manifests after exposure to a traumatic event and is characterized by avoidance/numbing, intrusive symptoms and flashbacks, mood and cognitive disruptions, and hyperarousal/reactivity symptoms. These symptoms reflect dysregulation of the fear system likely caused by poor fear inhibition/extinction, increased generalization, and/or enhanced consolidation or acquisition of fear. These phenotypes can be modeled in animal subjects using Pavlovian fear conditioning, allowing investigation of the underlying neurobiology of normative and pathological fear...
September 1, 2015: Biological Psychiatry
JoAnn Difede, Megan Olden, Judith Cukor
The term translational research is typically used to refer both to "bench to bedside" research, in which preclinical research findings inform the development of novel therapeutics, and to the dissemination of new treatments to the community to encourage the use of the new health practices and treatments. Both definitions are germane to understanding the evidence base for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) today. This article offers (a) an overview of evidence-based treatments for PTSD, (b) a description of a translational model of PTSD, and (c) a discussion of common barriers to dissemination and implementation of the empirically validated treatments...
2014: Annual Review of Medicine
Anthony S Zannas, Nadine Provençal, Elisabeth B Binder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related psychiatric disorder that is thought to emerge from complex interactions among traumatic events and multiple genetic factors. Epigenetic regulation lies at the heart of these interactions and mediates the lasting effects of the environment on gene regulation. An increasing body of evidence in human subjects with PTSD supports a role for epigenetic regulation of distinct genes and pathways in the pathogenesis of PTSD. The role of epigenetic regulation is further supported by studies examining fear conditioning in rodent models...
September 1, 2015: Biological Psychiatry
Vasiliki Michopoulos, Seth Davin Norrholm, Tanja Jovanovic
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a heterogeneous disorder that affects individuals exposed to trauma (e.g., combat, interpersonal violence, and natural disasters). Although its diagnostic features have been recently reclassified with the emergence of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, the disorder remains characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive reminders of the trauma, avoidance of trauma-related cues, and negative cognition and mood. This heterogeneity indicates the presence of multiple neurobiological mechanisms underlying the etiology and maintenance of PTSD...
September 1, 2015: Biological Psychiatry
Neil P Roberts, Pamela A Roberts, Neil Jones, Jonathan I Bisson
Co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) are common, difficult to treat, and associated with poor prognosis. This review aimed to determine the efficacy of individual and group psychological interventions aimed at treating comorbid PTSD and SUD, based on evidence from randomised controlled trials. Our pre-specified primary outcomes were PTSD severity, drug/alcohol use, and treatment completion. We undertook a comprehensive search strategy. Included studies were rated for methodological quality...
June 2015: Clinical Psychology Review
Mu-Hong Chen, Tai-Long Pan, Cheng-Ta Li, Wei-Chen Lin, Ying-Sheue Chen, Ying-Chiao Lee, Shih-Jen Tsai, Ju-Wei Hsu, Kai-Lin Huang, Chia-Fen Tsai, Wen-Han Chang, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Tung-Ping Su, Ya-Mei Bai
BACKGROUND: Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown. AIMS: To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development of stroke. METHOD: Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 5217 individuals aged ≥18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke, and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002 and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the development of stroke...
April 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
John C Markowitz, Eva Petkova, Yuval Neria, Page E Van Meter, Yihong Zhao, Elizabeth Hembree, Karina Lovell, Tatyana Biyanova, Randall D Marshall
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to trauma reminders has been considered imperative in psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors tested interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), which has demonstrated antidepressant efficacy and shown promise in pilot PTSD research as a non-exposure-based non-cognitive-behavioral PTSD treatment. METHOD: The authors conducted a randomized 14-week trial comparing IPT, prolonged exposure (an exposure-based exemplar), and relaxation therapy (an active control psychotherapy) in 110 unmedicated patients who had chronic PTSD and a score >50 on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)...
May 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Mathew Hoskins, Jennifer Pearce, Andrew Bethell, Liliya Dankova, Corrado Barbui, Wietse A Tol, Mark van Ommeren, Joop de Jong, Soraya Seedat, Hanhui Chen, Jonathan I Bisson
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological treatment is widely used for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) despite questions over its efficacy. AIMS: To determine the efficacy of all types of pharmacotherapy, as monotherapy, in reducing symptoms of PTSD, and to assess acceptability. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was undertaken; 51 studies were included. RESULTS: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were found to be statistically superior to placebo in reduction of PTSD symptoms but the effect size was small (standardised mean difference -0...
February 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Judith K Bass, Jeannie Annan, Sarah McIvor Murray, Debra Kaysen, Shelly Griffiths, Talita Cetinoglu, Karin Wachter, Laura K Murray, Paul A Bolton
BACKGROUND: Survivors of sexual violence have high rates of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although treatment for symptoms related to sexual violence has been shown to be effective in high-income countries, evidence is lacking in low-income, conflict-affected countries. METHODS: In this trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo, we randomly assigned 16 villages to provide cognitive processing therapy (1 individual session and 11 group sessions) or individual support to female sexual-violence survivors with high levels of PTSD symptoms and combined depression and anxiety symptoms...
June 6, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
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