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Environmental Science

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23 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Tom Wassmer Assistant Professor of Biology at Siena Heights University in Adrian, Michigan
Eléna Legrand, Joëlle Forget-Leray, Aurélie Duflot, Stéphanie Olivier, Jean-Pierre Thomé, Jean-Michel Danger, Céline Boulangé-Lecomte
Copepods-which include freshwater and marine species-represent the most abundant group of aquatic invertebrates. Among them, the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis is widely represented in the northern hemisphere estuaries and has become a species of interest in ecotoxicology. Like other non-target organisms, E. affinis may be exposed to a wide range of chemicals such as endocrine disruptors (EDs). This study investigated the gene expression variation in E. affinis after exposure to ED pesticides-chosen as model EDs-in order to (i) improve the knowledge on their effects in crustaceans, and (ii) highlight relevant transcripts for further development of potential biomarkers of ED exposure/effect...
July 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Chammi P Attanayake, Ganga M Hettiarachchi, Sabine Martin, Gary M Pierzynski
Urban soils may contain harmful concentrations of contaminants, such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), that can transfer from soil to humans via soil ingestion and consumption of food crops grown in such soils. The objective of this research was to assess the effectiveness of adding different compost types to reduce both direct (soil-human) and indirect (soil-plant-human) exposure of Pb, As, and PAHs to humans. A field experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 at an urban garden site with elevated concentrations of Pb (475 mg kg), As (95 mg kg), and PAHs (23-50 mg kg)...
May 2015: Journal of Environmental Quality
Christina C Hicks, Joshua E Cinner, Natalie Stoeckl, Tim R McClanahan
Understanding why people make the decisions they do remains a fundamental challenge facing conservation science. Ecosystem service (ES) (a benefit people derive from an ecosystem) approaches to conservation reflect efforts to anticipate people's preferences and influence their environmental behavior. Yet, the design of ES approaches seldom includes psychological theories of human behavior. We sought to alleviate this omission by applying a psychological theory of human values to a cross-cultural ES assessment...
October 2015: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
J-P Gattuso, A Magnan, R Billé, W W L Cheung, E L Howes, F Joos, D Allemand, L Bopp, S R Cooley, C M Eakin, O Hoegh-Guldberg, R P Kelly, H-O Pörtner, A D Rogers, J M Baxter, D Laffoley, D Osborn, A Rankovic, J Rochette, U R Sumaila, S Treyer, C Turley
The ocean moderates anthropogenic climate change at the cost of profound alterations of its physics, chemistry, ecology, and services. Here, we evaluate and compare the risks of impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems—and the goods and services they provide—for growing cumulative carbon emissions under two contrasting emissions scenarios. The current emissions trajectory would rapidly and significantly alter many ecosystems and the associated services on which humans heavily depend. A reduced emissions scenario—consistent with the Copenhagen Accord's goal of a global temperature increase of less than 2°C—is much more favorable to the ocean but still substantially alters important marine ecosystems and associated goods and services...
July 3, 2015: Science
Yoon-Kyung Lee, Joo-Hyung Ryu, Jong-Kuk Choi, Seok Lee, Han-Jun Woo
Spatial and temporal changes around an area of conventional coastal engineering can be easily observed from field surveys because of the clear cause-and-effect observable in the before and after stages of the project. However, it is more difficult to determine environmental changes in the vicinity of tidal flats and coastal areas that are a considerable distance from the project. To identify any unexpected environmental impacts of the construction of Saemangeum Dyke in the area, we examined morphological changes identified by satellite-based observations through a field survey on Gomso Bay tidal flats (15km from Saemangeum Dyke), and changes in the suspended sediment distribution identified by satellite-based observations through a hydrodynamic analysis in the Saemangeum and Gomso coastal area...
August 15, 2015: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Manxiang Huang, Tao Liang, Lingqing Wang, Chenghu Zhou
A field experiment was performed from 2003 to 2008 to evaluate the effects of tillage system and nitrogen management regimes on crop yields and nitrate leaching from the fluvo-aquic soil with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) double-cropping system. The tillage systems consisted of conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT). Three nitrogen management regimes were included: 270 kg N ha(-1) of urea for wheat and 225 kg N ha(-1) of urea for maize (U), 180 kg N ha(-1) of urea and 90 kg N ha(-1) of straw for wheat and 180 kg N of urea and 45 kg N ha(-1) of straw for maize (S), 180 kg N ha(-1) of urea and 90 kg N ha(-1) of manure for wheat and 180 kg N ha(-1) of urea and 45 kg N ha(-1) of manure for maize (M)...
March 2015: Ecology and Evolution
Atsuki Hiyama, Wataru Taira, Chiyo Nohara, Mayo Iwasaki, Seira Kinjo, Masaki Iwata, Joji M Otaki
BACKGROUND: Long-term monitoring of the biological impacts of the radioactive pollution caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 is required to understand what has occurred in organisms living in the polluted areas. Here, we investigated spatial and temporal changes of the abnormality rate (AR) in both field-caught adult populations and laboratory-reared offspring populations of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, which has generation time of approximately one month...
December 2015: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Arnaud Da Silva, Mihai Valcu, Bart Kempenaers
Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behaviour. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circannual rhythms. Over a 3.5 month period, from winter to breeding, we recorded daily singing activity of six common songbird species in 12 woodland sites, half of which were affected by street lighting. We previously reported on analyses suggesting that artificial night lighting affects the daily timing of singing in five species...
May 5, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Zofia E Taranu, Irene Gregory-Eaves, Peter R Leavitt, Lynda Bunting, Teresa Buchaca, Jordi Catalan, Isabelle Domaizon, Piero Guilizzoni, Andrea Lami, Suzanne McGowan, Heather Moorhouse, Giuseppe Morabito, Frances R Pick, Mark A Stevenson, Patrick L Thompson, Rolf D Vinebrooke
Increases in atmospheric temperature and nutrients from land are thought to be promoting the expansion of harmful cyanobacteria in lakes worldwide, yet to date there has been no quantitative synthesis of long-term trends. To test whether cyanobacteria have increased in abundance over the past ~ 200 years and evaluate the relative influence of potential causal mechanisms, we synthesised 108 highly resolved sedimentary time series and 18 decadal-scale monitoring records from north temperate-subarctic lakes. We demonstrate that: (1) cyanobacteria have increased significantly since c...
April 2015: Ecology Letters
Hayley C Lanier, Aren M Gunderson, Marcelo Weksler, Vadim B Fedorov, Link E Olson
Recent studies suggest that alpine and arctic organisms may have distinctly different phylogeographic histories from temperate or tropical taxa, with recent range contraction into interglacial refugia as opposed to post-glacial expansion out of refugia. We use a combination of phylogeographic inference, demographic reconstructions, and hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation to test for phylodemographic concordance among five species of alpine-adapted small mammals in eastern Beringia. These species (Collared Pikas, Hoary Marmots, Brown Lemmings, Arctic Ground Squirrels, and Singing Voles) vary in specificity to alpine and boreal-tundra habitat but share commonalities (e...
2015: PloS One
Eugenia V Bragina, A R Ives, A M Pidgeon, T Kuemmerle, L M Baskin, Y P Gubar, M Piquer-Rodríguez, N S Keuler, V G Petrosyan, V C Radeloff
Anecdotal evidence suggests that socioeconomic shocks strongly affect wildlife populations, but quantitative evidence is sparse. The collapse of socialism in Russia in 1991 caused a major socioeconomic shock, including a sharp increase in poverty. We analyzed population trends of 8 large mammals in Russia from 1981 to 2010 (i.e., before and after the collapse). We hypothesized that the collapse would first cause population declines, primarily due to overexploitation, and then population increases due to adaptation of wildlife to new environments following the collapse...
June 2015: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Kevin J Gaston, James P Duffy, Jonathan Bennie
The nighttime light environment of much of the earth has been transformed by the introduction of electric lighting. This impact continues to spread with growth in the human population and extent of urbanization. This has profound consequences for organismal physiology and behavior and affects abundances and distributions of species, community structure, and likely ecosystem functions and processes. Protected areas play key roles in buffering biodiversity from a wide range of anthropogenic pressures. We used a calibration of a global satellite data set of nighttime lights to determine how well they are fulfilling this role with regard to artificial nighttime lighting...
August 2015: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Barbara Zimmermann, Lindsey Nelson, Petter Wabakken, Håkan Sand, Olof Liberg
Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads...
2014: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Karina L Speziale, Sergio A Lambertucci, Cintia P Souto, Fernando Hiraldo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Marta Staniszewska, Iga Koniecko, Lucyna Falkowska, Ewelina Krzymyk
In 2011-2012, the concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylophenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) in surface and near-bottom water of the Gulf of Gdansk, as well as inflowing rivers, were similar to those in other regions of Europe; BPA from <5.0 to 277.9 ng dm(-3), OP from <1.0 to 834.5 ng dm(-3), and NP from <4.0 to 228.6 ng dm(-3). The atmospheric transportation of phenol derivatives and their deposition into the water of the gulf was indicated by high enrichment factor values (EF) in the sea surface microlayer in relation to the sub-surface layer...
February 15, 2015: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Sylvaine Giakoumi, Benjamin S Halpern, Loïc N Michel, Sylvie Gobert, Maria Sini, Charles-François Boudouresque, Maria-Cristina Gambi, Stelios Katsanevakis, Pierre Lejeune, Monica Montefalcone, Gerard Pergent, Christine Pergent-Martini, Pablo Sanchez-Jerez, Branko Velimirov, Salvatrice Vizzini, Arnaud Abadie, Marta Coll, Paolo Guidetti, Fiorenza Micheli, Hugh P Possingham
Effective ecosystem-based management requires understanding ecosystem responses to multiple human threats, rather than focusing on single threats. To understand ecosystem responses to anthropogenic threats holistically, it is necessary to know how threats affect different components within ecosystems and ultimately alter ecosystem functioning. We used a case study of a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) food web and expert knowledge elicitation in an application of the initial steps of a framework for assessment of cumulative human impacts on food webs...
August 2015: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Peter Guban, Lovisa Wennerström, Tina Elfwing, Brita Sundelin, Linda Laikre
The amphipod Monoporeia affinis plays an important role in the Baltic Sea ecosystem as prey and as detritivore. The species is monitored for contaminant effects, but almost nothing is known about its genetics in this region. A pilot screening for genetic variation at the mitochondrial COI gene was performed in 113 individuals collected at six sites in the northern Baltic. Three coastal sites were polluted by pulp mill effluents, PAHs, and trace metals, and two coastal reference sites were without obvious connection to pollution sources...
April 15, 2015: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Haotian Wang, Jiawei Wang, Ruimin Liu, Wenwen Yu, Zhenyao Shen
30 samples of eight heavy metals were collected in February 2011 within Yangtze River estuary (YRE). The mean concentrations met the primary standard criteria based on Marine Sediments Quality of China. The spatial distribution showed that a gradient concentration decreased gradually from inner-estuary to river mouth. Anthropogenic inputs might be the main contributor, and fine grained sediments might also aggravate the heavy metal contamination. The assessment results indicated that the YRE was in low risk of contamination caused by every single heavy metal...
April 15, 2015: Marine Pollution Bulletin
D Minetto, G Libralato, A Volpi Ghirardini
The innovative properties of nanomaterials make them suitable for various applications in many fields. In particular, TiO2 nanoparticles (nTiO2) are widely used in paints, in cosmetics and in sunscreens that are products accessible to the mass market. Despite the great increase in the use of such nanomaterials, there is a paucity of general information about their potential effects to the aquatic species, especially to saltwater ones. Moreover, the difficulties of determining the effective exposure scenario make the acquired information low comparable...
May 2014: Environment International
Maria Feng, Yoshio Fukuda, Masato Mizuta, Ekin Ozer
Ubiquitous smartphones have created a significant opportunity to form a low-cost wireless Citizen Sensor network and produce big data for monitoring structural integrity and safety under operational and extreme loads. Such data are particularly useful for rapid assessment of structural damage in a large urban setting after a major event such as an earthquake. This study explores the utilization of smartphone accelerometers for measuring structural vibration, from which structural health and post-event damage can be diagnosed...
2015: Sensors
2015-02-07 18:42:15
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