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By Lei Liu Neuroscience PhDs student
Danielle Guez-Barber, Sanya Fanous, Brandon K Harvey, Yongqing Zhang, Elin Lehrmann, Kevin G Becker, Marina R Picciotto, Bruce T Hope
Molecular analysis of brain tissue is greatly complicated by having many different classes of neurons and glia interspersed throughout the brain. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) has been used to purify selected cell types from brain tissue. However, its use has been limited to brain tissue from embryos or transgenic mice with promoter-driven reporter genes. To overcome these limitations, we developed a FACS procedure for dissociating intact cell bodies from adult wild-type rat brains and sorting them using commercially available antibodies against intracellular and extracellular proteins...
January 15, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Susmita Kaushik, Ashish C Massey, Ana Maria Cuervo
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective mechanism for the degradation of soluble cytosolic proteins in lysosomes. The limiting step of this type of autophagy is the binding of substrates to the lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A). In this work, we identify a dynamic subcompartmentalization of LAMP-2A in the lysosomal membrane, which underlies the molecular basis for the regulation of LAMP-2A function in CMA. A percentage of LAMP-2A localizes in discrete lysosomal membrane regions during resting conditions, but it exits these regions during CMA activation...
September 6, 2006: EMBO Journal
Xiaodong Zhang, Chunguang Guo, Yueting Chen, Hennady P Shulha, Michael P Schnetz, Thomas LaFramboise, Cynthia F Bartels, Sanford Markowitz, Zhiping Weng, Peter C Scacheri, Zhenghe Wang
We developed a strategy to introduce epitope tag-encoding DNA into endogenous loci by homologous recombination-mediated 'knock-in'. The tagging method is straightforward, can be applied to many loci and several human somatic cell lines, and can facilitate many functional analyses including western blot, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence and chromatin immunoprecipitation-microarray (ChIP-chip). The knock-in approach provides a general solution for the study of proteins to which antibodies are substandard or not available...
February 2008: Nature Methods
Jung-Sik Kim, Challice Bonifant, Fred Bunz, William S Lane, Todd Waldman
Epitope tagging is a powerful and commonly used approach for studying the physical properties of proteins and their functions and localization in eukaryotic cells. In the case of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it has been possible to exploit the high efficiency of homologous recombination to tag proteins by modifying their endogenous genes, making it possible to tag virtually every endogenous gene and perform genome-wide proteomics experiments. However, due to the relative inefficiency of homologous recombination in cultured human cells, epitope-tagging approaches have been limited to ectopically expressed transgenes, with the attendant limitations of their nonphysiological transcriptional regulation and levels of expression...
November 2008: Nucleic Acids Research
Jing Song, Yujun Hao, Zhanwen Du, Zhenghe Wang, Rob M Ewing
Affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is the preeminent technique for identification of eukaryotic protein complexes in vivo. AP-MS workflows typically express epitope-tagged bait proteins, immunopurify, and then identify associated protein complexes using mass spectrometry. However, challenges of existing strategies include the construction of expression vectors for large open reading frames and the possibility that overexpression of bait proteins may result in expression of nonphysiological levels of the bait protein with concomitant perturbation of endogenous protein complexes...
December 7, 2012: Journal of Proteome Research
Jose J Ferrero, Ana M Alvarez, Jorge Ramírez-Franco, María C Godino, David Bartolomé-Martín, Carolina Aguado, Magdalena Torres, Rafael Luján, Francisco Ciruela, José Sánchez-Prieto
The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin facilitates synaptic transmission presynaptically via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In addition, cAMP also increases glutamate release via PKA-independent mechanisms, although the downstream presynaptic targets remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the isolation of a PKA-independent component of glutamate release in cerebrocortical nerve terminals after blocking Na(+) channels with tetrodotoxin. We found that 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, a specific activator of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), mimicked and occluded forskolin-induced potentiation of glutamate release...
October 25, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Liang Ge, David Melville, Min Zhang, Randy Schekman
Autophagy is a catabolic process for bulk degradation of cytosolic materials mediated by double-membraned autophagosomes. The membrane determinant to initiate the formation of autophagosomes remains elusive. Here, we establish a cell-free assay based on LC3 lipidation to define the organelle membrane supporting early autophagosome formation. In vitro LC3 lipidation requires energy and is subject to regulation by the pathways modulating autophagy in vivo. We developed a systematic membrane isolation scheme to identify the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) as a primary membrane source both necessary and sufficient to trigger LC3 lipidation in vitro...
2013: ELife
Rocio Perez-Gonzalez, Sebastien A Gauthier, Asok Kumar, Efrat Levy
In vitro studies have shown that neuronal cell cultures secrete exosomes containing amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and the APP-processing products, C-terminal fragments (CTFs) and amyloid-β (Aβ). We investigated the secretion of full-length APP (flAPP) and APP CTFs via the exosome secretory pathway in vivo. To this end, we developed a novel protocol designed to isolate exosomes secreted into mouse brain extracellular space. Exosomes with typical morphology were isolated from freshly removed mouse brains and from frozen mouse and human brain tissues, demonstrating that exosomes can be isolated from post-mortem tissue frozen for long periods of time...
December 14, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Toros A Dincman, Jason E Beare, Sujata Saraswat Ohri, Scott R Whittemore
The reliable isolation of primary oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPCs) holds promise as both a research tool and putative therapy for the study and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disease and trauma. Stringently characterized primary mouse OPCs is of additional importance due to the power of transgenics to address mechanism(s) involving single genes. In this study, we developed and characterized a reproducible method for the primary culture of OPCs from postnatal day 5-7 mouse cerebral cortex...
July 30, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Ippolita Cantuti-Castelvetri, Zhanyun Fan, Edward Rockenstein, Eliezer Masliah, Bradley T Hyman, Pamela J McLean, Vivek K Unni
Increased intracellular levels of α-synuclein are implicated in Parkinson's disease and related disorders and may be caused by alterations in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) or the autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP). A critical question remains how α-synuclein is degraded by neurons in vivo. To address this, our study uses α-synuclein transgenic mice, expressing human α-synuclein or α-synuclein-eGFP under the (h)PDGF-β promoter, in combination with in vivo pharmacologic and multiphoton imaging strategies to systematically test degradation pathways in the living mouse brain...
October 12, 2011: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
S Castorph, S Schwarz Henriques, M Holt, D Riedel, R Jahn, T Salditt
The size polydispersity distribution of synaptic vesicles (SVs) is characterized under quasi-physiological conditions by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Highly purified fractions of SVs obtained from rat brain still contain a small amount of larger contaminant structures, which can be quantified by DLS and further reduced by asymmetric-flow field-flow (AFFF) fractionation. The intensity autocorrelation functions g (2)(τ) recorded from these samples are analyzed by a constrained regularization method as well as by an alternative direct modeling approach...
June 2011: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Monica Cubillos-Rojas, Fabiola Amair-Pinedo, Irantzu Tato, Ramon Bartrons, Francesc Ventura, Jose Luis Rosa
To separate and analyze giant and small proteins in the same electrophoresis gel, we have used a 3-15% polyacrylamide gradient gel containing 2.6% of the crosslinker bisacrylamide and 0.2 M of Tris-acetate buffer (pH 7.0). Samples were prepared in a sample buffer containing lithium dodecyl sulphate and were run in the gel described above using Tris-Tricine-SDS-sodium bisulfite buffer, pH 8.2, as electrophoresis buffer. Here, we show that this system can be successfully used for general applications of SDS-PAGE such as CBB staining and immunoblot...
April 2010: Electrophoresis
Helen K Graham, Nigel W Hodson, Judith A Hoyland, Sarah J Millward-Sadler, David Garrod, Anthea Scothern, Christopher E M Griffiths, Rachel E B Watson, Thomas R Cox, Janine T Erler, Andrew W Trafford, Michael J Sherratt
Conventional approaches for ultrastructural high-resolution imaging of biological specimens induce profound changes in bio-molecular structures. By combining tissue cryo-sectioning with non-destructive atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging we have developed a methodology that may be applied by the non-specialist to both preserve and visualize bio-molecular structures (in particular extracellular matrix assemblies) in situ. This tissue section AFM technique is capable of: i) resolving nm-microm scale features of intra- and extracellular structures in tissue cryo-sections; ii) imaging the same tissue region before and after experimental interventions; iii) combining ultrastructural imaging with complimentary microscopical and micromechanical methods...
May 2010: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Seongeun Cho, Andrew Wood, Mark R Bowlby
Recent improvements in brain slice technology have made this biological preparation increasingly useful for examining pathophysiology of brain diseases in a tissue context. Brain slices maintain many aspects of in vivo biology, including functional local synaptic circuitry with preserved brain architecture, while allowing good experimental access and precise control of the extracellular environment, making them ideal platforms for dissection of molecular pathways underlying neuronal dysfunction. Importantly, these ex vivo systems permit direct treatment with pharmacological agents modulating these responses and thus provide surrogate therapeutic screening systems without recourse to whole animal studies...
March 2007: Current Neuropharmacology
Veronika Reisinger, Lutz Andreas Eichacker
Blue native PAGE is an electrophoretic technique for high-resolution separation of membrane proteins. The method has been proven especially useful for investigation of native protein complexes enabling a characterization of potential protein-protein interactions in the context of functional proteomics. Blue native PAGE is easy to realise, results are reproducible and a high number of protocols are available. However, care should be taken during solubilization of protein complexes to achieve significant results in BN-PAGE analysis...
August 21, 2008: Journal of Proteomics
Cindy Van Humbeeck, Etienne Waelkens, Olga Corti, Alexis Brice, Wim Vandenberghe
Mutations in the gene for parkin, a 52-kDa E3 ubiquitin ligase, are a major cause of hereditary Parkinson's disease (PD). In vitro studies have identified a large number of parkin-interacting proteins. Whether parkin exists as a monomer or as part of a stable protein complex in vivo is uncertain. Here we demonstrate that endogenous parkin occurs in a stable, non-covalent, approximately 110-kDa complex in native extracts from mouse brain, heart and skeletal muscle, while monomeric parkin is undetectable. Partial denaturation experiments indicate that this complex is at least a tetramer...
January 2008: European Journal of Neuroscience
Veronika Reisinger, Lutz Andreas Eichacker
Blue native polyacryamide gel electrophoresis is a special case of native electrophoresis for high resolution separation of enzymatically active protein complexes from tissue homogenates and cell fractions. The method is powerful between 10 and 10,000 kDa. Also membrane protein complexes are separated well after solubilization of complexes with mild neutral detergents. The separation principle relies on binding of Coomassie blue G250 which provides negative charges to the surface of the protein. During migration to the anode, protein complexes are separated according to molecular mass and/or size and high resolution is obtained by the decreasing pore size of a polyacrylamide gradient gel...
September 2006: Proteomics
Laura Elena Villasana, Eric Klann, Maria Victoria Tejada-Simon
Previous postsynaptic density (PSD) isolation methodologies have utilized either whole brain or discrete brain regions of relatively large mammals such as dogs and rats. The present report details a simple and highly effective procedure for the rapid isolation of PSDs from small amounts of adult mouse hippocampus that has several advantages. First, by substituting synaptoneurosomes for synaptosomes as starting material, we have decreased the steps, time, and amount of tissue required to isolate PSDs. Second, by modifying critical steps in the synaptic isolation protocols we were able to isolate PSDs from less than 200 mg of mouse hippocampi in 3 h...
November 15, 2006: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Marco Morciano, Jacqueline Burré, Carsten Corvey, Michael Karas, Herbert Zimmermann, Walter Volknandt
The nerve terminal proteome governs neurotransmitter release as well as the structural and functional dynamics of the presynaptic compartment. In order to further define specific presynaptic subproteomes we used subcellular fractionation and a monoclonal antibody against the synaptic vesicle protein SV2 for immunoaffinity purification of two major synaptosome-derived synaptic vesicle-containing fractions: one sedimenting at lower and one sedimenting at higher sucrose density. The less dense fraction contains free synaptic vesicles, the denser fraction synaptic vesicles as well as components of the presynaptic membrane compartment...
December 2005: Journal of Neurochemistry
Elisa Ognibene, Silvia Middei, Stefania Daniele, Walter Adriani, Orlando Ghirardi, Antonio Caprioli, Giovanni Laviola
Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been recently advanced. Tg2576 mice have been shown to develop progressive beta-amyloid (Abeta) neuritic plaques and exhibit impairment of cognitive function. The aim of this study was a better characterization of different aspects of spatial memory performance of transgenic mice, observed at a time when levels of soluble Abeta are elevated and Abeta neuritc plaques start to appear. A general elevation of basal locomotory activity in the home cage was found in Tg2576 mice, which also exhibited an impairment of spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze test...
January 30, 2005: Behavioural Brain Research
2014-02-07 05:53:13
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