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By David Rhine MD FRCPC. Emergency medicine. Special interest in concussion management.
Lyndsey E Collins-Praino, Frances Corrigan
A history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is linked to an increased risk for the later development of dementia. This encompasses a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), with AD linked to history of moderate-severe TBI and CTE to a history of repeated concussion. Of note, both AD and CTE are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates, which are thought to play an important role in the development of neurodegeneration...
September 28, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Andrew W Kuhn, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Zachary Y Kerr, Scott L Zuckerman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Brian L Brooks, Rebekah Mannix, Bruce Maxwell, Ross Zafonte, Paul D Berkner, Grant L Iverson
BACKGROUND: There is increasing concern about the possible long-term effects of multiple concussions, particularly on the developing adolescent brain. Whether the effect of multiple concussions is detectable in high school football players has not been well studied, although the public health implications are great in this population. PURPOSE: To determine if there are measureable differences in cognitive functioning or symptom reporting in high school football players with a history of multiple concussions...
July 29, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Jacob S Young, Jonathan G Hobbs, Julian E Bailes
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has come to the forefront of both the scientific and popular culture. Specifically, sports-related concussions or mild TBI (mTBI) has become the center of scientific scrutiny with a large amount of research focusing on the long-term sequela of this type of injury. As the populace continues to age, the impact of TBI on the aging brain will become clearer. Currently, reports have come to light that link TBI to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as certain psychiatric diseases...
September 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Paul K Crane, Laura E Gibbons, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Emily Trittschuh, James B Leverenz, C Dirk Keene, Joshua Sonnen, Thomas J Montine, David A Bennett, Sue Leurgans, Julie A Schneider, Eric B Larson
IMPORTANCE: The late effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are of great interest, but studies characterizing these effects are limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with an increased risk for clinical and neuropathologic findings of Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), and other dementias. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study analyzed data from the Religious Orders Study (ROS), Memory and Aging Project (MAP), and Adult Changes in Thought study (ACT)...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Rebekah Mannix, William P Meehan, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Although growing awareness about the potential long-term deleterious effects of sport-related concussion has led to increased attention to the risks of collision sports, calls to ban these sports, such as American football, might be premature. Collision sports have a relatively high incidence of concussions, but participation in these sports also confers a host of benefits. In addition, the associated risks of participation, including concussion, have not been definitively shown to outweigh the benefits they provide, and the risk-benefit ratio might vary among individuals...
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Kian Merchant-Borna, Patrick Asselin, Darren Narayan, Beau Abar, Courtney M C Jones, Jeffrey J Bazarian
One football season of sub-concussive head blows has been shown to be associated with subclinical white matter (WM) changes on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Prior research analyses of helmet-based impact metrics using mean and peak linear and rotational acceleration showed relatively weak correlations to these WM changes; however, these analyses failed to account for the emerging concept that neuronal vulnerability to successive hits is inversely related to the time between hits (TBH). To develop a novel method for quantifying the cumulative effects of sub-concussive head blows during a single season of collegiate football by weighting helmet-based impact measures for time between helmet impacts...
June 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Ann C McKee, Daniel H Daneshvar, Victor E Alvarez, Thor D Stein
The benefits of regular exercise, physical fitness and sports participation on cardiovascular and brain health are undeniable. Physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke, and produces beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, antioxidant systems, inflammation, and vascular function. Exercise also enhances psychological health, reduces age-related loss of brain volume, improves cognition, reduces the risk of developing dementia, and impedes neurodegeneration...
January 2014: Acta Neuropathologica
Esther Lau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Lancet Neurology
Erin C Hall, Eric Lund, Diane Brown, Karen R Murdock, Lisa Gettings, Thomas M Scalea, Deborah M Stein
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury is associated with persistent cognitive difficulties. However, these symptoms may not be specific to the head injury itself. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of these symptoms in patients following trauma. METHODS: A prospective analysis of patients who were seen in the outpatient trauma clinic during a 20-month period and completed self-administered Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire was conducted. "Significant" difficulty with cognition was defined by two or more symptoms reported as severe or four or more symptoms reported as moderate...
March 2014: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Bryson B Reynolds, James Patrie, Erich J Henry, Howard P Goodkin, Donna K Broshek, Max Wintermark, T Jason Druzgal
BACKGROUND: Concussion and repetitive head impact in sports has increased interest and concern for clinicians, scientists, and athletes. Lacrosse is the fastest growing sport in the United States, but the burden of head impact in lacrosse is unknown. PURPOSE: The goal of this pilot study was to quantify head impact associated with practicing and playing collegiate lacrosse while subjects were fitted with wearable accelerometers. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
June 8, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Colin P Doherty, Eoin O'Keefe, Eugene Wallace, Teresa Loftus, James Keaney, John Kealy, Marian M Humphries, Michael G Molloy, James F Meaney, Michael Farrell, Matthew Campbell
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. In recent years, attention has focused on emerging evidence linking the development of CTE to concussive injuries in athletes and military personnel; however, the underlying molecular pathobiology of CTE remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is disrupted in regions of dense perivascular p-Tau accumulation in a case of CTE. Immunoreactivity patterns of the BBB-associated tight junction components claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 were markedly discontinuous or absent in regions of perivascular p-Tau deposition; there was also immunohistochemical evidence of a BBB in these foci...
July 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Meeryo C Choe
Concussion is a significant issue in medicine and the media today. With growing interest on the long-term effects of sports participation, it is important to understand what occurs in the brain after an impact of any degree. While some of the basic pathophysiology has been elucidated, much is still unknown about what happens in the brain after traumatic brain injury, particularly with milder injuries where no damage can be seen at the structural level on standard neuroimaging. Understanding the chain of events from a cellular level using studies investigating more severe injuries can help to drive research efforts in understanding the symptomatology that is seen in the acute phase after concussion, as well as point to mechanisms that may underlie persistent post-concussive symptoms...
June 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Luke C Henry, Sebastien Tremblay, Louis De Beaumont
Little is known of the long-term effects of sports-related concussion. Within the scientific literature, conclusions vary substantially where some work suggests there are no long-term consequences at all and other studies show rampant neurodegeneration thought to be caused by sometimes even a single concussive blow to the head. There is growing evidence that supports multiple long-term outcomes, showing both subclinical and clinically relevant changes in the brains of athletes, young and old alike. This article reviews the pathohistology of cerebral concussions and examines the extant literature with a focus on electrophysiological and neuroimaging findings...
May 17, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Emily Underwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2016: Science
Joy Noelle Yumul, Audrey McKinlay
A concussion is an important health concern for children and adolescents particularly in the context of sporting injuries. Some research suggests a cumulative effect from multiple concussions (also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury), which creates a dilemma when considering how to manage children and young people who may experience multiple concussive events within a sporting season. However, there is very little research regarding the outcomes of multiple concussions and its optimal management. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence regarding the cognitive outcomes of multiple concussions...
May 18, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Mette Andersen Nexø, Annette Meng, Vilhelm Borg
According to the use it or lose it hypothesis, intellectually stimulating activities postpone age-related cognitive decline. A previous systematic review concluded that a high level of mental work demands and job control protected against cognitive decline. However, it did not distinguish between outcomes that were measured as cognitive function at one point in time or as cognitive decline. Our study aimed to systematically review which psychosocial working conditions were prospectively associated with high levels of cognitive function and/or changes in cognitive function over time...
July 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Everett J Lehman, Misty J Hein, Christine M Gersic
BACKGROUND: There is current disagreement in the scientific literature about the relationship between playing football and suicide risk, particularly among professional players in the National Football League (NFL). While some research indicates players are at high risk of football-related concussions, which may lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy and suicide, other research finds such a connection to be speculative and unsupported by methodologically sound research. PURPOSE: To compare the suicide mortality of a cohort of NFL players to what would be expected in the general population of the United States...
May 5, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Bertrand R Huber, Michael L Alosco, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee
Repeated concussive and subconcussive trauma is associated with the later development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative disease associated with clinical symptoms in multiple domains and a unique pattern of pathologic changes. CTE has been linked to boxing and American football; CTE has also been identified in soccer, ice hockey, baseball, rugby, and military service. To date, most large studies of CTE have come from enriched cohorts associated with brain bank donations for traumatic brain injury, although several recent studies re-examining neurodegenerative disease brain banks suggest that CTE is more common than is currently appreciated...
May 2016: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
2016-05-09 15:45:55
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