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New Addictive Substances

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25 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24486525/pharmacological-profiles-of-aminoindanes-piperazines-and-pipradrol-derivatives
#1
Linda D Simmler, Anna Rickli, York Schramm, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
Aminoindanes, piperazines, and pipradrol derivatives are novel psychoactive substances found in "Ecstasy" tablets as replacements for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or substances sold as "ivory wave." The pharmacology of these MDMA- and methylphenidate-like substances is poorly known. We characterized the pharmacology of the aminoindanes 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI), 5-iodoaminoindane (5-IAI), and 2-aminoindane (2-AI), the piperazines meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), and 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP), and the pipradrol derivatives desoxypipradrol (2-diphenylmethylpiperidine [2-DPMP]), diphenylprolinol (diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinemethanol [D2PM]), and methylphenidate...
March 15, 2014: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868040/novel-psychoactive-substances-recent-progress-on-neuropharmacological-mechanisms-of-action-for-selected-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Zurina Hassan, Oliver G Bosch, Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, B Vicknasingam Kasinather, Erich Seifritz, Johannes Kornhuber, Boris B Quednow, Christian P Müller
A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911631/new-psychoactive-substances-of-natural-origin-a%C3%A2-brief-review
#3
REVIEW
Ling-Yi Feng, Altansuvd Battulga, Eunyoung Han, Heesun Chung, Jih-Heng Li
Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938502/-alarming-pregabalin-abuse-in-munich-prevalence-patterns-of-use-and-complications
#4
Nicolas Zellner, Florian Eyer, Tobias Zellner
Background Pregabalin is used e. g. for the treatment of neuropathic pain and anxiety disorder. Recently, its potential for abuse and addiction has become apparent. Methods From 2008 - 2015, we searched our database for the term "Pregabalin", including all patients treated in our department and all calls to the Poison Information Centre (PIC) Munich.From October 2013 to September 2014, all patients were included in a cohort study who either were admitted with a drug intoxication or who presented themselves for a course of detoxification (except ethanol)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766792/will-growth-in-cryptomarket-drug-buying-increase-the-harms-of-illicit-drugs
#5
Judith Aldridge, Alex Stevens, Monica J Barratt
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cryptomarkets-on-line, anonymous market-places for illicit goods and services that specialize mainly in drugs-account for a small but rapidly growing share of the illicit drug market in many countries. Policy responses so far are based generally on the assumption that their rise will only increase drug harms. In this contribution for debate, we question this assumption. METHODS: We provide a narrative review of the emerging literature connected to drug cryptomarkets...
August 2, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26107626/analytically-confirmed-recreational-use-of-phenibut-%C3%AE-phenyl-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-bought-over-the-internet
#6
LETTER
Anselm Wong, Mark Little, David Caldicott, Chris Easton, Daniel Andres, Shaun L Greene
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25217551/a-fatal-intoxication-of-2-5-dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine-a-case-report
#7
Rachel Y Barnett, Daniel D Baker, Nancy E Kelly, Calvin E McGuire, Timothy C Fassette, Jan M Gorniak
Designer drugs appear to be increasing in popularity because of the ease of obtaining these constituents, the lack of ability to identify the substance(s) in routine drug screening, the appeal of the drug(s) being 'safe' due to them being marketed as a 'legal high' and possibly due to stronger restrictions that are being placed on prescription drugs. As components of designer drugs are identified and regulated by the DEA, new constituents, or analogs, of these designer drugs are being manufactured to circumvent legislation...
October 2014: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459969/reports-of-adverse-events-associated-with-use-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-2013-2016-a-review
#8
Barry K Logan, Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Alex J Krotulski, Donna M Papsun, Sherri L Kacinko, Jeri D Ropero-Miller, Marilyn A Huestis
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) represent significant analytical and interpretive challenges to forensic and clinical toxicologists. Timely access to case reports and reports of adverse incidents of impairment or toxicity is imperative to clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as to interpretation of forensic results. Delays in identifying the presence of a novel intoxicating agent have significant consequences for public health and public safety. Adverse effects of intoxications with novel cannabinoids, stimulants, hallucinogens, benzodiazepines and opioids spanning January 2013 through December 2016 as reported in emergency departments, death investigations, impaired driving cases and other forensic contexts are the subject of this review...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603962/novel-opioid-analgesics-and-side-effects
#9
Giovanna Del Vecchio, Viola Spahn, Christoph Stein
Conventional opioids mediate analgesia as well as severe adverse effects via G-protein coupled opioid receptors (OR) in both inflamed (peripheral injured tissue) and healthy (brain, intestinal wall) environments. To exclude side effects, OR activation can be selectively achieved in damaged tissue by lowering the pKa of an opioid ligand to the acidic pH of inflammation. As a result, protonation of the ligand and consequent OR binding and activation of G-proteins is pH- and injury-specific. A novel compound (NFEPP) demonstrates the feasibility of this approach and displays blockade of pain transmission only at the peripheral site of injury, but with lack of central and gastrointestinal adverse effects...
August 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755886/pharmacological-profile-of-mephedrone-analogs-and-related-new-psychoactive-substances
#10
REVIEW
Dino Luethi, Karolina E Kolaczynska, Luca Docci, Stephan Krähenbühl, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: Mephedrone is a synthetic cathinone and one of the most popular recreationally used new psychoactive substances. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro pharmacology of novel analogs of mephedrone and related newly emerged designer stimulants. METHODS: We determined norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin transporter inhibition potencies and monoamine release in transporter-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We also assessed monoamine receptor and transporter binding affinities...
July 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24966713/emerging-drugs-of-abuse-current-perspectives-on-substituted-cathinones
#11
REVIEW
Magalie Paillet-Loilier, Alexandre Cesbron, Reynald Le Boisselier, Joanna Bourgine, Danièle Debruyne
Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone) have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation...
2014: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207154/benzylpiperazine-a-messy-drug
#12
REVIEW
D P Katz, J Deruiter, D Bhattacharya, M Ahuja, S Bhattacharya, C R Clark, V Suppiramaniam, M Dhanasekaran
Designer drugs are synthetic structural analogues/congeners of controlled substances with slightly modified chemical structures intended to mimic the pharmacological effects of known drugs of abuse so as to evade drug classification. Benzylpiperazine (BZP), a piperazine derivative, elevates synaptic dopamine and serotonin levels producing stimulatory and hallucinogenic effects, respectively, similar to the well-known drug of abuse, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Furthermore, BZP augments the release of norepinephrine by inhibiting presynaptic autoreceptors, therefore, BZP is a "messy drug" due to its multifaceted regulation of synaptic monoamine neurotransmitters...
July 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476446/identification-of-a-new-psychoactive-substance-in-seized-material-the-synthetic-opioid-n-phenyl-n-1-2-phenethyl-piperidin-4-yl-prop-2-enamide-acrylfentanyl
#13
Torben Breindahl, Andreas Kimergård, Mette Findal Andreasen, Daniel Sejer Pedersen
Among the new psychoactive substances (NPS) that have recently emerged on the market, many of the new synthetic opioids have shown to be particularly harmful. A new synthetic analogue of fentanyl, N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenethyl)piperidin-4-yl]prop-2-enamide (acrylfentanyl), was identified in powder from a seized capsule found at a forensic psychiatric ward in Denmark. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified a precursor to synthetic fentanyls, N-phenyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidin-4-amine; however, the precursor 1-(2-phenethyl)piperidin-4-one, was not detected...
March 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063587/indirect-chiral-separation-of-8-novel-amphetamine-derivatives-as-potential-new-psychoactive-compounds-by-gc-ms-and-hplc
#14
Jennifer A Weiß, Kian Kadkhodaei, Martin G Schmid
Amphetamine and its derivatives gained high popularity on the illegal drug market. In the last few years, a lot of new psychoactive compounds structurally related to amphetamine, such as 4-fluoroamphetamine and 4-fluoromethamphetamine swamped the drug market. They were designed to circumvent prohibition of amphetamine and N-methylamphetamine and are distributed via the Internet. Often, a halogen atom is introduced into the phenyl ring of amphetamine to turn the illegal amphetamine legal. Since amphetamines possess a chiral centre, two enantiomers are available, which might differ in activity...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618002/novel-psychoactive-substance-use-among-treatment-seeking-opiate-users-the-role-of-life-events-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#15
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Judit Farkas, Patrícia Andrea Pataki, Anna Kiss, Janka Horváth, Róbert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 5 years, a shift to the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been observed among opioid users. The aim of this study was to assess the potential reasons for NPS use among treatment-seeking patients receiving opiate substitution therapy. METHOD: A structured questionnaire was filled out by a sample of 198 opiate dependent patients of Hungary's National Institute of Psychiatry and Addiction. This questionnaire assessed demographics, treatment characteristics, lifetime substance use, potential reasons for NPS use, negative life events (Life Events Scale), and psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory)...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893147/update-on-the-pharmacology-and-legal-status-of-kratom
#16
Walter C Prozialeck
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to stave off fatigue and to manage pain and opioid withdrawal. In a comprehensive review published in 2012, Prozialeck et al presented evidence that kratom had been increasingly used for the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain in the United States. At the time, kratom was classified as a legal herbal product by the US Drug Enforcement Administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683875/introducing%C3%A2-kratom
#17
Charisse Pizarro-Osilla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23465646/-silk-road-the-virtual-drug-marketplace-a-single-case-study-of-user-experiences
#18
Marie Claire Van Hout, Tim Bingham
BACKGROUND: The online promotion of 'drug shopping' and user information networks is of increasing public health and law enforcement concern. An online drug marketplace called 'Silk Road' has been operating on the 'Deep Web' since February 2011 and was designed to revolutionise contemporary drug consumerism. METHODS: A single case study approach explored a 'Silk Road' user's motives for online drug purchasing, experiences of accessing and using the website, drug information sourcing, decision making and purchasing, outcomes and settings for use, and perspectives around security...
September 2013: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713291/an-expanding-world-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-opioids
#19
REVIEW
Jolanta B Zawilska
The abuse of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been increasing dramatically worldwide since late 2000s. By the end of 2015, more than 560 NPS had been reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Although the most popular compounds are synthetic cannabinoids and psychostimulatory derivatives of cathinone (so-called β-keto-amphetamines), novel synthetic opioids have recently emerged on the recreational drug market. They include fentanyl (a potent narcotic analgesic) and its analogs (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578250/increases-in-synthetic-cannabinoids-related-harms-results-from-a-longitudinal-web-based-content-analysis
#20
Francois R Lamy, Raminta Daniulaityte, Ramzi W Nahhas, Monica J Barratt, Alan G Smith, Amit Sheth, Silvia S Martins, Edward W Boyer, Robert G Carlson
BACKGROUND: Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists (SCRA), also known as "K2" or "Spice," have drawn considerable attention due to their potential of abuse and harmful consequences. More research is needed to understand user experiences of SCRA-related effects. We use semi-automated information processing techniques through eDrugTrends platform to examine SCRA-related effects and their variations through a longitudinal content analysis of web-forum data. METHOD: English language posts from three drug-focused web-forums were extracted and analyzed between January 1st 2008 and September 30th 2015...
June 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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