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Renal Immunology

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8 papers 0 to 25 followers
By Venkatesh Ariyamuthu Transplant Nephrologist at UT Southwestern Medical Center
Susie L Hu, Anthony Chang, Mark A Perazella, Mark D Okusa, Edgar A Jaimes, Robert H Weiss
Kidney cancer, or renal cell carcinoma (RCC), is a disease of increasing incidence that is commonly seen in the general practice of nephrology. However, RCC is under-recognized by the nephrology community, such that its presence in curricula and research by this group is lacking. In the most common form of RCC, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor is nearly universal; thus, the biology of ccRCC is characterized by activation of hypoxia-relevant pathways that lead to the associated paraneoplastic syndromes...
August 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
William Hoffman, Fadi G Lakkis, Geetha Chalasani
B cells play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of glomerulonephritides and transplant rejection. B cells secrete antibodies that contribute to tissue injury via multiple mechanisms. In addition, B cells contribute to disease pathogenesis in autoimmunity and alloimmunity by presenting antigens as well as providing costimulation and cytokines to T cells. B cells also play an immunomodulatory role in regulating the immune response by secreting cytokines that inhibit disease onset and/or progression. B cell-targeted approaches for treating immune diseases of the kidney and other organs have gained significant momentum...
January 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Kim M O'Sullivan, Camden Y Lo, Shaun A Summers, Kirstin D Elgass, Paul J McMillan, Anthony Longano, Sharon L Ford, Poh-Yi Gan, Peter G Kerr, A Richard Kitching, Stephen R Holdsworth
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important neutrophil lysosomal enzyme, a major autoantigen, and a potential mediator of tissue injury in MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis (MPO-AAV) and glomerulonephritis. Here we examined MPO deposition in kidney biopsies from 47 patients with MPO-AAV. Leukocyte accumulation and fibrin deposition consistent with cell-mediated immunity was a major feature. Tubulointerstitial macrophage, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell, and neutrophil numbers correlated with low presenting eGFR. MPO was not detected in kidneys from patients with minimal change or thin basement membrane disease, but was prominent in glomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions in MPO-AAV...
November 2015: Kidney International
Joanna R Ghali, Stephen R Holdsworth, A Richard Kitching
T helper (Th) cells belong to the adaptive immune system and provide an effective and antigen-specific means of host protection. Th17 cells are a subset of Th cells, characterized by the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F, which bind to a receptor complex comprised of IL-17RA and IL-17RC subunits. Th17 cells combat extracellular and fungal infections, but have been implicated in autoimmune diseases. In many autoimmune conditions, the dysregulated immune response involves several parts of the immune system, including autoantibodies, B and T cells...
2015: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Alexander C Wiseman
Immunosuppressive agents are commonly used in the nephrologist's practice in the treatment of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases and transplantation, and they are investigational in the treatment of AKI and ESRD. Drug development has been rapid over the past decades as mechanisms of the immune response have been better defined both by serendipity (the discovery of agents with immunosuppressive activity that led to greater understanding of the immune response) and through mechanistic study (the study of immune deficiencies and autoimmune diseases and the critical pathways or mutations that contribute to disease)...
February 5, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Manuel Alfredo Podestà, David Cucchiari, Claudio Ponticelli
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a family of antigen presenting cells that play a paramount role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity. In murine models several subtypes of DCs have been identified, including classical DCs, monocyte-derived DCs, and plasmacytoid DCs. Quiescent, immature DCs and some subtypes of plasmacytoid cells favor the expression of regulatory T cells, but in an inflammatory milieu DCs become mature and after intercepting the antigen migrate to lymphatic system where they present the antigen to naïve T cells...
July 2015: Transplantation Reviews
Stephen R Holdsworth, Poh-Yi Gan
Cytokines play an important role in host defense against microorganisms. They orchestrate innate immunity by inducing protective local inflammation and systemic acute phase responses. Cytokines are important in initiating, amplifying, directing, mediating, and regulating adaptive immunity. Unfortunately, they may also direct tissue damage if excessive responses occur or if they are involved in directing and mediating autoimmunity. Under these circumstances, cytokines are potential therapeutic targets. Over the last 20 years, we have seen the successful development and clinical implementation of biologic strategies that target key cytokines in specific inflammatory diseases with efficacy, specificity, and toxicity profiles challenging conventional drug therapies...
December 7, 2015: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Douglas R Mathern, Peter S Heeger
The complement cascade, traditionally considered an effector arm of innate immunity required for host defense against pathogens, is now recognized as a crucial pathogenic mediator of various kidney diseases. Complement components produced by the liver and circulating in the plasma undergo activation through the classical and/or mannose-binding lectin pathways to mediate anti-HLA antibody-initiated kidney transplant rejection and autoantibody-initiated GN, the latter including membranous glomerulopathy, antiglomerular basement membrane disease, and lupus nephritis...
September 4, 2015: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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