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dementia

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309 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254515/hereditary-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-stroke
#1
REVIEW
Christian Baastrup Søndergaard, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Christine Krarup Hansen, Hanne Christensen
Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a guide for determining when to consider molecular genetic testing in patients presenting with small vessel disease and stroke. CADASIL, CARASIL, collagen type IV mutations (including PADMAL), retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, Fabry disease, hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, and forkhead box C1 mutations are described in terms of genetics, pathology, clinical manifestation, imaging, and diagnosis...
April 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255234/effectiveness-of-person-centered-care-on-people-with-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Sun Kyung Kim, Myonghwa Park
BACKGROUND: Person-centered care is a holistic and integrative approach designed to maintain well-being and quality of life for people with dementia, and it includes the elements of care, the individual, the carers, and the family. AIM: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of person-centered care for people with dementia. METHODS: Literature searches were undertaken using six databases including Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database, and KoreaMed using the following keywords: cognition disorder, dementia, person-centered care, patient-centered care, client-centered care, relationship-centered care, and dementia care...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265458/diagnosing-the-frontal-variant-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-clinician-s-yellow-brick-road
#3
REVIEW
Russell P Sawyer, Federico Rodriguez-Porcel, Matthew Hagen, Rhonna Shatz, Alberto J Espay
BACKGROUND: Disruption of the frontal lobes and its associated networks are a common consequence of neurodegenerative disorders. Given the wide range of cognitive, behavioral and motor processes in which the frontal lobes are involved, there can be a great variety of manifestations depending on the pathology distribution. The most common are the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and the frontal variant of Alzheimer's disease (fvAD), which are particularly challenging to disentangle...
2017: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274325/consent-for-the-diagnosis-of-preclinical-dementia-states-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Julian C Hughes, Thomas A Ingram, Aron Jarvis, Elise Denton, Zoe Lampshire, Cathy Wernham
It is now possible to detect the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) many years before symptoms and signs otherwise become manifest. Biomarkers of disease include evidence of amyloid and tau in the cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging which (for instance) allows amyloid in the brain to be visualized. There is, thus, a preclinical state in which it is possible to identify Alzheimer's pathology long before there is clinical evidence of disease. Much research focuses on this preclinical state because it seems likely that treatments will be more effective before the disease is established...
April 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275702/pathophysiologic-relationship-between-alzheimer-s-disease-cerebrovascular-disease-and-cardiovascular-risk-a-review-and-synthesis
#5
REVIEW
Cláudia Y Santos, Peter J Snyder, Wen-Chih Wu, Mia Zhang, Ana Echeverria, Jessica Alber
As the population ages due to demographic trends and gains in life expectancy, the incidence and prevalence of dementia increases, and the need to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of dementia becomes ever more urgent. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a complex disease, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. The more we learn about AD, the more questions are raised about our current conceptual models of disease. In the absence of a cure or the means by which to slow disease progress, it may be prudent to apply our current knowledge of the intersection between AD, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease to foster efforts to delay or slow the onset of AD...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290708/young-onset-dementia-and-the-need-for-specialist-care-a-national-and-international-perspective
#6
J E Carter, J R Oyebode, R T C M Koopmans
OBJECTIVES: Receiving a timely and accurate diagnosis and gaining access to age-appropriate support for younger people living with dementia (YPD) remains a challenge both in the UK and internationally because the focus of most dementia services is primarily upon the needs of older people. The political case to improve services for YPD depends upon the establishment of an understanding of the clinical symptoms, an unequivocal evidence base about need and an accurate evaluation of the size of the population affected...
March 14, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289920/the-early-presentation-of-dementia-in-people-with-down-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-studies
#7
REVIEW
Bianca Alexandra Lautarescu, Anthony John Holland, Shahid H Zaman
Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are at a very high risk of developing early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to trisomy of chromosome 21. AD is preceded by a prolonged prodromal "pre-clinical" phase presenting with clinical features that do not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for AD. It is important to clinically characterise this prodromal stage to help early detection of the disease as neuropathology of AD is almost universal by the fifth decade in DS. There is a lack of knowledge of the trajectory of decline associated with the onset of dementia in this population and early signs may be overlooked or misdiagnosed, negatively affecting the quality of life of those affected and the use of early pharmacological or psychosocial interventions...
March 13, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252521/alzheimer-s-disease-pathology-and-the-unfolded-protein-response-prospective-pathways-and-therapeutic-targets
#8
David J Koss, Bettina Platt
Many vital interdependent cellular functions including proteostasis, lipogenesis and Ca homeostasis are executed by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Exogenous insults can impair ER performance: this must be rapidly corrected or cell death will ensue. Protective adaptations can boost the functional capacity of the ER and form the basis of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Activated in response to the accumulation of misfolded proteins, the UPR can halt protein translation while increasing protein-handling chaperones and the degradation of erroneous proteins through a conserved three-tier molecular cascade...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240674/a-second-wind-for-the-cholinergic-system-in-alzheimer-s-therapy
#9
Vincent Douchamps, Chantal Mathis
Notwithstanding tremendous research efforts, the cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive and there is no curative treatment. The cholinergic hypothesis presented 35 years ago was the first major evidence-based hypothesis on the etiology of AD. It proposed that the depletion of brain acetylcholine was a primary cause of cognitive decline in advanced age and AD. It relied on a series of observations obtained in aged animals, elderly, and AD patients that pointed to dysfunctions of cholinergic basal forebrain, similarities between cognitive impairments induced by anticholinergic drugs and those found in advanced age and AD, and beneficial effects of drugs stimulating cholinergic activity...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18036286/a-systematic-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-rivastigmine-for-the-treatment-of-behavioral-disturbances-in-dementia-and-other-neurological-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Gary Figiel, Carl Sadowsky
BACKGROUND: Dementia is frequently associated with behavioral disturbances, some of which have a significant impact on patient quality of life and the likelihood of institutionalization. Cholinergic systems, among other neurotransmitters in the brain, appear to be involved with different behaviors, such as psychosis, depression, agitation, and personality changes. SCOPE: This paper reviews the clinical data on the effectiveness of rivastigmine, a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, in ameliorating behavioral disturbances in different patient populations...
January 2008: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063859/assessing-palliative-care-content-in-dementia-care-guidelines-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Pamela Durepos, Abigail Wickson-Griffiths, Afeez Abiola Hazzan, Sharon Kaasalainen, Vasilia Vastis, Lisa Battistella, Alexandra Papaioannou
CONTEXT: Families of persons with dementia continue to report unmet needs during end of life (EOL). Strategies to improve care and quality of life for persons with dementia include development of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and an integrative palliative approach. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess palliative care content in dementia CPGs to identify the presence or limitations of recommendations and discussion pertaining to common issues or domains affected by illness as described by the Canadian Hospice Palliative Care Association "Square of Care...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177148/when-walking-becomes-wandering-representing-the-fear-of-the-fourth-age
#12
Katherine Brittain, Cathrine Degnen, Grant Gibson, Claire Dickinson, Louise Robinson
Dementia is linked to behavioural changes that are perceived as challenging to care practices. One such behavioural change is 'wandering', something that is often deeply feared by carers and by people with dementia themselves. Understanding how behavioural changes like wandering are experienced as problematic is critically important in current discussions about the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. In this article we draw on our secondary analysis of qualitative interviews and focus groups with carers of people with dementia to critically question 'when does walking become wandering'? Drawing on theoretical perspectives from anthropology, sociology and human geography to explore experiences of carers and of people with dementia, we argue that a conceptual shift occurs in how pedestrian activity, usually represented as something purposeful, meaningful and healthy (walking) is seen as something threatening that needs managing (wandering)...
February 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117918/cognitive-impairment-and-charles-bonnet-syndrome-a-prospective-study
#13
Gregor Russell, Robert Harper, Harry Allen, Robert Baldwin, Alistair Burns
OBJECTIVES: Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is a common cause of visual hallucinations in older people. The relationship between CBS and cognitive impairment is unclear, but anecdotal reports exist of dementia emerging in patients diagnosed with CBS. This work set out to determine if there is an increased incidence of dementia, and increased severity of cognitive impairment, in people with CBS compared to controls from the same clinical setting. METHOD: People over 65 attending low-vision and glaucoma clinics, and a cohort of age-matched controls, underwent a psychiatric assessment...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150348/management-of-acute-ischaemic-stroke-in-patients-with-dementia
#14
REVIEW
A Subic, P Cermakova, B Norrving, B Winblad, M von Euler, M G Kramberger, M Eriksdotter, S Garcia-Ptacek
An estimated 10% of stroke patients have an underlying dementia. As a consequence, health professionals often face the challenge of managing patients with dementia presenting with an acute stroke. Patients with dementia are less likely to receive thrombolysis (0.56-10% vs. 1-16% thrombolysis rates in the general population), be admitted to a stroke unit or receive some types of care. Anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention is sometimes withheld, despite dementia not being listed as an exclusion criterion in current guidelines...
April 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153848/cjd-mimics-and-chameleons
#15
REVIEW
Simon Mead, Peter Rudge
Rapidly progressive dementia mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a relatively rare presentation but a rewarding one to become familiar with, as the potential diagnoses range from the universally fatal to the completely reversible. Patients require urgent decisions about assessment and investigation and have quickly evolving needs for treatments and support, through symptom management and end-of-life care in most cases. We have based this pragmatic review on the experiences of a specialist prion referral centre in the UK, which, unsurprisingly, is strongly biased towards seeing patients with CJD...
April 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161989/-it-brings-it-all-back-all-those-good-times-it-makes-me-go-close-to-tears-creating-digital-personalised-stories-with-people-who-have-dementia
#16
Valerie Critten, Natalia Kucirkova
The purpose of these three case studies was to analyse and theoretically explain the contribution of digital multimedia personalisation to stimulate and share long-term memories of people who live with mild to moderate dementia. We investigated how the use of a freely available iPad app can, in a supporting context, facilitate the creation of personalised multimedia stories, including the participants' audio recordings, texts and photos of items, places or people important to them. Three people who were recruited from a club for people living with dementia created personalised multimedia stories using their own photographs and/or pictures downloaded from the internet, with written captions and audio-recorded voiceovers...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176148/avicenna-s-pharmacological-approach-to-memory-enhancement
#17
REVIEW
Roja Rahimi, Shahrzad Irannejad, Maryam Noroozian
In recent decades, the number of patients with dementia has significantly risen. Current treatments for dementia are not curative and there still is place for development of medications. Throughout the ages, several medical disciplines have systematized and codified medical knowledge acquired throughout centuries of trial and error. Revisiting these disciplines might help in gaining insight for development of medications and other therapeutic strategies. The present study aims to show the possible benefits of an immanent understanding of the approach towards memory and dementias taken by humoral medical discourse in the Islamicate world...
February 7, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177144/ageing-dementia-and-the-social-mind-past-present-and-future-perspectives
#18
Paul Higgs, Chris Gilleard
Accompanying the ageing of contemporary ageing societies is an increase in age associated morbidity, with dementia having an important impact. Mental frailty in later life is a source of fear for many and a major policy concern to all those concerned with health and welfare services. This introduction to the special issue on 'Ageing, dementia and the social mind' situates the selected papers within the context of debates about dementia and its social relations. In particular it draws attention to the importance of the social imaginary of the fourth age and what this means for the issue of personhood, care, social representations of dementia and its social contextualisation...
February 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168012/nutrition-and-age-ing-focusing-on-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Giulia Abate, Mariagrazia Marziano, Wiramon Rungratanawanich, Maurizio Memo, Daniela Uberti
Recently, the role of food and nutrition in preventing or delaying chronic disability in the elderly population has received great attention. Thanks to their ability to influence biochemical and biological processes, bioactive nutrients are considered modifiable factors capable of preserving a healthy brain status. A diet rich in vitamins and polyphenols and poor in saturated fatty acids has been recommended. In the prospective of a healthy diet, cooking methods should be also considered. In fact, cooking procedures can modify the original dietary content, contributing not only to the loss of healthy nutrients, but also to the formation of toxins, including advanced glycation end products (AGEs)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168970/strategies-to-improve-dental-health-in-elderly-patients-with-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Natalia S Rozas, June M Sadowsky, Cameron B Jeter
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is the gradual loss of one's ability to learn, remember, pay attention, and make decisions. Cognitively impaired elderly people are a challenging patient population for dental health care professionals and may be at higher risk of developing oral health diseases. The authors systematically reviewed interventions effective at improving dental health in patients with cognitive impairment and described research gaps remaining. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: In a comprehensive search of multiple databases, the authors identified 2,255 studies published in the English language from 1995 through March 2016...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
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