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By Marianne De Nobel i'm a physician in the elderly care at an Hospice and in a nursing home, with people with dementia and /or chronic diseases also i'm working in the primary care
Gary W Small
Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for cognitive decline can help patients maintain cognitive ability and higher levels of function longer. Despite advances in detection and early treatment strategies, many patients do not receive proper assessments and available therapies. A systematic assessment strategy will increase the likelihood of an accurate diagnosis, which can facilitate pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment plans that can have a meaningful impact on prognosis. Available data support the integration of healthy lifestyle strategies in the treatment plan to help to stabilize symptoms and potentially delay future cognitive decline...
December 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Andrew H Ford
Delirium is a common, disabling medical condition that is associated with numerous adverse outcomes. A number of inter-related factors, including pre-existing cognitive impairment, usually contribute to the development of delirium in a particular susceptible individual. Non-pharmacological approaches to prevention typically target multiple risk factors in a systematic manner (multicomponent interventions). There is generally good evidence that multicomponent interventions reduce the incidence of delirium in hospital populations but there are limited data in people with dementia and those living in the community...
October 2016: Maturitas
Alessandro Morandi, Daniel Davis, Giuseppe Bellelli, Rakesh C Arora, Gideon A Caplan, Barbara Kamholz, Ann Kolanowski, Donna Marie Fick, Stefan Kreisel, Alasdair MacLullich, David Meagher, Karen Neufeld, Pratik P Pandharipande, Sarah Richardson, Arjen J C Slooter, John P Taylor, Christine Thomas, Zoë Tieges, Andrew Teodorczuk, Philippe Voyer, James L Rudolph
Delirium occurring in patients with dementia is referred to as delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). People who are older with dementia and who are institutionalized are at increased risk of developing delirium when hospitalized. In addition, their prior cognitive impairment makes detecting their delirium a challenge. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision are considered the standard reference for the diagnosis of delirium and include criteria of impairments in cognitive processes such as attention, additional cognitive disturbances, or altered level of arousal...
September 16, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Rose Ries, Amirali Sayadipour
We review the literature on management of psychosis and agitation in medical-surgical patients who have or are at risk for prolonged QT interval, a risk factor for torsade de pointes (TdP), and we describe our protocols for treating these patients. We searched PubMed and PsycInfo for relevant studies and found few papers describing options for treating psychosis and agitation in these patients. Prolonged QTc interval has been more often associated with low-potency phenothiazines such as thioridazine; however, it may occur with high potency typical antipsychotics such as fluphenazine and haloperidol as well as with atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, risperidone, olanzapine, iloperidone, and particularly ziprasidone...
September 2014: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Peter Paul De Deyn, Annemieke F J Drenth, Berry P Kremer, Richard C Oude Voshaar, Debby Van Dam
INTRODUCTION: Psychosis is a common and difficult to treat symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is a cause of diminished quality of life and caregiver distress. Atypical antipsychotics are frequently used for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis, despite FDA warnings because of increased mortality associated with the use of these medications in dementia patients. Aripiprazole is a newer atypical antipsychotic drug with partial agonist activity at dopamine receptors and antagonist activity at 5-HT(2A) receptors, with a low side-effect profile...
March 2013: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
H Karl Greenblatt, David J Greenblatt
Antipsychotic medications are widely used in the management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. While nonpharmacological interventions should be the first-line treatment for behavioral symptoms of dementia, these are often unfeasible and/or ineffective. Conventional and atypical antipsychotic agents appear to have modest to moderate clinical efficacy in the treatment of these symptoms, though it is unclear which individual agents are most effective. No conclusive evidence exists that any available alternative medications are safer and more effective than antipsychotics...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
A Gurevich, V Guller, Y N Berner, S Tal
Atypical antipsychotics seem to be preferable than conventional agents in treating psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), because they have substantially lower risks of extrapyramidal neurological effects with lower reported rates of parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. However, in the course of time, with the increase in their use, more and more side effects have been reported. The benefits and risks of antipsychotic treatment should be carefully evaluated according to the co-morbidity and the severity of the psychological and behavioral symptoms and their impact on the individual elderly patient...
2012: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Salvatore Gentile
RATIONALE: Antipsychotic drugs are widely used as a first-line pharmacological approach to treat dementia-related psychiatric symptoms. However, in this population of patients, such drugs have been associated with severe safety concerns. Hence, the aim of this review is to asses systematically the efficacy of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in treating dementia-related neuropsychiatric symptoms in order to establish if the potential clinical benefits of such treatment outweigh the hypothesised risks related to pharmacological intervention...
October 2010: Psychopharmacology
Faustino Gonzalez
Extrapyramidal symptoms are well-documented complications of therapy with haloperidol, even when small doses are used. Dysphagia, though uncommon, can be quite debilitating and can mimic a paraneoplastic syndrome. It is important to always review the medications the patient is taking and consider them as etiological culprits in any new symptom complex. This report highlights a case of drug-induced dysphagia in a patient receiving haloperidol for obsessive nocturnal thoughts and auditory disturbances.
October 2008: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Gianluca Trifiró, Janet Sultana, Edoardo Spina
With an increase in the global prevalence of dementia, there is also an increase in behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) for which antipsychotic drugs are often used. Despite several safety warnings on antipsychotic use in dementia, there is little evidence to support the efficacy of antipsychotics in individual BPSD symptoms or to evaluate the drug safety profile by individual antipsychotic drug. There is emerging but scarce evidence that suggests an inter-drug variability between antipsychotic safety outcomes in BPSD...
July 2014: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Pietro Gareri, Pasquale De Fazio, Valeria Graziella Laura Manfredi, Giovambattista De Sarro
In recent years, the use of antipsychotics has been widely debated for reasons concerning their safety in elderly patients affected with dementia. To update the use of antipsychotics in elderly demented people, a MEDLINE search was conducted using the following terms: elderly, conventional and atypical antipsychotics, adverse events, dementia, and behavioral and psychotic symptoms in dementia (BPSD). Owing to the large amounts of studies on antipsychotics, we mostly restricted the field of research to the last 10 years...
February 2014: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Gila Bronner, Judith Aharon-Peretz, Sharon Hassin-Baer
Sexual dysfunction (SD) is common among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other dementias. Sexual functioning and well-being of patients with PD and their partners are affected by many factors, including motor disabilities, non-motor symptoms (e.g., autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbances, mood disorders, cognitive abnormalities, pain, and sensory disorders), medication effects, and relationship issues. The common sexual problems are decreased desire, erectile dysfunction, difficulties in reaching orgasm, and sexual dissatisfaction...
2015: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Elena Urrestarazu, Jorge Iriarte
Sleep and circadian disorders in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are more frequent than in the general population and appear early in the course of the disease. Quality of sleep and quality of life are parallel in these patients, and such disorders also represent a heavy burden for caregivers. Although alterations in melatonin and hypocretins (orexins) seem to play a key role in the origin of these disturbances, the etiology of these disorders is multifactorial, including many factors such as environment, behavior, treatments, and comorbidities, among others...
2016: Nature and Science of Sleep
Serge Gauthier, Jeffrey Cummings, Clive Ballard, Henry Brodaty, George Grossberg, Philippe Robert, Constantine Lyketsos
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex progressive brain degenerative disorder that has effects on multiple cerebral systems. In addition to cognitive and functional decline, diverse behavioral changes manifest with increasing severity over time, presenting significant management challenges for caregivers and health care professionals. Almost all patients with AD are affected by neuropsychiatric symptoms at some point during their illness; in some cases, symptoms occur prior to diagnosis of the dementia syndrome...
May 2010: International Psychogeriatrics
Robert M Kaiser, Susan L Kaiser
As professionals in geriatric medicine and social work, we are caregivers for our widowed mother of 90 years, a woman with neurocognitive disorder and multiple medical conditions. She has had repeated, problematic encounters with the health care system over the past 4 years. Caring successfully for an aging parent requires a comprehensive understanding of her unique medical, psychological, and functional status; need for social support; and overall goals of care. Poor communication between and among clinical teams-and with patients and families-is ubiquitous...
August 6, 2016: Gerontologist
Rosie Watson, Sean J Colloby
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) while common in older age can present a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer disease (AD). Imaging studies have improved our understanding of the neurobiological changes in DLB during life and how they differ from AD. This has led to significant advances in the development of new techniques, such as dopaminergic imaging, which can aid the clinical diagnosis. Other functional imaging methods also show promise in helping to assess the influence of differing pathologies in DLB, most notably, AD-related and vascular pathology during life...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Ayesha Khan, Raj N Kalaria, Anne Corbett, Clive Ballard
Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Tor Atle Rosness, Knut Engedal, Zeina Chemali
Today, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) remains one of the most common forms of early-onset dementia, that is, before the age of 65, thus posing several diagnostic challenges to clinicians since symptoms are often mistaken for psychiatric or neurological diseases causing a delay in correct diagnosis, and the majority of patients with FTD present with symptoms at ages between 50 and 60. Genetic components are established risk factors for FTD, but the influence of lifestyle, comorbidity, and environmental factors on the risk of FTD is still unclear...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Riccardo De Giorgi, Hugh Series
Inappropriate sexual behavior (ISB) is a relatively common and potentially disruptive form of behavior in people with dementia. It can cause considerable distress and put placements and people at risk. Yet it is poorly researched and understood. In addition to non-pharmacological approaches to management, a wide range of classes of medication has been used in ISB, and the results have been reported as single cases or short series, though none has been the subject of a randomized clinical trial, in part because of the lack of a well-defined method of observing and measuring ISB, as well as the significant ethical considerations...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Carole Parsons
The evidence base to guide withdrawal of antidementia medications in older people with dementia is limited; while some randomised controlled studies have considered discontinuation of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), no such studies examining discontinuation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine have been conducted to date. The purpose of this opinion article was to summarise the existing evidence on withdrawal of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, to highlight the key considerations for clinicians when making these prescribing decisions and to offer guidance as to when and how treatment might be discontinued...
August 2016: Drugs & Aging
2016-08-07 12:04:16
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