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Tara Renton
The issues specific to trigeminal pain include the complexity of the region, the problematic impact on daily function and significant psychological impact (Shueb SS et al., 2015). By nature of the geography of the pain (affecting the face, eyes, scalp, nose, mouth) it may interfere with just about every social function we take for granted and enjoy (Renton and Yilmaz, 2011). The trigeminal nerve is the largest sensory nerve in the body, protecting the essential organs that underpin our very existence (brain, eyes, nose, mouth)...
July 14, 2016: Oral Diseases
Osvaldo J M Nascimento, Bruno L Pessoa, Marco Orsini, Pedro Ribeiro, Eduardo Davidovich, Camila Pupe, Pedro Moreira Filho, Ricardo Menezes Dornas, Lucas Masiero, Juliana Bittencourt, Victor Hugo Bastos
Neuropathic pain (NP) is the result of a series of conditions caused by diseases or lesions to the somatosensory system. Due to the better understanding of NP pathophysiology previously unexplored therapies have been used with encouraging results. In this group, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic-acid, cannabinoids, clonidine, EMA401, botulinum toxin type A and new voltage-gated sodium channel blockers, can be included. Besides, changing paradigms may occur with the advent of optogenetics and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation...
June 15, 2016: Neurology International
Bryan A Copits, Melanie Y Pullen, Robert W Gereau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2016: Pain
Pere Boadas-Vaello, José Miguel Vela, Enrique Verdú
Polyphenols constitute a group of a paramount importance within the natural products in the plant kingdom, with an approximate amount of 8000 phenolic structures currently known. Fruits, vegetables, whole grains and several other foods and beverages (as tea, chocolate and wine, for instance) are rich and important sources of polyphenols. The scientific literature provides pre-clinical experimental evidence on the antinociceptive effects of polyphenolic compounds, found in plant extracts, in animal models of neuropathic pain...
May 27, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Elham Charmchi, Morteza Zendehdel, Abbas Haghparast
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an essential role in morphine sensitization and suppression of pain. Repeated exposure to stress and morphine increases dopamine release in the NAc and may lead to morphine sensitization. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of forced swim stress (FSS), as a predominantly physical stressor and morphine on the development of morphine sensitization; focusing on the function of D1/D2-like dopamine receptors in the NAc in morphine sensitization. Eighty-five adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the NAc and various doses of SCH-23390 (0...
October 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Sulayman D Dib-Hajj, Joel A Black, Stephen G Waxman
The voltage-gated sodium channel Na(V)1.9 is preferentially expressed in nociceptors and has been shown in rodent models to have a major role in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. These studies suggest that by selectively targeting Na(V)1.9, it might be possible to ameliorate pain without inducing adverse CNS side effects such as sedation, confusion and addictive potential. Three recent studies in humans--two genetic and functional studies in rare genetic disorders, and a third study showing a role for Na(V)1...
September 2015: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
M Catherine Bushnell, Marta Ceko, Lucie A Low
Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in our modern world, with millions of people debilitated by conditions such as back pain, headache and arthritis. To address this growing problem, many people are turning to mind-body therapies, including meditation, yoga and cognitive behavioural therapy. This article will review the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain by cognitive and emotional states - important components of mind-body therapies. It will also examine the accumulating evidence that chronic pain itself alters brain circuitry, including that involved in endogenous pain control, suggesting that controlling pain becomes increasingly difficult as pain becomes chronic...
July 2013: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
A S R Hudson, A C Kunstetter, W C Damasceno, S P Wanner
Physical exercise triggers coordinated physiological responses to meet the augmented metabolic demand of contracting muscles. To provide adequate responses, the brain must receive sensory information about the physiological status of peripheral tissues and organs, such as changes in osmolality, temperature and pH. Most of the receptors involved in these afferent pathways express ion channels, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are usually activated by more than one type of stimulus and are therefore considered polymodal receptors...
2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Georgios Michail, Christian Dresel, Viktor Witkovský, Anne Stankewitz, Enrico Schulz
Although humans are generally capable of distinguishing single events of pain or touch, recent research suggested that both modalities activate a network of similar brain regions. By contrast, less attention has been paid to which processes uniquely contribute to each modality. The present study investigated the neuronal oscillations that enable a subject to process pain and touch as well as to evaluate the intensity of both modalities by means of Electroencephalography. Nineteen healthy subjects were asked to rate the intensity of each stimulus at single trial level...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yifei Guo, Yuzheng Wang, Yabin Sun, Jin-Yan Wang
The transition from acute pain to chronic pain entails considerable changes of patients at multiple levels of the nervous system and in psychological states. An accurate differentiation between acute and chronic pain is essential in pain management as it may help optimize analgesic treatments according to the pain state of patients. Given that acute and chronic pain could modulate brain states in different ways and that brain states could greatly shape the neural processing of external inputs, we hypothesized that acute and chronic pain would show differential effects on cortical responses to non-nociceptive sensory information...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
W J Smith, J Stewart, J G Pfaus
Brief, intermittent stressors, such as low-level foot shock or tail pinch, induce a general excitement and autonomic arousal in rats that increases their sensitivity to external incentives. Such stimulation can facilitate a variety of behaviors, including feeding, aggression, sexual activity, parental behavior, and drug taking if the appropriate stimuli exist in the environment. However, the ability of tail pinch to induce general arousal and incentive motivation appears to diminish with age. Here we report on the ability of tail pinch to induce Fos immunoreactivity within several brain regions as a function of age...
May 1997: Physiology & Behavior
Masabumi Minami, Masamichi Satoh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2005: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Minoru Narita, Satoru Ozaki, Michiko Narita, Yuya Ise, Yoshinori Yajima, Tsutomu Suzuki
A little or none is known about the direct evidence for the possible change in the expression of c-fos at the supraspinal level after nerve injury. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the level of c-fos in some brain regions following sciatic nerve ligation in the rat. Immunoblot analysis clearly showed that the levels of c-fos in the rat frontal cortex, thalamus and periaqueductal gray matter were significantly increased, whereas it was significantly decreased in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area...
December 11, 2003: Neuroscience Letters
G J Ter Horst, W J Meijler, J Korf, R H Kemper
Little is known about trigeminal nociception-induced cerebral activity and involvement of cerebral structures in pathogenesis of trigeminovascular headaches such as migraine. Neuroimaging has demonstrated cortical, hypothalamic and brainstem activation during the attack and after abolition with sumatriptan. This has led to the conclusion that the dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus may initiate events that generate migraneous headache. Using a conscious rat model of trigeminal nociception and cerebral Fos expression as histochemical markers of neuronal activity, we characterized the pattern of brain activity after noxious trigeminal stimulation with capsaicin (250 and 1000 nm)...
December 2001: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Myeounghoon Cha, Kevin J Kohan, Xiaozhuo Zuo, Jennifer X Ling, Jianguo G Gu
Classical behavioral tests in animal models of trigeminal neuropathic pain measure reflexive responses that are not necessarily measures of pain. To overcome the problem, we created a chronic constrictive nerve injury (CCI) rat model of pain by ligation of the infraorbital nerve (ION), and applied the orofacial operant test to assess behavioral responses to mechanical and cold stimulation in these rats. Animals were trained to voluntarily contact their facial region to a mechanical or a cold stimulation module in order to access sweetened milk as a positive reward...
September 1, 2012: Behavioural Brain Research
Mary M Heinricher
There is now increasing evidence that pathological pain states are at least in part driven by changes in the brain itself. Descending modulatory pathways are known to mediate top-down regulation of nociceptive processing, transmitting cortical and limbic influences to the dorsal horn. However, these modulatory pathways are also intimately intertwined with ascending transmission pathways through positive and negative feedback loops. Models of persistent pain that fail to include descending modulatory pathways are thus incomplete...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
V Loomba, H Kaveeshvar, A Upadhyay, N Sibai
Neuropathic pain (NP) is initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system. The NP in cancer patients is typically due to a combination of inflammatory, neuropathic, ischemic, infiltrative, and compression mechanisms that involve one or more anatomic sites. These patients will often have various types of co-existing pain syndromes and co-morbidities. Thus, any treatment plan needs to be individualized. After a thorough clinical assessment and evaluation, a combination therapy including anticonvulsants, antidepressants, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists, opiates, topical agents, and interventional procedures should be considered in these patients...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Cancer
Ivliane Nozadze, Nana Tsiklauri, Gulnaz Gurtskaia, Merab G Tsagareli
Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels have been extensively investigated as targets for analgesic drug discovery. Because some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are structural analogs of prostaglandins (mediators of inflammation) and NSAIDs attenuate heat nociception and mechanical allodynia in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, we examined three widely used NSAIDs (diclofenac, ketorolac, and xefocam) on the activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels using thermal paw withdrawal (Hargreaves) test and mechanical paw withdrawal (von Frey) test in male rats...
March 2016: Data in Brief
Dong Qi, Yingying Yang, Ping Ji, Jingjing Kong, Qingting Wu, Huiling Si
AIMS: To evaluate whether the purinergic receptor subtype P2X3 (P2X3R) in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons is involved in hyperalgesia of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and masseter muscles associated with placement of an occlusal interference. METHODS: Forty-five rats were randomized into five groups (ie, for days 1, 3, 7, 14, or 28; nine rats per group). Six rats from each group were chosen to receive the occlusal interference, and the remaining three rats were sham-treated controls...
2016: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
Bryan F Taylor, Harvey E Ramirez, August H Battles, Karl A Andrutis, John K Neubert
Effective pain management for rats and mice is crucial due to the continuing increase in the use of these species in biomedical research. Here we used a recently validated operant orofacial pain assay to determine dose-response curves for buprenorphine and tramadol when mixed in nut paste and administered to male and female rats. Statistically significant analgesic doses of tramadol in nut paste included doses of 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg for female rats but only 40 mg/kg for male rats. For male rats receiving buprenorphine mixed in nut paste, a significant analgesic response was observed at 0...
January 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
2016-02-19 09:28:53
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