Read by QxMD icon Read


shared collection
34 papers 0 to 25 followers
Domenico Bove, Rocco M Bove, Stefano Caccavale, Carmela Bravaccio, Maria Marino, Maddalena La Montagna
A reorganization of the brain occurs in adolescence and it is documented by neuroimaging, neurophysiology and pathology of development. The high levels of neural plasticity allow the intellectual and emotional development during adolescence, a transition period of life full of physical and psychological changes. However, potentially dangerous agents could be the genesis of psychopathology of the adult and mental illness or distress. Adolescence is a crucial phase for the maturation of the brain. Therefore, future research should study how the environment affects and influences the function and the organization of the brain...
April 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Marcella Bellani, Filippo Boschello, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Nicola Dusi, Carlo Alfredo Altamura, Mirella Ruggeri, Paolo Brambilla
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric illness with a chronic recurrent course, ranked among the worldwide leading disabling diseases. Its pathophysiology is still not completely understood and findings are still inconclusive, though a great interest on the topic has been constantly raised by magnetic resonance imaging, genetic and neuropathological studies. In recent years, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) investigations have prompted interest in the key role of white matter (WM) abnormalities in BD. In this report, we summarize and comment recent findings from DTI studies in BD, reporting fractional anisotropy as putative measure of WM integrity, as well as recent data from neuropathological studies focusing on oligodendrocyte involvement in WM alterations in BD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Riccardo Navarra, Carlo Sestieri, Emanuela Conte, Rita Salomone, Peter A Mattei, Gian L Romani, Sergio Domizio, Massimo Caulo
Preterm neonates represent a high-risk population for abnormal neuropsychological development. But presently, an accurate method for identifying those at risk is not available. This study evaluated the association between the microstructural organization measured with Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) in term-corrected preterm neonates and subsequent motor performance. Fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusion (AD), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were determined in two regions of interest (ROIs) corresponding to the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and cortico-spinal tract (CST)...
April 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
Marco Catani, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Sanja Budisavljevic, Henrietta Howells, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Seán Froudist-Walsh, Lucio D'Anna, Abigail Thompson, Stefano Sandrone, Edward T Bullmore, John Suckling, Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael V Lombardo, Sally J Wheelwright, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Meng-Chuan Lai, Amber N V Ruigrok, Alexander Leemans, Christine Ecker, Mrc Aims Consortium, Michael C Craig, Declan G M Murphy
It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder...
February 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
V M Vogan, B R Morgan, R C Leung, E Anagnostou, K Doyle-Thomas, M J Taylor
Diffusion tensor imaging studies show white matter (WM) abnormalities in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, investigations are often limited by small samples, particularly problematic given the heterogeneity of ASD. We explored WM using DTI in a large sample of 130 children and adolescents (7-15 years) with and without ASD, whether age-related changes differed between ASD and control groups, and the relation between DTI measures and ASD symptomatology. Reduced fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity were observed in ASD in numerous WM tracts, including the corpus callosum and thalamocortical fibres-tracts crucial for interhemispheric connectivity and higher order information processing...
June 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Mark Drakesmith, Anirban Dutt, Leon Fonville, Stanley Zammit, Abraham Reichenberg, C John Evans, Glyn Lewis, Derek K Jones, Anthony S David
IMPORTANCE: White matter (WM) abnormalities have been identified in schizophrenia at the earliest stages of the disorder. Individuals in the general population with psychotic experiences (PEs) may show similar changes, suggesting dysfunction due to aberrant neurodevelopment. Studying such people is a powerful means of understanding the nature of neurodevelopmental problems without the confound of clinical management and allows other potential risk factors associated with the schizophrenia spectrum to be taken into account...
April 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Yu Sun, Yu Chen, Renick Lee, Anastasios Bezerianos, Simon L Collinson, Kang Sim
Despite convergent neuroimaging evidence indicating a wide range of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, our understanding of alterations in the topological architecture of brain anatomical networks and how they are modulated over time, is still rudimentary. Here, we employed graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI) over a 5-year period to investigate brain network topology in schizophrenia and its relationship with clinical manifestations of the illness. Using deterministic tractography, weighted brain anatomical networks were constructed from 31 patients experiencing schizophrenia and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects...
March 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Shanna Cooper, Kylie H Alm, Ingrid R Olson, Lauren M Ellman
AIM: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies suggest that reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) occurs among schizophrenia patients and those at risk for psychosis. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of knowledge investigating white matter fibre pathways in non-help-seeking individuals who endorse attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) across a range of mental disorders. The aim of the current study was to determine if alterations in ILF and SLF microstructures were specific to distressing APPS related to risk for psychosis or to APPS symptoms occurring in multiple mental disorders, which would suggest a shared phenotype among disorders...
June 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Fang-Cheng Yeh, Li Liu, T Kevin Hitchens, Yijen L Wu
PURPOSE: Diffusion MRI provides a noninvasive way to assess tissue microstructure. Based on diffusion MRI, we propose a model-free method called restricted diffusion imaging (RDI) to quantify restricted diffusion and correlate it with cellularity. THEORY AND METHODS: An analytical relation between q-space signals and the density of restricted spins was derived to quantify restricted diffusion. A phantom study was conducted to investigate the performance of RDI, and RDI was applied to an animal study to assess immune cell infiltration in myocardial tissues with ischemia-reperfusion injury...
February 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Annika Rausch, Wei Zhang, Koen V Haak, Maarten Mennes, Erno J Hermans, Erik van Oort, Guido van Wingen, Christian F Beckmann, Jan K Buitelaar, Wouter B Groen
BACKGROUND: Amygdala dysfunction is hypothesized to underlie the social deficits observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the neurobiological basis of this hypothesis is underspecified because it is unknown whether ASD relates to abnormalities of the amygdaloid input or output nuclei. Here, we investigated the functional connectivity of the amygdaloid social-perceptual input nuclei and emotion-regulation output nuclei in ASD versus controls. METHODS: We collected resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, tailored to provide optimal sensitivity in the amygdala as well as the neocortex, in 20 adolescents and young adults with ASD and 25 matched controls...
2016: Molecular Autism
Dominic E Job, David Alexander Dickie, David Rodriguez, Andrew Robson, Sammy Danso, Cyril Pernet, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman, Alison D Murray, Trevor Ahearn, Gordon D Waiter, Roger T Staff, Ian J Deary, Susan D Shenkin, Joanna M Wardlaw
The Brain Images of Normal Subjects (BRAINS) Imagebank ( is an integrated repository project hosted by the University of Edinburgh and sponsored by the Scottish Imaging Network: A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) collaborators. BRAINS provide sharing and archiving of detailed normal human brain imaging and relevant phenotypic data already collected in studies of healthy volunteers across the life-course. It particularly focusses on the extremes of age (currently older age, and in future perinatal) where variability is largest, and which are under-represented in existing databanks...
January 2017: NeuroImage
J-W Jeong, S Sundaram, M E Behen, H T Chugani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pure speech delay is a common developmental disorder which, according to some estimates, affects 5%-8% of the population. Speech delay may not only be an isolated condition but also can be part of a broader condition such as global developmental delay. The present study investigated whether diffusion tensor imaging tractography-based connectome can differentiate global developmental delay from speech delay in young children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve children with pure speech delay (39...
June 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Ken Sakaie, Masaya Takahashi, Gina Remington, Xiaofeng Wang, Amy Conger, Darrel Conger, Ivan Dimitrov, Stephen Jones, Ashley Frohman, Teresa Frohman, Koji Sagiyama, Osamu Togao, Robert J Fox, Elliot Frohman
OBJECTIVE: To test the validity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of tissue injury by examining such measures in a white matter structure with well-defined function, the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF). Injury to the MLF underlies internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO). METHODS: 40 MS patients with chronic INO and 15 healthy controls were examined under an IRB-approved protocol. Tissue integrity of the MLF was characterized by DTI parameters: longitudinal diffusivity (LD), transverse diffusivity (TD), mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA)...
2016: PloS One
Paola Magioncalda, Matteo Martino, Benedetta Conio, Niccolò Piaggio, Roxana Teodorescu, Andrea Escelsior, Valentina Marozzi, Giulio Rocchi, Luca Roccatagliata, Georg Northoff, Matilde Inglese, Mario Amore
BACKGROUND: In recent years, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have detected subtle microstructural abnormalities of white matter (WM) in type I bipolar disorder (BD). However, WM alterations in the different phases of BD remain to be explored. The aims of this study is to investigate the WM alterations in the various phases of illness and their correlations with clinical and neurocognitive features. METHODS: We investigated the DTI-derived fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in patients with type I BD (n=61) subdivided in manic (n=21), depressive (n=20) and euthymic phases (n=20) vs...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Steven G Greening, Derek G V Mitchell
In this study we demonstrate that the pattern of an amygdala-centric network contributes to individual differences in trait anxiety. Individual differences in trait anxiety were predicted using maximum likelihood estimates of amygdala structural connectivity to multiple brain targets derived from diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic tractography on 72 participants. The prediction was performed using a stratified sixfold cross validation procedure using a regularized least square regression model...
December 2015: Human Brain Mapping
Sungji Ha, In-Jung Sohn, Namwook Kim, Hyeon Jeong Sim, Keun-Ah Cheon
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). Over the past decade, neuroimaging studies have provided considerable insights underlying neurobiological mechanisms of ASD. In this review, we introduce recent findings from brain imaging studies to characterize the brains of ASD across the human lifespan. Results of structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies dealing with total brain volume, regional brain structure and cortical area are summarized...
December 2015: Experimental Neurobiology
Yvonne Koenraads, Giorgio L Porro, Kees P J Braun, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Niek E van der Aa
PURPOSE: Visual field (VF) defects are common sequelae of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS). The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for VF defects following PAIS. METHODS: Nineteen infants with unilateral PAIS, who underwent conventional MRI (T1/T2) and DTI at three months of age and a VF examination later in life (median age 3.2 yrs) were included. Conventional T1-weighted MRI was used to assess asymmetry of the optic radiation (OR)...
March 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Kentaro Akazawa, Linda Chang, Robyn Yamakawa, Sara Hayama, Steven Buchthal, Daniel Alicata, Tamara Andres, Deborrah Castillo, Kumiko Oishi, Jon Skranes, Thomas Ernst, Kenichi Oishi
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to investigate the development of the neonatal and infant brain, and deviations related to various diseases or medical conditions like preterm birth. In this study, we created a probabilistic map of fiber pathways with known associated functions, on a published neonatal multimodal atlas. The pathways-of-interest include the superficial white matter (SWM) fibers just beneath the specific cytoarchitectonically defined cortical areas, which were difficult to evaluate with existing DTI analysis methods...
March 2016: NeuroImage
Mirjam A W Rinne-Albers, Steven J A van der Werff, Marie-José van Hoof, Natasja D van Lang, Francien Lamers-Winkelman, Serge A Rombouts, Robert R J M Vermeiren, Nic J A van der Wee
This study seeks to determine whether white matter integrity in the brain differs between adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and matched healthy adolescents and whether there is a relationship between white matter integrity and symptom severity in the patient group. Using 3T diffusion tensor imaging, we examined fractional anisotropy (FA) in a group of adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (n = 20) and matched healthy controls (n = 20), in a region of interest consisting of the bilateral uncinate fasciculus (UF), the genu, splenium and body of the corpus callosum (CC), and the bilateral cingulum...
August 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
André Schmidt, Claudia Lenz, Renata Smieskova, Fabienne Harrisberger, Anna Walter, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Andor Simon, Undine E Lang, Philip McGuire, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Stefan J Borgwardt
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown microstructural changes in the brain white matter of at-risk mental state (ARMS) subjects for psychosis and patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, only a few studies have been conducted in clinical high-risk samples and findings in both groups are inconsistent, in particular along the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). METHODS: This DTI study used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between ARMS subjects, untreated and antipsychotic-treated FEP patients and healthy controls (HC) across the whole brain and the SLF...
2015: Neuro-Signals
2015-12-22 19:34:27
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"