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Rectal cancer

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By Christian Zalai Colorectal surgeon based in Montreal
Amish Acharya, Sheraz R Markar, Michael Matar, Melody Ni, George B Hanna
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal cancers constitute the third most common cancers worldwide. Tumor markers have long since been used in the postoperative surveillance of these malignancies; however, the true value in clinical practice remains undetermined. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of three tumor markers in colorectal and esophagogastric cancer. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to elicit the sensitivity, specificity, statistical heterogeneity and ability to predict recurrence and metastases for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 and CA125...
May 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
J S M Wong, G H C Tan, M C C Teo
INTRODUCTION: Para-aortic lymph node (PALN) involvement occurs in up to 2% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. While resection for isolated hepatic and pulmonary metastases in colorectal cancer is standard practice, the role of PALN dissection (PALND) in CRC has not been established and remains a controversy. We aim to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine if extensive lymphadenectomy improves survival, and is an acceptable strategy for PALN metastasis (PALNM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases for studies reporting on patients with isolated PALNM in CRC was performed...
December 2016: Surgical Oncology
M C Arroyave, F B DeLacy, A M Lacy
Interest in transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) is growing worldwide due to the application of minimally invasive techniques to rectal cancer surgery while maintaining adequate oncologic outcomes. This article presents the standardised and refined technique after performing more than 300 operations at Hospital Clinic of Barcelona.
February 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
J D Williams, Paul E Wischmeyer
BACKGROUND: Implementation of evidence-based peri-operative nutrition in the U.S. is poorly described and hypothesized to be suboptimal. This study broadly describes practices and attitudes regarding nutrition screening/intervention in U.S. gastrointestinal and oncologic surgeons. METHODS: Nationwide nutritional practice survey of GI/Oncologic surgical faculty. RESULTS: Program response rates were 57% and 81% for colorectal and oncology fellowships, respectively...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
C L Deijen, A Tsai, T W A Koedam, M Veltcamp Helbach, C Sietses, A M Lacy, H J Bonjer, J B Tuynman
Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) has been developed to improve quality of TME for patients with mid and low rectal cancer. However, despite enthusiastic uptake and teaching facilities, concern exists for safe introduction. TaTME is a complex procedure and potentially a learning curve will hamper clinical outcome. With this systematic review, we aim to provide data regarding morbidity and safety of TaTME. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (Ovid) and Cochrane Library...
December 2016: Techniques in Coloproctology
Max S Chiu, Vivek Verma, Nathan R Bennion, Abhijeet R Bhirud, Jinluan Li, Mary E Charlton, Chandrakanth Are, Chi Lin
Large, population-based analyses of rectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have not been previously conducted. We assessed patterns of care, prognostic factors, and outcomes of rectal SCC and adenocarcinoma (AC) in population-based cohorts. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry searches were performed (1998-2011), producing 42,308 nonmetastatic rectal cancer patients (999 SCC and 41,309 AC). Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were compared. Based on risk factors, SCC/AC groups were subdivided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups...
December 2016: Cancer Medicine
Jason B Liu, Clifford Y Ko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Yun Yang, Ye Shu, Fangyu Su, Lin Xia, Baofeng Duan, Xiaoting Wu
BACKGROUND: Transanal decompression tube (TDT), an alternative intervention believed to have potential equivalent efficacy in reducing anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery and lower complication rates compared to protective stoma, was sporadically applied in some medical centers during recent decade. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of the TDT in preventing the anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection for rectal cancer. METHODS: The studies comparing TDT and non-TDT in rectal cancer were researched up to March 22, 2016 without language preference, in databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane library, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and National Clinical Trials Registry...
April 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
Luigi Boni, Abe Fingerhut, Alessandro Marzorati, Stefano Rausei, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Elisa Cassinotti
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal anastomoses after anterior resection for cancer carry a high risk of leakage. Different factors might influence the correct healing of anastomosis, but adequate perfusion of the bowel is highlighted as one of the most important elements. Fluorescence angiography (FA) is a new technique that allows the surgeon to perform real-time intraoperative angiography to evaluate the perfusion of the anastomosis and hence, potentially, reduce leak rate. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of FA of the bowel on postoperative complications and anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic anterior resection with total mesorectal excision (TME)...
April 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
Amjad Shalabi, Simon Daniel Duek, Wisam Khoury
BACKGROUND: Diverting ileostomy is recommended in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and low anterior resection for low-rectal cancer. Prior to ileostomy reversal, water-soluble enema is performed to assess the low colorectal anastomosis. The aim of this study was to assess whether performance of routine water-soluble enema prior to ileostomy takedown is necessary. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All mid-low rectal cancer patients who underwent low anterior resection with temporary diverting ileostomy after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, between 2006 and 2013, were identified, retrospectively...
October 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
M Parthasarathy, M Greensmith, D Bowers, T Groot-Wassink
AIM: A large, prospectively collected, clinical database was analysed to determine the various pre- and intra-operative factors affecting anastomotic leakage (AL) in colorectal surgery. METHOD: Data on 17 518 patients having a colorectal resection with anastomosis, taken from the 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, were included in the study. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify risk-adjusted predictive factors for AL...
March 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
S Balyasnikova, J Read, D Tait, A Wotherspoon, I Swift, D Cunningham, P Tekkis, G Brown
AIM: The study aimed to establish the oncological outcome of patients who opted for close surveillance with or without adjuvant chemoradiotherapy rather than radical surgery after local excision (LE) of early rectal cancer. METHOD: The Royal Marsden Hospital Rectal Cancer database was used to identify rectal cancer patients treated by primary LE from 2006 to 2015. All patients were entered in an intensive surveillance programme. RESULTS: Twenty-eight of 34 analysed patients had a high or very high risk of residual disease predicted by adverse histopathological features for which the recommendation had been radical surgery...
February 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Masafumi Kuramoto, Satoshi Ikeshima, Kenichiro Yamamoto, Keisuke Morita, Tomoyuki Uchihara, Rumi Itouyama, Shinichi Yoshimatsu, Shinya Shimada, Hideo Baba
The double stapling technique (DST) is an intestinal reconstruction technique that has been widely adopted in anterior resection (AR) for rectal cancer. However, anastomotic leakage (AL) after the operation remains a major concern for colorectal surgeons. The sharp-angled corner of the remnant rectum that is often created by the ordinary DST can be a risk factor for AL. We have developed a new method of performing intentional oblique transection DST (IOT-DST). Using this technique, the anal side of the rectum is intentionally obliquely transected with linear staplers, and the area of the sharp-angled edge is totally punched out with a circular stapler...
April 2017: Surgery Today
Marco E Allaix, Giuseppe Giraudo, Alessia Ferrarese, Alberto Arezzo, Fabrizio Rebecchi, Mario Morino
BACKGROUND: Only few studies have compared laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME) and open total mesorectal excision (OTME) for rectal cancer with follow-up longer than 5 years. The aim of this study was to compare 10-year oncologic outcomes after LTME and OTME for nonmetastatic rectal cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective database of rectal cancer patients undergoing LTME or OTME. Statistical analyses were performed on an ''intention-to-treat'' basis and by actual treatment...
December 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Jacob Gehrman, Ingela Björholt, Eva Angenete, John Andersson, Jaap Bonjer, Eva Haglind
BACKGROUND: Previous studies regarding the comparative costs of laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer provide ambiguous conclusions, and there are no large randomized trials or long-term follow-up. METHODS: A prospective cost-minimization analysis was carried out by using data of clinical resource use from the randomized controlled trial COLOR II. Some data needed for the health economic evaluation were not collected in the clinical trial; therefore, a retrospective data collection was made for COLOR II-patients operated at the largest participating Swedish hospital (n = 105)...
March 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
S Atallah, M Albert, J R T Monson
Over the past 3 years, colorectal surgeons have begun to adapt the technique of transanal total mesorectal excision. As international experience has been quickly forged, an improved recognition of the pitfalls and the practical details of this disruptive technique have been realized. The purpose of this technical note was to express the various nuances of transanal total mesorectal excision as learned during the course of its clinical application and international teaching, so as to rapidly communicate and share important insights with other surgeons who are in the early adoption phase of this approach...
July 2016: Techniques in Coloproctology
Anne K Danielsen, Jennifer Park, Jens E Jansen, David Bock, Stefan Skullman, Anette Wedin, Adiela Correa Marinez, Eva Haglind, Eva Angenete, Jacob Rosenberg
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study morbidity and mortality associated with early closure (8-13 days) of a temporary stoma compared with standard procedure (closure after > 12 weeks) after rectal resection for cancer. BACKGROUND: A temporary ileostomy may reduce the risk of pelvic sepsis after anastomotic dehiscence. However, the temporary ileostomy is afflicted with complications and requires a second surgical procedure (closure) with its own complications...
February 2017: Annals of Surgery
Giacomo Ruffo, Giuliano Barugola, Roberto Rossini, Carlo Augusto Sartori
Improving the quality and effectiveness of care is a key priority of any health policy. The outcomes of health care can be considered as indicators of effectiveness or quality. The scientific literature that evaluates the association between the volume of activity and the outcome of health interventions has greatly developed over the past decade, but, for practical reasons, ethical and social issues, a few randomized controlled studies were made to evaluate this association, although there are numerous observational studies of outcome and systematic reviews of the studies themselves...
June 2016: Updates in Surgery
Min Ju Kim, Sung Chan Park, Tae Hyun Kim, Dae Yong Kim, Sun Young Kim, Ji Yeon Baek, Hee Jin Chang, Ji Won Park, Jae Hwan Oh
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of lateral pelvic node dissection after preoperative chemoradiotherapy on rectal cancer patients with initially suspected lateral pelvic nodes. The purpose of this study was to identify a subgroup of patients receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy who can benefit from lateral pelvic node dissection. METHODS: The study included 580 patients who underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy and total mesorectal excision. The lateral pelvic node responses to preoperative chemoradiotherapy were divided: group I (no suspected lateral pelvic node), lateral pelvic node <5 mm pre- and post-chemoradiotherapy; group II (responsive lateral pelvic node), lateral pelvic node ≥5 mm pre-chemoradiotherapy but <5 mm post-chemoradiotherapy; and group III (persistent lateral pelvic node), lateral pelvic node ≥5 mm pre- and post-chemoradiotherapy...
August 2016: Surgery
Laura Q Mortensen, Jakob Burcharth, Kristoffer Andresen, Hans-Christian Pommergaard, Jacob Rosenberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between diverticulitis and colon cancer in a large, nationwide cohort study. BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis is a common disease, especially in the Western world. Previous articles have investigated the association between diverticulitis and colon cancer with inconclusive results. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study based on longitudinal Danish national registers with data from the period 1995 to 2012...
May 2017: Annals of Surgery
2016-05-28 02:22:37
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