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Neonatal nutrition

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22 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692935/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-and-nutritional-strategies-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#1
Mandy Brown Belfort, Richard A Ehrenkranz
The developing brain of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant is highly sensitive to effects of the nutritional milieu during the neonatal hospitalization and after discharge. Strategies to optimize nutritional care play an important role in reducing long-term neurodevelopmental morbidities in this population. Currently available interventions to ensure that the unique nutrient requirements of the VLBW infant are met include various dietary fortification strategies and parenteral nutrition. In this article, we review evidence regarding nutritional strategies and their beneficial effects on neurodevelopment in VLBW infants...
September 29, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780534/lactobacillus-sepsis-following-a-laparotomy-in-a-preterm-infant-a-note-of-caution
#2
REVIEW
Marcus Brecht, Alka Garg, Karen Longstaff, Celia Cooper, Chad Andersen
Probiotics for preterm infants have been shown to reduce the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in a recent meta-analysis. It has been argued, however, that some of these results may not be applicable to specific subgroups, e.g. infants with a birth weight of <1,000 g. The specific role of probiotics in improving health outcomes in preterm and term infants following intestinal surgery is not well defined. We report a case of a premature infant diagnosed with late-onset sepsis due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus following a laparotomy...
2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859305/routine-use-of-probiotics-in-preterm-infants-longitudinal-impact-on-the-microbiome-and-metabolome
#3
Bashir Abdulkadir, Andrew Nelson, Tom Skeath, Emma C L Marrs, John D Perry, Stephen P Cummings, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Christopher J Stewart
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are live microbial supplements that colonize the gut and potentially exert health benefit to the host. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the impact of a probiotic (Infloran®: Lactobacillus acidophilus-NCIMB701748 and Bifidobacterium bifidum-ATCC15696) on the bacterial and metabolic function of the preterm gut while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and following discharge. METHODS: Stool samples (n = 88) were collected before, during, and after probiotic intake from 7 patients, along with time-matched controls from 3 patients...
2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26624488/prophylactic-probiotics-for-preterm-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#4
Rie Olsen, Gorm Greisen, Morten Schrøder, Jesper Brok
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm the efficacy of probiotics in preterm neonates obtained in observational studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of prophylactic probiotics in preterm infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed searching PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library) and www...
2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26867763/improving-growth-in-preterm-infants-during-initial-hospital-stay-principles-into-practice
#5
Richard J Cooke
Despite recent innovations in nutritional care, postnatal growth failure between birth and hospital discharge remains a significant problem in preterm infants. Whether or not it is entirely preventable is unclear. What is clear is that feeding practices and growth outcomes vary widely between neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This partly reflects lack of data in key areas but it also reflects inconsistent translation of principles into practice and limitations in the way infants are fed and growth monitored in the NICU...
July 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26812855/omega-3-fatty-acids-modulate-neonatal-cytokine-response-to-endotoxin
#6
Michael M Espiritu, Hong Lin, Elizabeth Foley, Valerie Tsang, Eunice Rhee, Jeffrey Perlman, Susanna Cunningham-Rundles
Neonatal immune response is characterized by an uncompensated pro-inflammatory response that can lead to inflammation-related morbidity and increased susceptibility to infection. We investigated the effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) pre-treatment on cytokine secretion to low-concentration endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in THP-1 monocytes and neonatal cord blood (CB) from healthy full-term infants. Pre-treatment of THP-1 cells, with either n-3 PUFA at 25 or 100 μM significantly reduced IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 secretion while DHA, but not EPA, reduced TNF-α response to LPS...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26845714/vertically-transmitted-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-newborn-preterm-infants
#7
Carla Balcells, Francesc Botet, Sònia Gayete, M Ángeles Marcos, Izaskun Dorronsoro, Concepción de Alba, Josep Figueras-Aloy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology of congenital and acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in preterm infants and to analyze the efficacy of breast milk freezing in decreasing the vertical transmission rate of CMV. STUDY DESIGN: During 2013 and 2014, preterm newborns who weighed ≤1500 g and were admitted to 22 Spanish neonatal units were included and screened for CMV infection according to the Spanish Neonatology Society recommendations. Each hospital treated the breast milk according to its own protocols...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26348113/early-enhanced-parenteral-nutrition-hyperglycemia-and-death-among-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#8
Hans Jorgen Stensvold, Kenneth Strommen, Astri M Lang, Tore G Abrahamsen, Eline Kjorsvik Steen, Are H Pripp, Arild E Ronnestad
IMPORTANCE: Efforts to optimize early parenteral nutrition (PN) in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants to promote growth and development may increase hyperglycemia risk. Recent studies have identified an association between early hyperglycemia and adverse outcomes in ELBW infants. OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of early hyperglycemia and clinical outcomes among ELBW infants before (2002-2005) and after (2006-2011) the implementation of an early enhanced PN protocol and to assess the independent effects of early enhanced PN and early hyperglycemia on mortality...
November 2015: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26264568/consumption-of-fish-and-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-pregnancy-has-the-tide-turned
#9
COMMENT
Emily Oken
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26098767/parenteral-nutrition-with-fish-oil-supplements-is-safe-and-seems-to-be-effective-in-severe-preterm-neonates-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#10
Laurent Béghin, Laurent Storme, Stéphanie Coopman, Thameur Rakza, Frédéric Gottrand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26066763/infant-driven-feeding-in-premature-infants-a-quality-improvement-project
#11
Abigail Wellington, Jeffrey M Perlman
BACKGROUND: Many neonatal units are adopting developmentally appropriate feeding practices such as cue-based or infant-driven feeding (IDF). There have been limited studies examining the clinical benefit of this approach. METHODS: A quality improvement initiative was undertaken to introduce an IDF protocol for premature infants <34 weeks gestational age (GA). Data were abstracted to determine whether time to full feeds and time to discharge would be shortened when compared with traditional practitioner-driven feeding (PDF) approach...
November 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25986018/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-cognition-in-vlbw-infants-at-8-years-an-rct
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Astrid Nylander Almaas, Christian K Tamnes, Britt Nakstad, Christine Henriksen, Kristine B Walhovd, Anders M Fjell, Paulina Due-Tønnessen, Christian A Drevon, Per Ole Iversen
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that supplementation with the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to very low birth weight (VLBW) infants would improve long-term cognitive functions and influence neuroanatomical volumes and cerebral cortex measured by MRI. METHODS: The current study is a follow-up of a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of supplementation with high-dose DHA (0.86%) and AA (0...
June 2015: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25986026/the-long-and-short-of-it-long-chain-fatty-acids-and-long-term-outcomes-for-premature-infants
#13
COMMENT
Maria Makrides, Ronald E Kleinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25967892/improved-visual-perception-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-on-enhanced-nutrient-supply
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Elin W Blakstad, Kenneth Strømmen, Sissel J Moltu, John Wattam-Bell, Trond Nordheim, Astrid N Almaas, Morten Grønn, Arild E Rønnestad, Kristin Brække, Per Ole Iversen, Claes von Hofsten, Marit B Veierød, Ane C Westerberg, Christian A Drevon, Britt Nakstad
BACKGROUND: Optimal nutrient supply to very low birth weight (VLBW: BW <1,500 g) infants is important for growth and neurodevelopment. Growth restriction is common among these infants and may be associated with neurocognitive impairments. OBJECTIVES: To compare an enhanced nutrient supply to a routine supply given to VLBW infants and to evaluate the effects on visual perception of global form and motion measured by visual event-related potentials (VERP). METHODS: A total of 50 VLBW infants were randomized to an intervention group that received an increased supply of energy, protein, fat, essential fatty acids, and vitamin A or a control group that received standard nutritional care...
2015: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25545445/nil-per-os-days-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Maksim Kirtsman, Eugene W Yoon, Cecil Ojah, Zenon Cieslak, Shoo K Lee, Prakesh S Shah
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the association between nil-per-os (NPO) days and development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in extremely preterm neonates (<29 weeks gestational age). STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study of 234 extremely preterm neonates who developed stage II or III NEC and 467 matched control infants admitted to participating sites in the Canadian Neonatal Network between 2010 and 2011 was conducted. The number and percentage of NPO days before the development of NEC was compared with the equivalent period in control infants using logistic regression...
July 2015: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25765818/cost-savings-of-human-milk-as-a-strategy-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#16
Tricia J Johnson, Aloka L Patel, Harold R Bigger, Janet L Engstrom, Paula P Meier
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a costly morbidity in very low birth weight (VLBW; <1,500 g birth weight) infants that increases hospital length of stay and requires expensive treatments. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost of NEC as a function of dose and exposure period of human milk (HM) feedings received by VLBW infants during the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization and determine the drivers of differences in NICU hospitalization costs for infants with and without NEC...
2015: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25552279/concentrated-parenteral-nutrition-solutions-and-central-venous-catheter-complications-in-preterm-infants
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
T Whitby, P McGowan, M A Turner, C Morgan
UNLABELLED: Standardised, concentrated neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) regimens can overcome early nutritional deficits in very preterm infants. A PN regimen with increased macronutrient content (standardised, concentrated, added macronutrients parenteral (SCAMP)) has been shown to improve early head growth in a randomised controlled trial. Line complications including late onset sepsis were secondary outcomes of this study. Infants were started on standardised, concentrated PN at birth and randomised at 2-5 days to either switch to SCAMP or remain on control PN...
May 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25624376/oropharyngeal-colostrum-administration-in-extremely-premature-infants-an-rct
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Juyoung Lee, Han-Suk Kim, Young Hwa Jung, Ka Young Choi, Seung Han Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim, Jung-Hwan Choi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the immunologic effects of oropharyngeal colostrum administration in extremely premature infants. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial involving 48 preterm infants born before 28 weeks' gestation. Subjects received 0.2 mL of their mother's colostrum or sterile water via oropharyngeal route every 3 hours for 3 days beginning at 48 to 96 hours of life. To measure concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, and several immune substances, urine and saliva were obtained during the first 24 hours of life and at 8 and 15 days...
February 2015: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25304922/proactive-enteral-nutrition-in-moderately-preterm-small-for-gestational-age-infants-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Enrico Zecca, Simonetta Costa, Giovanni Barone, Lucia Giordano, Chiara Zecca, Luca Maggio
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of a proactive feeding regimen (PFR) in reducing hospital length of stay in a population of moderately preterm small for gestational age (SGA) infants. STUDY DESIGN: SGA infants (z-score <-1.28) of gestational age (GA) 32-36 weeks and birth weight (BW) >1499 g were allocated at random to receive either a PFR, starting with 100 mL/kg/day and gradually increasing to 200 mL/kg/day by day 4, or a standard feeding regimen, starting with 60 mL/kg/day and gradually increasing to 170 mL/kg/day by day 9...
December 2014: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25554815/early-weight-loss-nomograms-for-exclusively-breastfed-newborns
#20
Valerie J Flaherman, Eric W Schaefer, Michael W Kuzniewicz, Sherian X Li, Eileen M Walsh, Ian M Paul
BACKGROUND: The majority of newborns are exclusively breastfed during the birth hospitalization, and weight loss is nearly universal for these neonates. The amount of weight lost varies substantially among newborns with higher amounts of weight loss increasing risk for morbidity. No hour-by-hour newborn weight loss nomogram exists to assist in early identification of those on a trajectory for adverse outcomes. METHODS: For 161 471 term, singleton neonates born at ≥36 weeks' gestation at Northern California Kaiser Permanente hospitals in 2009-2013, data were extracted from the birth hospitalization regarding delivery mode, race/ethnicity, feeding type, and weights from electronic records...
January 2015: Pediatrics
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