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Sports medicine

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19 papers 100 to 500 followers
Katarina Marcinko, Sarah R Sikkema, M Constantine Samaan, Bruce E Kemp, Morgan D Fullerton, Gregory R Steinberg
OBJECTIVE: Endurance exercise training reduces insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an effect often associated with modest weight loss. Recent studies have indicated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lowers blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss; however, the organs affected and mechanisms mediating the glucose lowering effects are not known. Intense exercise increases phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle, adipose tissue and liver...
December 2015: Molecular Metabolism
Pablo Alba-Martín, T Gallego-Izquierdo, Gustavo Plaza-Manzano, Natalia Romero-Franco, Susana Núñez-Nagy, Daniel Pecos-Martín
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome...
July 2015: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Angeliki-Nikoletta Stasinaki, Giorgos Gloumis, Konstantinos Spengos, Anthony J Blazevich, Nikolaos Zaras, Giorgos Georgiadis, Giorgos Karampatsos, Gerasimos Terzis
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of compound vs. complex resistance training on strength, high-speed movement performance, and muscle composition. Eighteen young men completed compound (strength and power sessions on alternate days) or complex training (strength and power sets within a single session) 3 times per week for 6 weeks using bench press, leg press, Smith machine box squat, and jumping exercises. Pre- and posttraining, jumping and throwing performance and maximum bench press, leg press, and Smith machine box squat strength were evaluated...
September 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Angela M Venderley, Wayne W Campbell
The quality of vegetarian diets to meet nutritional needs and support peak performance among athletes continues to be questioned. Appropriately planned vegetarian diets can provide sufficient energy and an appropriate range of carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes to support performance and health. The acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges for carbohydrate, fat and protein of 45-65%, 20-35% and 10-35%, respectively, are appropriate for vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike, especially those who perform endurance events...
2006: Sports Medicine
Katharina C Wirnitzer, Elmar Kornexl
This report describes the dietary intake of a vegan mountain biker (height, 161 cm; weight, 49.6 kg; body mass index, 19.1 kg/m(2); relative peak power output, 4.6 W/kg) during the Transalp Challenge 2004 (altitude climbed, 22,500 m; total distance, 662 km), illustrating an aggressive dietary strategy that allowed the cyclist to be competitive. She finished the 8-stage event in 42 hours (mixed category, rank 16; 514 minutes behind the winners of this category), cycling with an average heart rate of 79.5% of laboratory-determined maximum, spending 892 minutes and 1627 minutes at intensities below and above 80%, respectively...
January 2014: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Gabrielle M Paci, Jeffrey Yao
Treatment of intercarpal ligament injuries in the athlete requires special attention due to several practical and biomechanical considerations. Optimally, the athlete will maintain as much function and range of motion as possible with return to high-impact and load-bearing activity in a timely fashion. Several cutting-edge techniques have arisen in treatment. This article discusses injury patterns in the athlete with scapholunate injury, lunotriquetral injury, scaphotrapezial-trapezoidal injury, and extrinsic ligamentous injury, and the various approaches to addressing these injuries, with a review of the classic as well as newer, innovative techniques...
January 2015: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Paul M La Bounty, Bill I Campbell, Jacob Wilson, Elfego Galvan, John Berardi, Susan M Kleiner, Richard B Kreider, Jeffrey R Stout, Tim Ziegenfuss, Marie Spano, Abbie Smith, Jose Antonio
Position Statement: Admittedly, research to date examining the physiological effects of meal frequency in humans is somewhat limited. More specifically, data that has specifically examined the impact of meal frequency on body composition, training adaptations, and performance in physically active individuals and athletes is scant. Until more research is available in the physically active and athletic populations, definitive conclusions cannot be made. However, within the confines of the current scientific literature, we assert that:1...
2011: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Juan Santiago-Torres, David C Flanigan, R Bryan Butler, Julie Y Bishop
BACKGROUND: Several orthopaedic conditions have been reported to be adversely affected by smoking. Only a few studies have looked at outcomes related to smoking in shoulder surgery. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To determine whether smoking has a negative influence on tendinous, ligamentous, and cartilaginous shoulder surgery. The hypothesis was that smoking has a negative influence from both a basic science and clinical outcomes perspective on soft tissue shoulder surgery...
March 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
P Zimmer, W Bloch, A Schenk, E M Zopf, U Hildebrandt, F Streckmann, J Beulertz, C Koliamitra, F Schollmayer, F Baumann
Exercise has been proven to reduce the risk and progression of various diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that exercise affects the cytokine profile and changes distribution and function of tumor-competitive immune cells. Initial studies have shown that different exercise interventions are associated with epigenetic modifications in different tissues and cell types, such as muscle, fat, brain and blood. The present investigation examines the effect of an intense endurance run (half marathon) on global epigenetic modifications in natural killer (NK) cells in 14 cancer patients compared to 14 healthy controls...
June 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Glenn S Fleisig, Charles E Leddon, Walter A Laughlin, Michael G Ciccotti, Bert R Mandelbaum, Kyle T Aune, Rafael F Escamilla, Toran D MacLeod, James R Andrews
BACKGROUND: A relatively high number of active professional baseball pitchers have a history of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLr) on their throwing elbow. Controversy exists in the literature about whether professional baseball pitchers regain optimal performance after return from UCLr. It has been suggested that pitchers may have different biomechanics after UCLr, but this has not been previously tested. HYPOTHESIS: It was hypothesized that, compared with a control group without a history of UCLr, professional pitchers with a history of UCLr would have (1) significantly different throwing elbow and shoulder biomechanics; (2) a shortened stride, insufficient trunk forward tilt, and excessive shoulder horizontal adduction, characteristics associated with "holding back" or being tentative; (3) late shoulder rotation; and (4) improper shoulder abduction and trunk lateral tilt...
May 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Edward Shields, Joshua R Olsen, Richard B Williams, Lucien Rouse, Michael Maloney, Ilya Voloshin
BACKGROUND: Distal biceps brachii tendon repairs performed with a tension slide technique using a cortical button (CB) and interference screw are stronger than those based on suture fixation through bone tunnels (BTs) in biomechanical studies. However, clinical comparison of these 2 techniques is lacking in the literature. PURPOSE: To perform a clinical comparison of the single-incision CB and double-incision BT techniques. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3...
May 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Stephen M Suydam, Thomas S Buchanan, Kurt Manal, Karin Gravare Silbernagel
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between the lengthening of the Achilles tendon post-rupture and surgical repair to muscle activation patterns during walking in order to serve as a reference for post-surgical assessment. METHOD: The Achilles tendon lengths were collected from 4 patients with an Achilles tendon rupture 6 and 12 months post-surgery along with 5 healthy controls via ultrasound. EMG was collected from the triceps surae muscles and tibialis anterior during overground walking...
March 2015: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Hans-Wilhelm Mueller-Wohlfahrt, Lutz Haensel, Kai Mithoefer, Jan Ekstrand, Bryan English, Steven McNally, John Orchard, C Niek van Dijk, Gino M Kerkhoffs, Patrick Schamasch, Dieter Blottner, Leif Swaerd, Edwin Goedhart, Peter Ueblacker
OBJECTIVE: To provide a clear terminology and classification of muscle injuries in order to facilitate effective communication among medical practitioners and development of systematic treatment strategies. METHODS: Thirty native English-speaking scientists and team doctors of national and first division professional sports teams were asked to complete a questionnaire on muscle injuries to evaluate the currently used terminology of athletic muscle injury. In addition, a consensus meeting of international sports medicine experts was established to develop practical and scientific definitions of muscle injuries as well as a new and comprehensive classification system...
April 2013: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Alexandre Dias Lopes, Luiz Carlos Hespanhol Júnior, Simon S Yeung, Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in runners and despite many studies about running injuries conducted over the past decades it is not clear in the literature what are the main running-related musculoskeletal injuries (RRMIs). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to systematically review studies on the incidence and prevalence of the main specific RRMIs. METHODS: An electronic database search was conducted using EMBASE (1947 to October 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to October 2011), SPORTDiscus(1975 to October 2011), the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (LILACS) [1982 to October 2011] and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) [1998 to October 2011] with no limits of date or language of publication...
October 1, 2012: Sports Medicine
Michael R Simpson, Thomas M Howard
Because our understanding of tendinopathy has evolved in recent years, the condition is now considered a degenerative process; this affects the approach to treatment. Initial therapy should always involve relative rest and modification of physical activity, use of rehabilitative exercises, and evaluation of intrinsic and extrinsic causes of injury. The posterior tibial tendon is a dynamic arch stabilizer; injury to this tendon can cause a painful flat-footed deformity with hindfoot valgus and midfoot abduction (characterized by the too many toes sign)...
November 15, 2009: American Family Physician
Raine Sihvonen, Mika Paavola, Antti Malmivaara, Ari Itälä, Antti Joukainen, Heikki Nurmi, Juha Kalske, Teppo L N Järvinen
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy is one of the most common orthopedic procedures, yet rigorous evidence of its efficacy is lacking. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial in 146 patients 35 to 65 years of age who had knee symptoms consistent with a degenerative medial meniscus tear and no knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomly assigned to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy or sham surgery. The primary outcomes were changes in the Lysholm and Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET) scores (each ranging from 0 to 100, with lower scores indicating more severe symptoms) and in knee pain after exercise (rated on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 denoting no pain) at 12 months after the procedure...
December 26, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Jurdan Mendiguchia, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Matt Brughelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2012: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Matthew J Jordan, Per Aagaard, Walter Herzog
PURPOSE: Because of the importance of hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) strength for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention and the high incidence of ACL injury in ski racing, HAM and QUAD maximal and explosive strength were assessed in ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction (ACL-R). METHODS: Uninjured (n = 13 males, n = 8 females) and ACL-R (n = 3 males, n = 5 females, 25.0 ± 11.3 months after operation) elite ski racers performed maximal voluntary isometric HAM and QUAD contractions to obtain maximal torque (MVC) and rate of torque development (RTD) at 0-50, 0-100, 0-150, and 0-200 ms...
January 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
R Glenn Gaston, Bryan J Loeffler
This article provides a philosophic overview of the management of athletes at all levels from high school to professional. It further reviews sports-specific injury patterns and position-specific injury patterns. This aspect is crucial, as many injuries may be relatively common for specific sports but rare in the general population, so recognition of these injuries requires a high degree of suspicion. The guiding principles of management are also discussed.
January 2015: Clinics in Sports Medicine
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