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17 papers 25 to 100 followers
Ragesh B Thandassery, Aldo J Montano-Loza
Most widely recognized complications in cirrhotic patients include ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, kidney dysfunction, and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, malnutrition and muscle wasting (sarcopenia) constitute common complications which negatively impact survival, quality of life, and response to stressors, such as infection and surgery in patients with cirrhosis. Despite the important role that malnutrition and sarcopenia play in the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis, they are frequently overlooked, in part because nutritional assessment can be a difficult task in patients with cirrhosis due to fluid retention and/or overweight...
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Jin Zhou, Bin Liu, Chun Liang, Yangxin Li, Yao-Hua Song
Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in a variety of diseases including diabetes, cancer, Crohn's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disuse, and denervation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in mediating the wasting effect. To date, a causal relationship between TNF-α signaling and muscle wasting has been established in animal models. However, results from clinical trials are conflicting. This is partly due to the fact that other factors such as TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are also involved in skeletal muscle wasting...
May 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Diane L Damiano, Cristiane Zampieri, Jie Ge, Ana Acevedo, John Dsurney
This small clinical trial utilized a novel rehabilitation strategy, rapid-resisted elliptical training, in an effort to increase motor, and thereby cognitive, processing speed in ambulatory individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). As an initial step, multimodal functional abilities were quantified and compared in 12 ambulatory adults with and 12 without TBI. After the baseline assessment, the group with TBI participated in an intensive 8-week daily exercise program using an elliptical trainer and was reassessed after completion and at an 8-week follow-up...
August 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Lucas Gonçalves da Cruz, Camilo Luís Monteiro Lourenço, Fernando de Freitas Neves, Mário Leon Silva-Vergara, Edmar Lacerda Mendes
The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of 12 weeks of non-linear resistance training (NLRT) on anthropometry, muscle strength and inflammatory biomarkers in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (PIHIV). Thirty previously sedentary PIHIVs were randomized into the NLRT (n = 15) and control (CON, n = 15) groups. NLRT group were submitted to 12 weeks of training, whereas the CON group maintained their daily habits. At baseline and after 12 weeks, both groups underwent anthropometric evaluations and blood sampling for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Katarina Marcinko, Sarah R Sikkema, M Constantine Samaan, Bruce E Kemp, Morgan D Fullerton, Gregory R Steinberg
OBJECTIVE: Endurance exercise training reduces insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an effect often associated with modest weight loss. Recent studies have indicated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lowers blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss; however, the organs affected and mechanisms mediating the glucose lowering effects are not known. Intense exercise increases phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle, adipose tissue and liver...
December 2015: Molecular Metabolism
Pablo Alba-Martín, T Gallego-Izquierdo, Gustavo Plaza-Manzano, Natalia Romero-Franco, Susana Núñez-Nagy, Daniel Pecos-Martín
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome...
July 2015: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Fernando Ribeiro, Rui Costa, José Mesquita-Bastos
Hypertension is a very prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of resistant hypertension, i.e., uncontrolled hypertension with 3 or more antihypertensive agents including 1 diuretic, is between 5% and 30% in the hypertensive population. The causes of resistant hypertension are multifactorial and include behavioral and biological factors, such as non-adherence to pharmacological treatment. All current treatment guidelines highlight the positive role of physical exercise as a non-pharmacological tool in the treatment of hypertension...
February 26, 2015: World Journal of Cardiology
P Zimmer, W Bloch, A Schenk, E M Zopf, U Hildebrandt, F Streckmann, J Beulertz, C Koliamitra, F Schollmayer, F Baumann
Exercise has been proven to reduce the risk and progression of various diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that exercise affects the cytokine profile and changes distribution and function of tumor-competitive immune cells. Initial studies have shown that different exercise interventions are associated with epigenetic modifications in different tissues and cell types, such as muscle, fat, brain and blood. The present investigation examines the effect of an intense endurance run (half marathon) on global epigenetic modifications in natural killer (NK) cells in 14 cancer patients compared to 14 healthy controls...
June 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Ryo Tanaka, Junya Ozawa, Nobuhiro Kito, Hideki Moriyama
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of exercise therapy on the walking ability of individuals with knee osteoarthritis. DATA SOURCES: Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were identified by searching through PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. All literature published to October 2014 were included in the search. REVIEW METHODS: Data were collected from RCTs that compared the effects of exercise therapy on walking ability with the effects of no intervention or psychoeducational intervention in participants with knee osteoarthritis...
January 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
Chloe Lau Ha Chung, Shamala Thilarajah, Dawn Tan
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence investigating the effectiveness of resistance training on strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease. DATA SOURCES: Seven electronic databases (COCHRANE, CINAHL, Medline ISI, Psycinfo, Scopus, Web of Science ISI and Embase) were systematically searched for full-text articles published in English between 1946 and November 2014 using relevant search terms. REVIEW METHODS: Only randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of resistance training on muscle strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease were considered...
January 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
Kristina E N Petersen, Nina F Johnsen, Anja Olsen, Vanna Albieri, Lise K H Olsen, Lars O Dragsted, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Rikke Egeberg
Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with lifestyle diseases and premature mortality by an accumulating body of evidence. The impact of a combination of lifestyle factors on mortality has been investigated in several studies, but few have applied a simple index taking national guidelines into account. The objective of the present prospective cohort study was to investigate the combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, waist circumference and diet) on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality based on international and national health recommendations...
March 14, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
J Ribeyre, N Fellmann, C Montaurier, M Delaître, J Vernet, J Coudert, M Vermorel
The objectives of the present study were to determine whether differences in usual physical activity affect BMR, sleeping energy expenditure (EE), and EE during seated activities between athletic and non-athletic adolescents, and to establish individual relationships between heart rate and EE. Adolescents (n 49, four groups of eleven to fifteen boys or girls aged 16-19 years) participated in the study. Body composition was measured by the skinfold-thickness method and maximum O2 consumption (VO2max) by a direct method (respiratory gas exchange) on a cycloergometer...
April 2000: British Journal of Nutrition
Menno Henselmans, Brad J Schoenfeld
Due to a scarcity of longitudinal trials directly measuring changes in muscle girth, previous recommendations for inter-set rest intervals in resistance training programs designed to stimulate muscular hypertrophy were primarily based on the post-exercise endocrinological response and other mechanisms theoretically related to muscle growth. New research regarding the effects of inter-set rest interval manipulation on resistance training-induced muscular hypertrophy is reviewed here to evaluate current practices and provide directions for future research...
December 2014: Sports Medicine
Erin A Dannecker, Kelli F Koltyn
Literature on the pain relieving effects of exercise has been reviewed several times. It is equally important to review the literature on the pain-inducing effects of exercise. Indeed, exercise professionals, health care providers, and exercisers must grapple with the fact that exercise can both induce and reduce pain. The objective of this review was to synthesize our current understanding of exercise-induced pain and inspire advanced research. We searched the PubMed database for publications since 2000 about healthy human participants...
July 2014: Sports Medicine
J F Burr, A A Phillips, T C Drury, A C Ivey, D E R Warburton
The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the arterial stiffness of male ultra-marathon runners (n = 9) using pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and radial tonometry over the course of an ultra-marathon and during recovery. Measures were collected at rest, immediately following 45 km/75 km of running, then following 60 and 90 min of recovery. No statistical difference was found between baseline cfPWV and normative values. The cfPWV of ultra-endurance runners decreased at 45 km (3.4 ± 1.6 m/s, p=0...
July 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
C Müller, C Winter, J Boos, G Gosheger, J Hardes, V Vieth, D Rosenbaum
The aim was to evaluate the effects of additional exercises during inpatient stays on bone mass in pediatric bone tumor patients. 21 patients were non-randomly allocated either to the exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 11). DXA of the lumbar spine, the non-affected femur and both calcanei was performed after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (baseline), as well as 6 and 12 months after baseline. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) and height-corrected lumbar spine Z-scores were determined...
July 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Peizhen Zhang, Xuemei Sui, Gregory A Hand, James R Hébert, Steven N Blair
INTRODUCTION: Both baseline cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity predict the risk of cancer mortality. However, the effects of changes in these two factors over time have not been evaluated thoroughly. The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition on cancer mortality. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 13,930 men (initially cancer-free) with two or more medical examinations from 1974 to 2002...
July 2014: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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