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Blood glucose

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By Inessa Yurtsev RN graduated in 2008 from SFSU with Bachelor degree in nursing. I work at Kaiser Santa Clara hospital on medical surgical floor. I plan to go to Grad school
James C Watson, P James B Dyck
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most prevalent neurologic conditions encountered by physicians of all specialties. Physicians are faced with 3 distinct challenges in caring for patients with peripheral neuropathy: (1) how to efficiently and effectively screen (in less than 2 minutes) an asymptomatic patient for peripheral neuropathy when they have a disorder in which peripheral neuropathy is highly prevalent (eg, diabetes mellitus), (2) how to clinically stratify patients presenting with symptoms of neuropathy to determine who would benefit from specialty consultation and what testing is appropriate for those who do not need consultation, and (3) how to treat the symptoms of painful peripheral neuropathy...
July 2015: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Jean-Pascal Fournier, Laurent Azoulay, Hui Yin, Jean-Louis Montastruc, Samy Suissa
IMPORTANCE: Tramadol is a weak opioid analgesic whose use has increased rapidly, and it has been associated with adverse events of hypoglycemia. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether tramadol use, when compared with codeine use, is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A nested case-control analysis was conducted within the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episodes Statistics database of all patients newly treated with tramadol or codeine for noncancer pain between 1998 and 2012...
February 2015: JAMA Internal Medicine
A C Donihi, M M DiNardo, M A DeVita, M T Korytkowski
PROBLEM: Sliding scale insulin (SSI) is frequently used for inpatient management of hyperglycemia and is associated with a large number of medication errors and adverse events including hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. DESIGN: Observational before and after study evaluating the impact of implementation of a standardized SSI protocol and preprinted physician order form. SETTING: University Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. STRATEGY FOR CHANGE: Guidelines for the use of SSI were created by an interdisciplinary committee and implemented in non-intensive care units...
April 2006: Quality & Safety in Health Care
Joelle D Hargraves
BACKGROUND: Acute hyperglycemia following cardiac surgery increases the risk of deep sternal wound infection, significant early morbidity, and mortality. Insulin infusion protocols that target tight glycemic control to treat hyperglycemia have been linked to hypoglycemia and increased mortality. Recently published studies examining glycemic control in critical illness and clinical practice guidelines from professional organizations support moderate glycemic control. OBJECTIVES: To measure critical care nurses' knowledge of glycemic control in cardiac surgery before and after education...
May 2014: American Journal of Critical Care: An Official Publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
Daniel L Beskind, Suzanne Michelle Rhodes, Uwe Stolz, Brett Birrer, Thomas R Mayfield, Scott Bourn, Kurt Denninghoff
OBJECTIVES: Seizure is a frequent reason for activating the Emergency Medical System (EMS). Little is known about the frequency of seizure caused by hypoglycemia, yet many EMS protocols require glucose testing prior to treatment. We hypothesized that hypoglycemia is rare among EMS seizure patients and glucose testing results in delayed administration of benzodiazepines. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of a national ambulance service database encompassing 140 ALS capable EMS systems spanning 40 states and Washington DC...
July 2014: Prehospital Emergency Care
Stephanie B Clayton, Joseph E Mazur, Stacey Condren, Kathie L Hermayer, Charlie Strange
OBJECTIVE: Intensive insulin therapy to normalize blood glucose may improve outcome in intensive care unit patients. We prospectively evaluated the implementation of an intensive insulin protocol in medical intensive care patients to identify and overcome obstacles that this complex therapy creates. DESIGN: This prospective, quality assessment study was designed to establish a standard protocol for glucose control in critically ill patients. SETTING: The study took place in the medical intensive care unit at the Medical University of South Carolina, a tertiary care center...
December 2006: Critical Care Medicine
Sarah V Bull, Ivor S Douglas, Mark Foster, Richard K Albert
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a mandatory protocol for treating diabetic ketoacidosis. DESIGN: Chart review of patients treated before and after protocol implementation. SETTING: University-affiliated U.S. public teaching hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 241 consecutive nonpregnant patients >18 yrs old admitted to a medical intensive care unit for diabetic ketoacidosis between January 2000 and January 2005. INTERVENTION: Implementation of a mandatory treatment protocol in May 2003...
January 2007: Critical Care Medicine
Michael A Nauck, Manfred Reinecke, Aurel Perren, Jan Frystyk, Giorgi Berishvili, Cornelia Zwimpfer, Anja M Figge, Allan Flyvbjerg, Paul G Lankisch, Werner F Blum, Günter Klöppel, Wolff Schmiegel, Jürgen Zapf
CONTEXT: Nonpancreatic tumors may cause recurrent hypoglycemia known as nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia. It is due to overproduction and secretion by the tumor of incompletely processed IGF-II, termed big IGF-II. We recently identified a patient with recurrent hypoglycemia and low insulin, but without elevated big IGF-II. Multiple small lung nodules were detected by computed tomography scan. An undifferentiated large-cell carcinoma was diagnosed from an axillary lymph node metastasis...
May 2007: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mitchell Roslin, Tanuja Damani, Jonathan Oren, Robert Andrews, Edward Yatco, Paresh Shah
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia have been reported by patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery who experience maladaptive eating behavior and weight regain. A 4-h glucose tolerance test (GTT) was used to assess the incidence and extent of hypoglycemia. METHODS: Thirty-six patients who were at least 6 months postoperative from RYGB were administered a 4-h GTT with measurement of insulin levels. Mean age was 49.4±11.4 years, mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 48...
June 2011: Surgical Endoscopy
Jan Blaha, Petr Kopecky, Michal Matias, Roman Hovorka, Jan Kunstyr, Tomas Kotulak, Michal Lips, David Rubes, Martin Stritesky, Jaroslav Lindner, Michal Semrad, Martin Haluzik
OBJECTIVE: We performed a randomized trial to compare three insulin-titration protocols for tight glycemic control (TGC) in a surgical intensive care unit: an absolute glucose (Matias) protocol, a relative glucose change (Bath) protocol, and an enhanced model predictive control (eMPC) algorithm. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 120 consecutive patients after cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to the three protocols with a target glycemia range from 4...
May 2009: Diabetes Care
Fausto Avanzini, Giuseppe Marelli, Walter Donzelli, Giovanna Busi, Stefania Carbone, Laura Bellato, Elena Lucia Colombo, Roberto Foschi, Emma Riva, Maria Carla Roncaglioni, Mario De Martini
OBJECTIVE: The study objectives were 1) to assess the effectiveness and safety of a standardized protocol for the transition to subcutaneous insulin and oral feeding in diabetic or hyperglycemic patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who were receiving intravenous insulin and glucose at the time of the transfer from the intensive cardiac care unit to a general ward and 2) to identify predictors of transition outcome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study...
July 2011: Diabetes Care
Kewan Aboulhosn, Terra Arnason
A healthy 18-year-old girl presented to a local emergency room with 48 h of abdominal pain and vomiting. A radiological and biochemical diagnosis of moderate acute pancreatitis was made. Bloodwork demonstrated prominent hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) of 19.5 mmol/L (severe HTG: 11.2-22.4), detectable urine ketones and a random blood glucose of 13 mmol/L dropping to 10.5 mmol/L on repeat (normal random <11). Ketone levels were deemed consistent with fasting ketosis after 48 h of vomiting. There was no known history of diabetes in the patient...
2013: BMJ Case Reports
Henri Honka, Jarna C Hannukainen, Miikka Tarkia, Henry Karlsson, Virva Saunavaara, Paulina Salminen, Minna Soinio, Kirsi Mikkola, Nobu Kudomi, Vesa Oikonen, Merja Haaparanta-Solin, Anne Roivainen, Riitta Parkkola, Patricia Iozzo, Pirjo Nuutila
CONTEXT: Glucolipotoxicity is believed to induce pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in obesity. Previously, it has not been possible to study pancreatic metabolism and blood flow in humans. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate whether pancreatic metabolism and blood flow are altered in obesity using positron emission tomography (PET). In the preclinical part, the method was validated in animals. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study...
June 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Aphrodite Iacovidou, Nadey Hakim
Pancreatic transplantation has progressed in the past 25 years since its initial stages, proving to be highly promising for those with diabetes and its resultant multiorgan disorders. Several studies have shown that patients who receive transplants have better glycemic control, blood pressure control, lipid control, and show reversal of microscopic diabetic changes including neuropathy and improved cardiovascular risks. Advances in many fields have made it possible for more than 32,000 procedures to be done worldwide, and 1- and 5-year posttransplant survival to be 95% and 83%...
December 2013: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Rahul Pannala, Cynthia L Leibson, Kari G Rabe, Lawrence J Timmons, Jeanine Ransom, Mariza de Andrade, Gloria M Petersen, Suresh T Chari
OBJECTIVES: Although the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and pancreatic cancer is well described, temporal patterns of changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body mass index (BMI) before pancreatic cancer diagnosis are not known. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of pancreatic cancer cases seen at the Mayo Clinic from 15 January 1981 through to 9 July 2004 and selected those residing within 120 miles of Rochester, MN and who were seen at the Mayo Clinic within 30 days of the date of cancer diagnosis (index date)...
September 2009: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Claire Gaudichon, Daniel Tomé
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents the different pathways by which protein and amino acid impact glucose control. The review more particularly discusses the contradictory effects reported in the literature on the involvement of amino acid on glucose production and in insulin secretion and sensitivity. RECENT FINDINGS: Some recent findings allow a better understanding of the direct and indirect mechanisms involved in the insulinotropic activity of some amino acids in pancreatic β-cell and in the production of glucose through liver gluconeogenesis that participates to improve the control of glycemia...
July 2014: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Kyle A Weant, Abby M Bailey, Stephanie N Baker
Evidence that acute injury and critical illness can result in an elevation of blood glucose levels is not a new concept. However, the last decade has seen a rise in publications describing the potential harm of this unique form of hyperglycemia and the subsequent benefits of glucose control. More recently, the untoward effects of tightly controlling glucose concentrations in this setting have been more thoroughly elucidated. This has lead to a challenging clinical conundrum for practitioners both inside and outside of the intensive care unit...
July 2013: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
Glenn S Murphy, Joseph W Szokol, Michael J Avram, Steven B Greenberg, Torin Shear, Jeffery S Vender, Jayla Gray, Elizabeth Landry
BACKGROUND: The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone therapy on perioperative blood glucose concentrations has not been well characterized. In this investigation, we examined the effect of 2 commonly used doses of dexamethasone (4 and 8 mg at induction of anesthesia) on blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration. METHODS: Two hundred women patients were randomized to 1 of 6 groups: Early-control (saline); Early-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); Early-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone); Late-control (saline); Late-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); and Late-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone)...
June 2014: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ravi P Kiran, Matthias Turina, Jeff Hammel, Victor Fazio
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the significance of hyperglycemia in patients without a preoperative diagnosis of diabetes undergoing elective colorectal surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and all postoperative blood glucose measurements were retrieved for 2628 consecutive patients undergoing elective colorectal resection within 2 years at 1 center. Nondiabetic patients were identified as those without a preoperative diagnosis of diabetes and/or based on HbA1C levels. The association between any elevated postoperative random glucose value (hyperglycemia: >125 mg/dL) and level of elevation (>125 mg/dL or >200 mg/dL) within 72 hours of surgery in nondiabetic patients with 30-day mortality and infectious and noninfectious complications was assessed...
October 2013: Annals of Surgery
Maxim S Petrov, Vladimir E Zagainov
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is increasing evidence that tight glucose control may reduce infectious complications and mortality in surgical critically ill patients. However, data regarding the influence of artificial nutrition on glycemic homeostasis are limited. Our aim was to review all randomized controlled trials on enteral versus parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis to determine whether the route of feeding can affect the glucose control in the setting of this disease. METHODS: Relevant literature cited in three electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and Medline) were systematically reviewed...
October 2007: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
2014-12-10 06:21:09
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