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Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis

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396 papers 25 to 100 followers Theory and research into the molecular causes and hemodynamics consequences of the atherosclerotic lesion
By Gregory Gustafson Interventional Cardiologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287742/potential-role-for-osteocalcin-in-the-development-of-atherosclerosis-and-blood-vessel-disease
#1
REVIEW
Alexander Tacey, Tawar Qaradakhi, Tara Brennan-Speranza, Alan Hayes, Anthony Zulli, Itamar Levinger
There is increasing evidence for the involvement of the skeleton in the regulation of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Osteocalcin, an osteoblast derived protein, exists in two forms, carboxylated and undercarboxylated osteocalcin. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin has been linked to the regulation of metabolic functions, including glucose and lipid metabolism. Features of atherosclerosis have been associated with circulating osteocalcin; however, this association is often conflicting and unclear. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the evidence for a role of osteocalcin in atherosclerosis development and progression, and in particular endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification...
October 4, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289085/potential-impact-of-microrna-423-gene-variability-in-coronary-artery-disease
#2
Chandan K Jha, Rashid Mir, Imadeldin Elfaki, Naina Khullar, Suriya Rehman, Jamsheed Javid, Shaheena Banu, Sukh Mohinder Singh Chahal
AIM: Studies have evaluated the association of miRNA-423 C>A genotyping with the susceptibility to coronary artery disease but the results were contradictory. However, no studies have reported the association between miRNA-423 rs6505162 C>A polymorphism and susceptibility of coronary artery disease. MicroRNAs regulate expression of multiple genes involved in atherogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the association of microRNA-423C>T gene variations with susceptibility to coronary artery disease...
October 4, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025580/coronary-calcium-score-and-cardiovascular-risk
#3
REVIEW
Philip Greenland, Michael J Blaha, Matthew J Budoff, Raimund Erbel, Karol E Watson
Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a highly specific feature of coronary atherosclerosis. On the basis of single-center and multicenter clinical and population-based studies with short-term and long-term outcomes data (up to 15-year follow-up), CAC scoring has emerged as a widely available, consistent, and reproducible means of assessing risk for major cardiovascular outcomes, especially useful in asymptomatic people for planning primary prevention interventions such as statins and aspirin. CAC testing in asymptomatic populations is cost effective across a broad range of baseline risk...
July 24, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930142/atherosclerosis-and-inflammation-overview-and-updates
#4
REVIEW
Glaucylara Reis Geovanini, Peter Libby
The concept that inflammation participates pivotally in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its complications has gained considerable attention, but has not yet entered clinical practice. Experimental work has elucidated molecular and cellular pathways of inflammation that promote atherosclerosis. The recognition of atherogenesis as an active process rather than a cholesterol storage disease or a repository of calcium has highlighted some key inflammatory mechanisms. For example, mononuclear phagocytes contribute to all stages of this disease, illustrating the link between inflammation and atherosclerosis...
June 29, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933080/pharmacological-strategies-to-inhibit-intra-plaque-angiogenesis-in-atherosclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Paola Perrotta, Besa Emini Veseli, Bieke Van der Veken, Lynn Roth, Wim Martinet, Guido R Y De Meyer
Atherosclerosis is a complex multifactorial disease that affects large and medium-sized arteries. Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and subsequent acute cardiovascular complications remain a leading cause of death and morbidity in the Western world. There is a considerable difference in safety profile between a stable and a vulnerable, rupture-prone lesion. The need for plaque-stabilizing therapies is high, and for a long time the lack of a suitable animal model mimicking advanced human atherosclerotic plaques made it very difficult to make progress in this area...
June 19, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935936/unmet-need-for-adjunctive-dyslipidemia-therapy-in-hypertriglyceridemia-management
#6
REVIEW
Om P Ganda, Deepak L Bhatt, R Preston Mason, Michael Miller, William E Boden
Despite the important role of high-intensity statins in reducing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events in secondary and primary prevention, substantial residual risk persists, particularly among high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Considerable attention is currently directed to the role that elevated triglycerides (TGs) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels play as important mediators of residual atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, which is further strongly supported by genetic linkage studies...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937375/chlamydia-pneumoniae-hijacks-a-host-autoregulatory-il-1%C3%AE-loop-to-drive-foam-cell-formation-and-accelerate-atherosclerosis
#7
Gantsetseg Tumurkhuu, Jargalsaikhan Dagvadorj, Rebecca A Porritt, Timothy R Crother, Kenichi Shimada, Elizabeth J Tarling, Ebru Erbay, Moshe Arditi, Shuang Chen
Pathogen burden accelerates atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms remain unresolved. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is linked to atherogenesis. Here we investigated whether Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pn) infection engages NLRP3 in promoting atherosclerosis. C.pn potentiated hyperlipidemia-induced inflammasome activity in cultured macrophages and in foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions of Ldlr-/- mice. C.pn-induced acceleration of atherosclerosis was significantly dependent on NLRP3 and caspase-1. We discovered that C...
September 4, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944113/specific-amino-acids-affect-cardiovascular-diseases-and-atherogenesis-via-protection-against-macrophage-foam-cell-formation-review-article
#8
REVIEW
Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Michael Aviram
The strong relationship between cardiovascular diseases (CVD), atherosclerosis, and endogenous or exogenous lipids has been recognized for decades, underestimating the contribution of other dietary components, such as amino acids, to the initiation of the underlying inflammatory disease. Recently, specific amino acids have been associated with incident cardiovascular disorders, suggesting their significant role in the pathogenesis of CVD. Special attention has been paid to the group of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine, isoleucine, and valine, since their plasma values are frequently found in high concentrations in individuals with CVD risk...
July 30, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954107/systemic-inflammatory-response-and-atherosclerosis-the-paradigm-of-chronic-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Aikaterini Arida, Athanasios D Protogerou, George D Kitas, Petros P Sfikakis
Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic diseases (CIRD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), ascribed not only to classical risk factors, but also to the presence of chronic systemic inflammatory response. Αtherosclerosis, the cornerstone of CVD, is known to be accelerated in CIRD; rheumatoid arthritis promotes atheromatosis and associates with preclinical atherosclerosis equivalent to Diabetes Mellitus, which also seems to apply for systemic lupus erythematosus. Data on ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis, albeit more limited, also support an increased CV risk in these patients...
June 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29966388/apob-100-lipoprotein-complex-formation-with-intima-proteoglycans-as-a-cause-of-atherosclerosis-and-its-possible-ex-vivo-evaluation-as-a-disease-biomarker
#10
REVIEW
Eva Hurt-Camejo, Germán Camejo
Experimental and clinical data indicate that the initiation and progress of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations are first caused by circulating apoB-100 lipoproteins that enter and are retained in the arterial intima. Extracellular sulfated proteoglycans (PGs) of the intima are the retention agents. The PGs also initiate physical and biochemical lipoprotein degradation with the production of bioactive, lipid products that trigger an inflammatory response that leads to atherosclerosis. There are many simple methods for measuring abnormalities of circulating lipoproteins and their relation to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975943/apigenin-retards-atherogenesis-by-promoting-abca1-mediated-cholesterol-efflux-and-suppressing-inflammation
#11
Kun Ren, Ting Jiang, Hui-Fang Zhou, Yin Liang, Guo-Jun Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The development of atherosclerosis is accompanied by escalating inflammation and lipid accumulation within blood vessel walls. ABCA1 plays a crucial role in mediating cholesterol efflux from macrophages, which protects against atherogenesis. This research was designed to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of apigenin (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone) on ABCA1-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux and LPS-stimulated inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages and apoE-/- mice...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992715/adverse-effects-on-macrophage-lipid-transport-and-survival-by-high-density-lipoprotein-from-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#12
S Sini, D Deepa, S Harikrishnan, N Jayakumari
High density lipoprotein (HDL)-macrophage interactions have the potential to modulate macrophage function in a beneficial way to prevent the development of lipid-loaded foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. Although HDL is atheroprotective, it can become dysfunctional in chronic inflammatory conditions and increase cardiovascular risk. Here, we examined the effect of dysfunctional-HDL from patients with coronary artery disease, on macrophage function in comparison to functional-HDL from controls. Exposure of macrophages to dysfunctional-HDL for 24 h resulted significant increase in cellular oxidative stress, cholesterol, and cytotoxicity...
September 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015296/dietary-23-hydroxy-ursolic-acid-protects-against-atherosclerosis-and-obesity-by-preventing-dyslipidemia-induced-monocyte-priming-and-dysfunction
#13
Huynh Nga Nguyen, Yong Joo Ahn, Edward Antonio Medina, Reto Asmis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We demonstrated that dietary ursolic acid (UA) reduces atherosclerotic lesion size and improves kidney function in diabetic mice. Based on structure-function analyses of naturally occurring UA analogs, we synthesized 23-hydroxy ursolic acid (23-OHUA), a compound with structural features predicted to enhance its bioavailability and anti-atherogenic properties compared to UA. The goal of this study was to determine the anti-obesogenic and atheroprotective properties of 23-OHUA and its mechanism of action...
August 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020200/metabolism-of-innate-immune-cells-impact-on-atherosclerosis
#14
Niels P Riksen, Rinke Stienstra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is increasingly recognized that profound metabolic changes occur in activated myeloid cells, which shape their inflammatory phenotype and cellular functions. The purpose of this review is to summarize the accumulating evidence that major metabolic adaptations occur in monocytes and macrophages in the context of atherosclerosis ultimately modulating atherosclerotic plaque formation. RECENT FINDINGS: Plaque macrophages show a profound metabolic reprogramming which is driven by atherogenic factors in the plaque microenvironment, such as damage associated molecular patterns, modified lipoproteins, and hypoxia...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713054/structures-of-angptl3-and-angptl4-modulators-of-triglyceride-levels-and-coronary-artery-disease
#15
Ekaterina Biterova, Mariam Esmaeeli, Heli I Alanen, Mirva Saaranen, Lloyd W Ruddock
Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death globally and is linked to a number of risk factors including serum low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides and lipoprotein(a). Recently two proteins, angiopoietin-like protein 3 and 4, have emerged from genetic studies as being factors that significantly modulate plasma triglyceride levels and coronary artery disease. The exact function and mechanism of action of both proteins remains to be elucidated, however, mutations in these proteins results in up to 34% reduction in coronary artery disease and inhibition of function results in reduced plasma triglyceride levels...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801689/mendelian-randomization-its-impact-on-cardiovascular-disease
#16
REVIEW
Masa-Aki Kawashiri, Hayato Tada, Akihiro Nomura, Masakazu Yamagishi
Cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors are inheritable. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human genome are found in around 1 in 1000 base pairs, and this may affect the genetic variety of individuals. During meiosis, any genetic information is randomized and is independent of other characteristics. In a Mendelian randomization study (MRS), a genetic variant associated with biomarker is used as a proxy for the biomarker, and the outcomes are compared between the groups harboring the effect alleles and a group with the reference allele...
October 2018: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875140/validity-of-inducible-ischaemia-as-a-surrogate-for-adverse-outcomes-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#17
Adam Timmis, Antony Raharja, R Andrew Archbold, Anthony Mathur
Regional myocardial ischaemia is commonly expressed as exertional angina in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). It also associates with prognosis, risk tending to increase with the severity of ischaemia. The validity of myocardial ischaemia as a surrogate for adverse clinical outcomes, however, has not been well established. Thus, in cohort studies, ischaemia testing has failed to influence rates of myocardial infarction and coronary death. Moreover, in clinical studies, pharmacological and interventional treatments that are effective in correcting ischaemia have rarely been shown to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk...
June 6, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703625/elevated-lipoprotein-a-and-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-as-predictors-of-the-severity-and-complexity-of-angiographic-lesions-in-patients-with-premature-coronary-artery-disease
#18
David Chieng, Jing Pang, Katrina L Ellis, Graham S Hillis, Gerald F Watts, Carl J Schultz
BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are important inheritable risk factors for premature coronary artery disease (CAD). Lp(a) mediates cardiovascular risk through prothrombotic, proinflammatory, and proatherogenic properties. The association of Lp(a) and LDL cholesterol with angiographic disease severity and complexity in patients with premature CAD has yet to be established. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of Lp(a) and LDL cholesterol with the severity and complexity of coronary artery lesions using the SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) and Gensini scores, in patients with premature CAD...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858423/plasma-concentrations-of-molecular-lipid-species-predict-long-term-clinical-outcome-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients
#19
Sharda Anroedh, Mika Hilvo, K Martijn Akkerhuis, Dimple Kauhanen, Kaisa Koistinen, Rohit Oemrawsingh, Patrick Serruys, Robert-Jan van Geuns, Eric Boersma, Reijo Laaksonen, Isabella Kardys
We investigated the associations of ten previously identified high risk molecular lipid species and three ceramide ratios with the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) during a median follow-up of 4.7 years in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Between 2008 and 2011, 581 patients underwent diagnostic coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina pectoris (SAP) or acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Blood was drawn prior to the index procedure and lipid species were determined...
September 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888618/association-between-elevated-plasma-microrna-223-content-and-severity-of-coronary-heart-disease
#20
Ji-Fang Guo, Yu Zhang, Qing-Xia Zheng, Yao Zhang, Hui-Hua Zhou, Lun-Meng Cui
Bioinformatics indicate that miR-223 regulates many genes associated with cholesterol metabolism, and it could also control high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) uptake. As reported in previous study, miR-223 was found to be upregulated from human subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia, however, it remains to be determined using a larger group of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. Moreover, whether it correlates with severity of atherogenesis, has never been elucidated before. We aim to further explore the association between circulating miR-223 content and severity of CHD...
September 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
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