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James F Doyle, Frédérique Schortgen
The concept of pyrexia as a protective physiological response to aid in host defence has been challenged with the awareness of the severe metabolic stress induced by pyrexia. The host response to pyrexia varies, however, according to the disease profile and severity and, as such, the management of pyrexia should differ; for example, temperature control is safe and effective in septic shock but remains controversial in sepsis. From the reported findings discussed in this review, treating pyrexia appears to be beneficial in septic shock, out of hospital cardiac arrest and acute brain injury...
October 3, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Francisco Valenzuela-Sánchez, Blanca Valenzuela-Méndez, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Ángel Estella-García, María Ángela González-García
Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) has a good biomarker profile: its half-life is several hours, and its plasma concentrations can be determined in clinical practice, it is essentially irrelevant, but proportionally represents the levels and activity of adrenomedullin (ADM). ADM synthesis is widely distributed in tissues, including bone, adrenal cortex, kidney, lung, blood vessels and heart. Its fundamental biological effects include vasodilator, positive inotropic, diuretic, natriuretic and bronchodilator...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
José Luis Cobo Sánchez, Ana Rosa Alconero Camarero, María Casaus Pérez, Ma Angeles Maza Sota, Camino Villa Llamazares, Carmen Hiquera Roldán, Raquel Menezo Viadero, Rosa Alonso Nates
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) present hydro-electrolytic alterations due to the lack of adequate regulation of the internal medium. Of these alterations hyperkalaemia is frequent and produce neuromuscular symptoms, electrocardiographic changes and arrhythmias. Literature affirms that patients with ESRD present less prominent hyperkalaemia-related electrocardiographic changes than those patients with normal renal function. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate electrocardiographic alterations related with potassium in our ESRD patients and to compare the obtained results with those previously reported...
July 2007: Journal of Renal Care
Jung Nam An, Jung Pyo Lee, Hee Jung Jeon, Do Hyoung Kim, Yun Kyu Oh, Yon Su Kim, Chun Soo Lim
INTRODUCTION: Severe hyperkalemia, with potassium (K+) levels ≥ 6.5 mEq/L, is a potentially life-threatening electrolyte imbalance. For prompt and effective treatment, it is important to know its risk factors, clinical manifestations, and predictors of mortality. METHODS: An observational cohort study was performed at 2 medical centers. A total of 923 consecutive Korean patients were analyzed. All were 19 years of age or older and were hospitalized with severe hyperkalemia between August 2007 and July 2010; the diagnosis of severe hyperkalemia was made either at the time of admission to the hospital or during the period of hospitalization...
November 21, 2012: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
F John Gennari, Alan S Segal
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a common feature of chronic renal insufficiency, usually ascribed to impaired K+ homeostasis. However, various experimental observations suggest that the increase in extracellular [K+] actually functions in a homeostatic fashion, directly stimulating renal K+ excretion through an effect that is independent of, and additive to, aldosterone. METHODS: We have reviewed relevant studies in experimental animals and in human subjects that have examined the regulation of K+ excretion and its relation to plasma [K+]...
July 2002: Kidney International
Michael R Pinsky
The primary role of the right ventricle (RV) is to deliver all the blood it receives per beat into the pulmonary circulation without causing right atrial pressure to rise. To the extent that it also does not impede left ventricular (LV) filling, cardiac output responsiveness to increased metabolic demand is optimized. Since cardiac output is a function of metabolic demand of the body, during stress and exercise states the flow to the RV can vary widely. Also, instantaneous venous return varies widely for a constant cardiac output as ventilatory efforts alter the dynamic pressure gradient for venous return...
September 10, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Rosemary Townsend, Patrick O'Brien, Asma Khalil
Preeclampsia is a potentially serious complication of pregnancy with increasing significance worldwide. Preeclampsia is the cause of 9%-26% of global maternal mortality and a significant proportion of preterm delivery, and maternal and neonatal morbidity. Incidence is increasing in keeping with the increase in obesity, maternal age, and women with medical comorbidities entering pregnancy. Recent developments in the understanding of the pathophysiology of preeclampsia have opened new avenues for prevention, screening, and management of this condition...
2016: Integrated Blood Pressure Control
Michael Peck, James Jeng, Amr Moghazy
Intravenous (IV) cannulation and sterile IV salt solutions may not be options in resource-limited settings (RLSs). This article presents recipes for fluid resuscitation in the aftermath of burns occurring in RLSs. Burns of 20% total body surface area (TBSA) can be resuscitated, and burns up to 40% TBSA can most likely be resuscitated, using oral resuscitation solutions (ORSs) with salt supplementation. Without IV therapy, fluid resuscitation for larger burns may only be possible with ORSs. Published global experience is limited, and the magnitude of burn injuries that successfully respond to World Health Organization ORSs is not well-described...
October 2016: Critical Care Clinics
Kosaku Kinoshita
Severe cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) require neurocritical care, the goal being to stabilize hemodynamics and systemic oxygenation to prevent secondary brain injury. It is reported that approximately 45 % of dysoxygenation episodes during critical care have both extracranial and intracranial causes, such as intracranial hypertension and brain edema. For this reason, neurocritical care is incomplete if it only focuses on prevention of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) or decreased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
John H Boyd, Demetrios Sirounis, Julien Maizel, Michel Slama
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients at risk for organ failure, the administration of intravenous fluids has equal chances of resulting in benefit or harm. While the intent of intravenous fluid is to increase cardiac output and oxygen delivery, unwelcome results in those patients who do not increase their cardiac output are tissue edema, hypoxemia, and excess mortality. Here we briefly review bedside methods to assess fluid responsiveness, focusing upon the strengths and pitfalls of echocardiography in spontaneously breathing mechanically ventilated patients as a means to guide fluid management...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Nicolas Bréchot, Guillaume Hékimian, Jean Chastre, Charles-Edouard Luyt
The serum procalcitonin (PCT) concentration reflects both the systemic response to bacterial infection and its severity. However, its accuracy in distinguishing intensive care unit (ICU) patients with and without infection remains low owing to a lack of specificity and the time lapse between infection onset and the PCT rise. Hence, PCT cannot be used as a marker to start or withhold antibiotic therapy for ICU patients. However, the kinetics of the PCT concentration decrease under antibiotic therapy can adequately monitor infection evolution with therapy and can help to customise antibiotic duration...
December 2015: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
C G Sheahan, D M Mathews
Sedation for medical procedures is provided in a variety of clinical settings by medical personnel with differing levels of education and training. Although generally a safe practice, there is a degree of morbidity and mortality associated with sedation practice. Monitoring standards continue to be refined by professional societies with the goal of improving care. The depth of sedation should be monitored with clinical criteria. Processed electroencephalographic monitors currently do not contribute significantly to sedation care...
December 2014: British Journal of Anaesthesia
P Guilabert, G Usúa, N Martín, L Abarca, J P Barret, M J Colomina
Since 1968, when Baxter and Shires developed the Parkland formula, little progress has been made in the field of fluid therapy for burn resuscitation, despite advances in haemodynamic monitoring, establishment of the 'goal-directed therapy' concept, and the development of new colloid and crystalloid solutions. Burn patients receive a larger amount of fluids in the first hours than any other trauma patients. Initial resuscitation is based on crystalloids because of the increased capillary permeability occurring during the first 24 h...
September 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Yann Wutrich, Damien Barraud, Marie Conrad, Aurélie Cravoisy-Popovic, Lionel Nace, Pierre-Edouard Bollaert, Bruno Levy, Sébastien Gibot
To determine whether an epinephrine-induced early increase in arterial lactate concentration can prognosticate the outcome during shock state, we conducted a retrospective study in a 16-bed medical intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in France. One hundred consecutive patients admitted because of a shock state irrespective of etiology and treated with epinephrine were included. Patients were not enrolled if they received epinephrine administration before intensive care unit admission. Sequential arterial lactate measurements were performed at the time of epinephrine infusion (H0) and 4 h later (H4) in which Deltalactate was defined as (100 x [arterial lactate(H4)-arterial lactate(H0)]/arterial lactate(H0)) and expressed as a percentage...
July 2010: Shock
Michel E van Genderen, Jasper van Bommel, Alexandre Lima
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of circulatory monitoring is the use of an accurate, continuous and noninvasive method that can easily assess tissue perfusion under clinical conditions. As peripheral tissues are sensitive to alterations in perfusion, the noninvasive monitoring of peripheral circulation could be used as an early marker of systemic haemodynamic derangement. We, therefore, aim to discuss the currently available methods that can be used at the bedside as well as the role of peripheral perfusion monitoring in critically ill patients...
June 2012: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Atila Kara, Sakir Akin, Can Ince
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Critical illness includes a wide range of conditions from sepsis to high-risk surgery. All these diseases are characterized by reduced tissue oxygenation. Macrohemodynamic parameters may be corrected by fluids and/or vasoactive compounds; however, the microcirculation and its tissues may be damaged and remain hypoperfused. An evaluation of microcirculation may enable more physiologically based approaches for understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of critically ill patients...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Fabio S Taccone, Kevin B Laupland, Philippe Montravers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Jean P Gelinas, James A Russell
Clinicians have greatly improved care for septic shock. Urgent resuscitation using intravenous fluids and vasopressors as well as rapid administration of broad spectrum antibiotics are probably the most basic and universally accepted interventions. Various trials have compared different types of vasopressors, associations of vasopressors and inotropes, and pressure targets. End goal-directed therapy algorithms are designed to optimize oxygen delivery by use of fluids, vasopressors, inotropes, and blood products...
June 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Marie E McDonnell, Guillermo E Umpierrez
It has long been established that hyperglycemia with or without a prior diagnosis of diabetes increases both mortality and disease-specific morbidity in hospitalized patients and that goal-directed insulin therapy can improve outcomes. This article reviews the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia during illness, the mechanisms for increased complications and mortality due to hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, and beneficial mechanistic effects of insulin therapy and provides updated recommendations for the inpatient management of diabetes in the critical care setting and in the general medicine and surgical settings...
March 2012: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
(no author information available yet)
Hypoglycemia caused by treatment with a sulfonylurea, a glinide, or insulin coupled with compromised defenses against the resulting falling plasma glucose concentrations is a problem for many people with diabetes. It is often recurrent, causes significant morbidity and occasional mortality, limits maintenance of euglycemia, and impairs physiological and behavioral defenses against subsequent hypoglycemia. Minimizing hypoglycemia includes acknowledging the problem; considering each risk factor; and applying the principles of intensive glycemic therapy, including drug selection and selective application of diabetes treatment technologies...
August 2015: Diabetes Care
2016-09-01 03:46:17
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