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Neurobiology of mental illness

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90 papers 500 to 1000 followers
By Abraham Nunes Psychiatry resident interested in computational neuroscience, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811940/the-endocrine-manifestations-of-anorexia-nervosa-mechanisms-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Melanie Schorr, Karen K Miller
Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterized by altered body image, persistent food restriction and low body weight, and is associated with global endocrine dysregulation in both adolescent girls and women. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis includes hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with relative oestrogen and androgen deficiency, growth hormone resistance, hypercortisolaemia, non-thyroidal illness syndrome, hyponatraemia and hypooxytocinaemia. Serum levels of leptin, an anorexigenic adipokine, are suppressed and levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic gut peptide, are elevated in women with anorexia nervosa; however, levels of peptide YY, an anorexigenic gut peptide, are paradoxically elevated...
November 4, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377723/impairments-of-neural-circuit-function-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Marc Aurel Busche, Arthur Konnerth
An essential feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain, many years to decades before the onset of overt cognitive symptoms. We suggest that during this very extended early phase of the disease, soluble Aβ oligomers and amyloid plaques alter the function of local neuronal circuits and large-scale networks by disrupting the balance of synaptic excitation and inhibition (E/I balance) in the brain. The analysis of mouse models of AD revealed that an Aβ-induced change of the E/I balance caused hyperactivity in cortical and hippocampal neurons, a breakdown of slow-wave oscillations, as well as network hypersynchrony...
August 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799297/neuroendocrine-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Eduardo De Pablo-Fernández, David P Breen, Pierre M Bouloux, Roger A Barker, Thomas Foltynie, Thomas T Warner
Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773693/hippocampal-volume-in-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Anna Walter, Claudia Suenderhauf, Fabienne Harrisberger, Claudia Lenz, Renata Smieskova, Yoonho Chung, Tyrone D Cannon, Carrie E Bearden, Charlotte Rapp, Kerstin Bendfeldt, Stefan Borgwardt, Tobias Vogel
Several magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported reductions in hippocampal volume in patients with psychosis. It is unclear whether structural abnormalities predate illness onset. We conducted a detailed, systematic literature search for studies reporting hippocampal volume in subjects with clinical high-risk, compared to healthy controls. The overall sample size comprised 1429 subjects. Meta-analysis revealed no difference for left, but a small, albeit significant, difference for right hippocampal volume, such that clinical high-risk patients had slightly smaller hippocampal volume than healthy controls (g=0...
October 20, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720198/the-role-of-genes-stress-and-dopamine-in-the-development-of-schizophrenia
#5
Oliver D Howes, Robert McCutcheon, Michael J Owen, Robin M Murray
The dopamine hypothesis is the longest standing pathoetiologic theory of schizophrenia. Because it was initially based on indirect evidence and findings in patients with established schizophrenia, it was unclear what role dopamine played in the onset of the disorder. However, recent studies in people at risk of schizophrenia have found elevated striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and increased dopamine release to stress. Furthermore, striatal dopamine changes have been linked to altered cortical function during cognitive tasks, in line with preclinical evidence that a circuit involving cortical projections to the striatum and midbrain may underlie the striatal dopamine changes...
August 6, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609241/distinct-subcortical-volume-alterations-in-pediatric-and-adult-ocd-a-worldwide-meta-and-mega-analysis
#6
Premika S W Boedhoe, Lianne Schmaal, Yoshinari Abe, Stephanie H Ameis, Paul D Arnold, Marcelo C Batistuzzo, Francesco Benedetti, Jan C Beucke, Irene Bollettini, Anushree Bose, Silvia Brem, Anna Calvo, Yuqi Cheng, Kang Ik K Cho, Sara Dallaspezia, Damiaan Denys, Kate D Fitzgerald, Jean-Paul Fouche, Mònica Giménez, Patricia Gruner, Gregory L Hanna, Derrek P Hibar, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Hao Hu, Chaim Huyser, Keisuke Ikari, Neda Jahanshad, Norbert Kathmann, Christian Kaufmann, Kathrin Koch, Jun Soo Kwon, Luisa Lazaro, Yanni Liu, Christine Lochner, Rachel Marsh, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, David Mataix-Cols, José M Menchón, Luciano Minuzzi, Takashi Nakamae, Tomohiro Nakao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Fabrizio Piras, Federica Piras, Christopher Pittenger, Y C Janardhan Reddy, Joao R Sato, H Blair Simpson, Noam Soreni, Carles Soriano-Mas, Gianfranco Spalletta, Michael C Stevens, Philip R Szeszko, David F Tolin, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Susanne Walitza, Zhen Wang, Guido A van Wingen, Jian Xu, Xiufeng Xu, Je-Yeon Yun, Qing Zhao, Paul M Thompson, Dan J Stein, Odile A van den Heuvel
OBJECTIVE: Structural brain imaging studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have produced inconsistent findings. This may be partially due to limited statistical power from relatively small samples and clinical heterogeneity related to variation in illness profile and developmental stage. To address these limitations, the authors conducted meta- and mega-analyses of data from OCD sites worldwide. METHOD: T1 images from 1,830 OCD patients and 1,759 control subjects were analyzed, using coordinated and standardized processing, to identify subcortical brain volumes that differ between OCD patients and healthy subjects...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167565/genome-wide-association-studies-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-2-cohorts-of-us-army-soldiers
#7
Murray B Stein, Chia-Yen Chen, Robert J Ursano, Tianxi Cai, Joel Gelernter, Steven G Heeringa, Sonia Jain, Kevin P Jensen, Adam X Maihofer, Colter Mitchell, Caroline M Nievergelt, Matthew K Nock, Benjamin M Neale, Renato Polimanti, Stephan Ripke, Xiaoying Sun, Michael L Thomas, Qian Wang, Erin B Ware, Susan Borja, Ronald C Kessler, Jordan W Smoller
IMPORTANCE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, serious public health concern, particularly in the military. The identification of genetic risk factors for PTSD may provide important insights into the biological foundation of vulnerability and comorbidity. OBJECTIVE: To discover genetic loci associated with the lifetime risk for PTSD in 2 cohorts from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Two coordinated genome-wide association studies of mental health in the US military contributed participants...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450778/the-dysconnection-hypothesis-2016
#8
REVIEW
Karl Friston, Harriet R Brown, Jakob Siemerkus, Klaas E Stephan
Twenty years have passed since the dysconnection hypothesis was first proposed (Friston and Frith, 1995; Weinberger, 1993). In that time, neuroscience has witnessed tremendous advances: we now live in a world of non-invasive neuroanatomy, computational neuroimaging and the Bayesian brain. The genomics era has come and gone. Connectomics and large-scale neuroinformatics initiatives are emerging everywhere. So where is the dysconnection hypothesis now? This article considers how the notion of schizophrenia as a dysconnection syndrome has developed - and how it has been enriched by recent advances in clinical neuroscience...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435186/neuroimaging-correlates-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review-of-20%C3%A2-years-of-research
#9
REVIEW
N Boublay, A M Schott, P Krolak-Salmon
Assessing morphological, perfusion and metabolic brain changes preceding or associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) will help in the understanding of pathophysiological underlying processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review aimed to highlight the main findings on significant associations between neuroimaging and NPSs, the pathophysiology to elucidate possible underlying mechanisms, and methodological issues to aid future research. Research papers published from January 1990 to October 2015 were identified in the databases PsycInfo, Embase, PubMed and Medline, using key words related to NPSs and imaging techniques...
October 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423459/cognitive-dysfunction-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Nabil Benzina, Luc Mallet, Eric Burguière, Karim N'Diaye, Antoine Pelissolo
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder featuring obsessions (intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors performed in the context of rigid rituals). There is strong evidence for a neurobiological basis of this disorder, involving limbic cortical regions and related basal ganglion areas. However, more research is needed to lift the veil on the precise nature of that involvement and the way it drives the clinical expression of OCD. Altered cognitive functions may underlie the symptoms and thus draw a link between the clinical expression of the disorder and its neurobiological etiology...
September 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256556/dysregulation-of-the-dopamine-system-in-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia-and-depression
#11
Anthony A Grace
The dopamine system is unique among the brain's modulatory systems in that it has discrete projections to specific brain regions involved in motor behaviour, cognition and emotion. Dopamine neurons exhibit several activity patterns - including tonic and phasic firing - that are determined by a combination of endogenous pacemaker conductances and regulation by multiple afferent systems. Emerging evidence suggests that disruptions in these regulatory systems may underlie the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression...
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27183902/moving-towards-causality-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-overview-of-neural-and-genetic-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Eduardo F Gallo, Jonathan Posner
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and hyperactivity or impulsivity. The heterogeneity of its clinical manifestations and the differential responses to treatment and varied prognoses have long suggested myriad underlying causes. Over the past decade, clinical and basic research efforts have uncovered many behavioural and neurobiological alterations associated with ADHD, from genes to higher order neural networks...
June 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198485/cortical-thickness-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-multisite-mega-analysis-of-780-brain-scans-from-six-centres
#13
Jean-Paul Fouche, Stefan du Plessis, Coenie Hattingh, Annerine Roos, Christine Lochner, Carles Soriano-Mas, Joao R Sato, Takashi Nakamae, Seiji Nishida, Jun Soo Kwon, Wi Hoon Jung, David Mataix-Cols, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Pino Alonso, Stella J de Wit, Dick J Veltman, Dan J Stein, Odile A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence for the role of fronto-striatal and associated circuits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but limited and conflicting data on alterations in cortical thickness. AIMS: To investigate alterations in cortical thickness and subcortical volume in OCD. METHOD: In total, 412 patients with OCD and 368 healthy adults underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans. Between-group analysis of covariance of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes was performed and regression analyses undertaken...
May 19, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26801682/adult-neurogenesis-and-psychiatric-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Eunchai Kang, Zhexing Wen, Hongjun Song, Kimberly M Christian, Guo-Li Ming
Psychiatric disorders continue to be among the most challenging disorders to diagnose and treat because there is no single genetic or anatomical locus that is causative for the disease. Current treatments are often blunt tools used to ameliorate the most severe symptoms, at the risk of disrupting functional neural systems. There is a critical need to develop new therapeutic strategies that can target circumscribed functional or anatomical domains of pathology. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be one such domain...
September 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24762196/neurobiological-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-evidence-from-recent-neuropsychological-and-neuroimaging-findings
#15
REVIEW
Tomohiro Nakao, Kayo Okada, Shigenobu Kanba
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was previously considered refractory to most types of therapeutic intervention. There is now, however, ample evidence that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and behavior therapy are highly effective methods for treatment of OCD. Furthermore, recent neurobiological studies of OCD have found a close correlation between clinical symptoms, cognitive function, and brain function. A large number of previous neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have identified abnormally high activities throughout the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in patients with OCD...
August 2014: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25873042/the-dopamine-theory-of-addiction-40-years-of-highs-and-lows
#16
REVIEW
David J Nutt, Anne Lingford-Hughes, David Erritzoe, Paul R A Stokes
For several decades, addiction has come to be viewed as a disorder of the dopamine neurotransmitter system; however, this view has not led to new treatments. In this Opinion article, we review the origins of the dopamine theory of addiction and discuss the ability of addictive drugs to elicit the release of dopamine in the human striatum. There is robust evidence that stimulants increase striatal dopamine levels and some evidence that alcohol may have such an effect, but little evidence, if any, that cannabis and opiates increase dopamine levels...
May 2015: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26733829/the-involvement-of-genes-in-adolescent-depression-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Liangwei Xia, Shuqiao Yao
Numerous studies have reported on the roles of genetic factors in the development of depression in adolescents and young adults. However, there are few systematic reviews that update our understanding of adolescent depression with the biological findings identifying the roles of gene expression and/or polymorphism(s). This review systematically summarized the findings that clearly identified the contribution of a gene to the risk of depression in adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years old and young adults between the ages of 20 and 25 years old...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655436/the-neural-crossroads-of-psychiatric-illness-an-emerging-target-for-brain-stimulation
#18
REVIEW
Jonathan Downar, Daniel M Blumberger, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Recent meta-analyses of structural and functional neuroimaging studies are converging on a collective core of brain regions affected across most psychiatric disorders, centered on the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula. These nodes correspond well to an anterior cingulo-insular (aCIN) or 'salience' network, and stand at a crossroads within the functional architecture of the brain, acting as a switch to deploy other major functional networks according to motivational demands and environmental constraints...
February 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26583316/deep-clinical-and-neuropathological-phenotyping-of-pick-disease
#19
David J Irwin, Johannes Brettschneider, Corey T McMillan, Felicia Cooper, Christopher Olm, Steven E Arnold, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Edward B Lee, Virginia M-Y Lee, Murray Grossman, John Q Trojanowski
OBJECTIVE: To characterize sequential patterns of regional neuropathology and clinical symptoms in a well-characterized cohort of 21 patients with autopsy-confirmed Pick disease. METHODS: Detailed neuropathological examination using 70μm and traditional 6μm sections was performed using thioflavin-S staining and immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated tau, 3R and 4R tau isoforms, ubiquitin, and C-terminally truncated tau. Patterns of regional tau deposition were correlated with clinical data...
February 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26390828/molecular-substrates-of-schizophrenia-homeostatic-signaling-to-connectivity
#20
REVIEW
M A Landek-Salgado, T E Faust, A Sawa
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a devastating psychiatric condition affecting numerous brain systems. Recent studies have identified genetic factors that confer an increased risk of SZ and participate in the disease etiopathogenesis. In parallel to such bottom-up approaches, other studies have extensively reported biological changes in patients by brain imaging, neurochemical and pharmacological approaches. This review highlights the molecular substrates identified through studies with SZ patients, namely those using top-down approaches, while also referring to the fruitful outcomes of recent genetic studies...
January 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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