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Chromatin and gene expression

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3 papers 100 to 500 followers
Jin Young Kim, Pieter Bas Kwak, Charles J Weitz
Mammalian circadian rhythms are generated by a negative feedback loop in which PERIOD (PER) proteins accumulate, form a large nuclear complex (PER complex), and bind the transcription factor CLOCK-BMAL1, repressing their own expression. We found that mouse PER complexes include the Mi-2/nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase (NuRD) transcriptional corepressor. Unexpectedly, two NuRD subunits, CHD4 and MTA2, constitutively associate with CLOCK-BMAL1, with CHD4 functioning to promote CLOCK-BMAL1 transcriptional activity...
December 18, 2014: Molecular Cell
Judith H I Haarhuis, Ahmed M O Elbatsh, Benjamin D Rowland
The X shape of chromosomes is one of the iconic images in biology. Cohesin actually connects the sister chromatids along their entire length, from S phase until mitosis. Then, cohesin's antagonist Wapl allows the separation of chromosome arms by opening a DNA exit gate in cohesin rings. Centromeres are protected against this removal activity, resulting in the X shape of mitotic chromosomes. The destruction of the remaining centromeric cohesin by Separase triggers chromosome segregation. We review the two-phase regulation of cohesin removal and discuss how this affects chromosome alignment and decatenation in mitosis and cohesin reloading in the next cell cycle...
October 13, 2014: Developmental Cell
Jill M Dowen, Zi Peng Fan, Denes Hnisz, Gang Ren, Brian J Abraham, Lyndon N Zhang, Abraham S Weintraub, Jurian Schuijers, Tong Ihn Lee, Keji Zhao, Richard A Young
The pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is produced by active transcription of genes that control cell identity and repression of genes encoding lineage-specifying developmental regulators. Here, we use ESC cohesin ChIA-PET data to identify the local chromosomal structures at both active and repressed genes across the genome. The results produce a map of enhancer-promoter interactions and reveal that super-enhancer-driven genes generally occur within chromosome structures that are formed by the looping of two interacting CTCF sites co-occupied by cohesin...
October 9, 2014: Cell
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