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Neurology common disorders

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22 papers 500 to 1000 followers
By Faye Kehler Family Physician and GP Anesthetist since 1987 interested in all aspects of Medicine
Johan Zelano
Stroke is among the most common causes of epilepsy after middle age. Patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) differ in several respects from patients with other forms of structural-metabolic epilepsy; not least in age, age-related sensitivity to side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and specific drug-drug interaction issues related to secondary-stroke prophylaxis. Encouragingly, there has lately been remarkable activity in the study of PSE. Three developments in PSE research deserve particular focus. First, large prospective trials have established the incidence and risk factors of PSE in the setting of modern stroke care...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Susan Schneider Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Neurology
Michel Goedert
The pathological assembly of Aβ, tau, and α-synuclein is at the heart of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Extracellular deposits of Aβ and intraneuronal tau inclusions define Alzheimer's disease, whereas intracellular inclusions of α-synuclein make up the Lewy pathology of Parkinson's disease. Most cases of disease are sporadic, but some are inherited in a dominant manner. Mutations frequently occur in the genes encoding Aβ, tau, and α-synuclein. Overexpression of these mutant proteins can give rise to disease-associated phenotypes...
August 7, 2015: Science
Andrew Bivard, Min Lou, Christopher R Levi, Venkatesh Krishnamurthy, Xin Cheng, Richard I Aviv, Patrick McElduff, Longting Lin, Tim Kleinig, Billy O'Brien, Kenneth Butcher, Zhang Jingfen, Jim Jannes, Qiang Dong, Mark W Parsons
OBJECTIVE: Although commonly used in clinical practice, there remains much uncertainty about whether perfusion computed tomography (CTP) should be used to select stroke patients for acute reperfusion therapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a small acute perfusion lesion predicts good clinical outcome regardless of thrombolysis administration. METHODS: We used a prospectively collected cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients being assessed for treatment with IV-alteplase, who had CTP before a treatment decision...
August 2016: Annals of Neurology
Yasuhiro Kuroda
This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Marianne Dieterich, Mark Obermann, Nese Celebisoy
Vestibular migraine (VM) is the most common cause of episodic vertigo in adults as well as in children. The diagnostic criteria of the consensus document of the International Bárány Society for Neuro-Otology and the International Headache Society (2012) combine the typical signs and symptoms of migraine with the vestibular symptoms lasting 5 min to 72 h and exclusion criteria. Although VM accounts for 7% of patients seen in dizziness clinics and 9% of patients seen in headache clinics it is still underdiagnosed...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
Rubesh Gooriah, Randa Nimeri, Fayyaz Ahmed
Migraine, a significantly disabling condition, is treated with acute and preventive medications. However, some individuals are refractory to standard treatments. Although there is a host of alternative management options available, these are not always backed by strong evidence. In fact, most of the drugs used in migraine were initially designed for other purposes. Whilst effective, the benefits from these medications are modest, reflecting the need for newer and migraine-specific therapeutic agents. In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of novel treatments, of which noninvasive neuromodulation appears to be the most attractive given its ease of use and excellent tolerability profile...
2015: Pain Research and Treatment
J Venhovens, J Meulstee, W I M Verhagen
Almost 20 % of cerebral ischaemic strokes occur in the posterior circulation. Estimates are that 20 % of these patients present with isolated vertigo. In approximately one-sixth to one-third of these patients, this symptom is wrongly diagnosed to be peripheral vestibular in origin. As a result, these missed stroke patients are withheld from therapeutic and secondary prophylactic treatment, which may result in unnecessary morbidity and mortality. We therefore propose a diagnostic algorithm concerning the clinical differentiation of acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) patients based on a critical review of the available literature...
March 16, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Eugen Trinka, Francesco Brigo, Simon Shorvon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of status epilepticus and its current treatment approaches. Many of these have been topics at the 5th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on status epilepticus 2015. RECENT FINDINGS: A new definition and classification of status epilepticus was proposed, which is expected to improve treatment and stimulate research. A better understanding of the failure of seizure suppressing mechanisms and the initiation of self-sustaining seizures begins to translate into the clinical arena...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Nico Melzer, Tobias Ruck, Peter Fuhr, Ralf Gold, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Alexander Marx, Arthur Melms, Björn Tackenberg, Berthold Schalke, Christiane Schneider-Gold, Fritz Zimprich, Sven G Meuth, Heinz Wiendl
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune antibody-mediated disorder of neuromuscular synaptic transmission. The clinical hallmark of MG consists of fluctuating fatigability and weakness affecting ocular, bulbar and (proximal) limb skeletal muscle groups. MG may either occur as an autoimmune disease with distinct immunogenetic characteristics or as a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with tumors of the thymus. Impairment of central thymic and peripheral self-tolerance mechanisms in both cases is thought to favor an autoimmune CD4(+) T cell-mediated B cell activation and synthesis of pathogenic high-affinity autoantibodies of either the IgG1 and 3 or IgG4 subclass...
August 2016: Journal of Neurology
Timothy J Eviston, Glen R Croxson, Peter G E Kennedy, Tessa Hadlock, Arun V Krishnan
Bell's palsy is a common cranial neuropathy causing acute unilateral lower motor neuron facial paralysis. Immune, infective and ischaemic mechanisms are all potential contributors to the development of Bell's palsy, but the precise cause remains unclear. Advancements in the understanding of intra-axonal signal molecules and the molecular mechanisms underpinning Wallerian degeneration may further delineate its pathogenesis along with in vitro studies of virus-axon interactions. Recently published guidelines for the acute treatment of Bell's palsy advocate for steroid monotherapy, although controversy exists over whether combined corticosteroids and antivirals may possibly have a beneficial role in select cases of severe Bell's palsy...
December 2015: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Paulo Roberto Lacerda Leal, Charlotte Barbier, Marc Hermier, Miguel Angelo Souza, Gerardo Cristino-Filho, Marc Sindou
OBJECT: The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate atrophic changes in trigeminal nerves (TGNs) using measurements of volume (V) and cross-sectional area (CSA) from high-resolution 3-T MR images obtained in patients with unilateral trigeminal neuralgia (TN), and to correlate these data with patient and neurovascular compression (NVC) characteristics and with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Anatomical TGN parameters (V and CSA) were obtained in 50 patients (30 women and 20 men; mean age 56...
June 2014: Journal of Neurosurgery
Sophie L Wilcox, Sylvia M Gustin, Elizabeth N Eykman, Gordon Fowler, Christopher C Peck, Greg M Murray, Luke A Henderson
UNLABELLED: Trigeminal neuralgia, painful trigeminal neuropathy, and painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are chronic orofacial pain conditions that are thought to have fundamentally different etiologies. Trigeminal neuralgia and neuropathy are thought to arise from damage to or pressure on the trigeminal nerve, whereas TMD results primarily from peripheral nociceptor activation. This study sought to assess the volume and microstructure of the trigeminal nerve in these 3 conditions...
August 2013: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Thomas Brandt, Doreen Huppert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2016: Neurology
Rhian Raftopoulos, Simon J Hickman, Ahmed Toosy, Basil Sharrack, Shahrukh Mallik, David Paling, Daniel R Altmann, Marios C Yiannakas, Prasad Malladi, Rose Sheridan, Ptolemaios G Sarrigiannis, Nigel Hoggard, Martin Koltzenburg, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Klaus Schmierer, Gavin Giovannoni, David H Miller, Raju Kapoor
BACKGROUND: Acute demyelinating optic neuritis, a common feature of multiple sclerosis, can damage vision through neurodegeneration in the optic nerve and in its fibres in the retina. Inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels is neuroprotective in preclinical models. In this study we aimed to establish whether sodium-channel inhibition with phenytoin is neuroprotective in patient with acute optic neuritis. METHODS: We did a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 2 trial at two UK academic hospitals in London and Sheffield...
March 2016: Lancet Neurology
Neill R Graff-Radford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2016: Neurology
Khara M Sauro, Samuel Wiebe, Colin Dunkley, Jozsef Janszky, Eva Kumlien, Solomon Moshé, Nobukazu Nakasato, Timothy A Pedley, Emilio Perucca, Horacio Senties, Sanjeev V Thomas, Yuping Wang, Jo Wilmshurst, Nathalie Jetté
OBJECTIVE: The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Epilepsy Guidelines Task Force, composed of 14 international members, was established in 2011 to identify, using systematic review methodology, international epilepsy clinical care guidelines, assess their quality, and determine gaps in areas of need of development. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature (1985-2014) was performed in six electronic databases (e.g. Medline, Embase) using a broad search strategy without initial limits to language or study design...
January 2016: Epilepsia
David L H Bennett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: Lancet Neurology
K N Anderson
In the 24/7 modern society, sleep disorders and the role of normal amounts and timing of sleep for health are often neglected by both doctors and their patients. Sleep has been said to be "of the brain, by the brain and for the brain" and the most immediate and obvious consequence of disrupted sleep is impaired brain function. This review will cover some of the recent papers published in both the Journal of Neurology and elsewhere in 2013/2014 that have advanced our knowledge of sleep and circadian rhythm disorders...
February 2015: Journal of Neurology
B Demartini, L Ricciardi, I Parees, C Ganos, K P Bhatia, M J Edwards
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Functional tics, also called psychogenic tics or pseudo-tics, are difficult to diagnose because of the lack of diagnostic criteria and their clinical similarities to organic tics. The aim of the present study was to report a case series of patients with documented functional tics and to describe their clinical characteristics, risk factors and psychiatric comorbidity. Also clinical tips are suggested which might help the differential diagnosis in clinical practice...
March 2015: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
2014-12-12 00:59:45
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