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By Manoel Vicente Barros Junior Brazilian Medical Student
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Sari M van Anders
Largely based on pre-theory that ties high testosterone (T) to masculinity, and low T to femininity, high T is mainly studied in relation to aggression, mating, sexuality, and challenge, and low T with parenting. Evidence, however, fails to support this, and the social variability in T is better accounted for by a competition-nurturance trade-off as per the Steroid/Peptide Theory of Social Bonds (van Anders et al., 2011). Four key domains are discussed: adult-infant interactions, sexual desire, sexual behavior, and partnering...
August 2013: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
David M Buck, E Ashby Plant, Jennifer Ratcliff, Kate Zielaskowski, Patrick Boerner
Membership in a valued group can provide an individual with a variety of benefits. As a result, people should be motivated to avoid being misidentified as a member of an outgroup, particularly a stigmatized outgroup. We argue that when group membership is not readily identifiable, concern over potentially being mistaken for a member of the outgroup (i.e., social contagion concerns) can be potent and can lead to avoidance of the outgroup. The current work shows that after controlling for negative attitudes toward homosexuality, social contagion concerns independently predict anxiety and avoidance in response to imagined, anticipated, and actual contact with a lesbian or gay individual...
December 2013: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Victoria L Brescoll, Eric Luis Uhlmann, George E Newman
People have a fundamental motive to view their social system as just, fair, and good and will engage in a number of strategies to rationalize the status quo (Jost & Banaji, 1994). We propose that one way in which individuals may "justify the system" is through endorsement of essentialist explanations, which attribute group differences to deep, essential causes. We suggest that system-justifying motives lead to greater endorsement of essentialist explanations because those explanations portray group differences as immutable...
December 2013: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Lisa Simons, Sheree M Schrager, Leslie F Clark, Marvin Belzer, Johanna Olson
PURPOSE: Family support is protective against health risks in sexual minority individuals. However, few studies have focused specifically on transgender youth, who often experience rejection, marginalization, and victimization that place them at risk for poor mental health. This study investigated the relationships among parental support, quality of life, and depression in transgender adolescents. METHODS: A total of 66 transgender youth presenting for care at Children's Hospital Los Angeles completed a survey assessing parental support (defined as help, advice, and confidante support), quality of life, and depression...
December 2013: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Uri Gneezy, Elizabeth A Keenan, Ayelet Gneezy
Donors tend to avoid charities that dedicate a high percentage of expenses to administrative and fundraising costs, limiting the ability of nonprofits to be effective. We propose a solution to this problem: Use donations from major philanthropists to cover overhead expenses and offer potential donors an overhead-free donation opportunity. A laboratory experiment testing this solution confirms that donations decrease when overhead increases, but only when donors pay for overhead themselves. In a field experiment with 40,000 potential donors, we compared the overhead-free solution with other common uses of initial donations...
October 31, 2014: Science
Andrea F Mello, Mariana R Maciel, Victor Fossaluza, Cristiane S de Paula, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Luciana P Cavalcante-Nóbrega, Giuliana C Cividanes, Yusaku Soussumi, Sonia P Soussumi, Dirce N M Perissinotti, Isabel A Bordin, Marcelo F Mello, Jair J Mari
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively study the exposure to childhood maltreatment and urban violence in children from families with at least one child working on the streets and to investigate the relationship between these factors and street work. METHODS: Families who participated in a nongovernmental organization (NGO) program to eliminate child labor were included. Data concerning sociodemographic characteristics, punishment methods used in the family environment against the children, five types of abuse and neglect perpetrated by the caregivers, urban violence exposure and family functioning were collected...
September 2014: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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