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GMG Nutritional/Cardiac

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240 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Gregory Gustafson Interventional Cardiologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514624/evacetrapib-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-high-risk-vascular-disease
#1
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
A Michael Lincoff, Stephen J Nicholls, Jeffrey S Riesmeyer, Philip J Barter, H Bryan Brewer, Keith A A Fox, C Michael Gibson, Christopher Granger, Venu Menon, Gilles Montalescot, Daniel Rader, Alan R Tall, Ellen McErlean, Kathy Wolski, Giacomo Ruotolo, Burkhard Vangerow, Govinda Weerakkody, Shaun G Goodman, Diego Conde, Darren K McGuire, Jose C Nicolau, Jose L Leiva-Pons, Yves Pesant, Weimin Li, David Kandath, Simon Kouz, Naeem Tahirkheli, Denise Mason, Steven E Nissen
BACKGROUND: The cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor evacetrapib substantially raises the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, reduces the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, and enhances cellular cholesterol efflux capacity. We sought to determine the effect of evacetrapib on major adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with high-risk vascular disease. METHODS: In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial, we enrolled 12,092 patients who had at least one of the following conditions: an acute coronary syndrome within the previous 30 to 365 days, cerebrovascular atherosclerotic disease, peripheral vascular arterial disease, or diabetes mellitus with coronary artery disease...
May 18, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300080/hypertriglyceridaemia-and-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease
#2
REVIEW
Željko Reiner
An elevated serum level of LDL cholesterol is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the role of elevated triglyceride levels is debated. Controversies regarding hypertriglyceridaemia as an independent risk factor for CVD have occurred partly because elevated triglyceride levels are often a component of atherogenic dyslipidaemia - they are associated with decreased levels of HDL cholesterol and increased levels of small dense LDL particles, which are highly atherogenic. Findings from several large studies indicate that elevated levels of triglycerides (either fasting or nonfasting) or, more specifically, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants, are independently associated with increased risk of CVD...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506386/serum-triglyceride-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-apolipoprotein-b-and-coronary-heart-disease-in-a-chinese-population-undergoing-coronary-angiography
#3
Yan Ling, Jingjing Jiang, Bingjie Wu, Xin Gao
BACKGROUND: Increased serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The major types of dyslipidemia in Chinese population are hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of HDL-C, triglyceride, and apoB levels on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Chinese population undergoing coronary angiography...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498345/effects-of-long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-endothelial-vasodilator-function-and-cognition-are-they-interrelated
#4
REVIEW
Julia C Kuszewski, Rachel H X Wong, Peter R C Howe
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) may improve brain functions by acting on endothelial cells in the cerebrovasculature to facilitate vasodilatation and perfusion. The aim of this review is to explore this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of LCn-3 PUFA supplementation on systemic vasodilator and cognitive function and finding evidence to link LCn-3 PUFA intake, vasodilator function and cognition. Forty randomized controlled trials examining the effect of LCn-3 PUFA supplementation in humans on either endothelial vasodilator function or cognition were identified and pooled effects measured with a weighted analysis...
May 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062061/a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-and-prospective-cohort-studies-of-eicosapentaenoic-and-docosahexaenoic-long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-coronary-heart-disease-risk
#5
REVIEW
Dominik D Alexander, Paige E Miller, Mary E Van Elswyk, Connye N Kuratko, Lauren C Bylsma
OBJECTIVE: To conduct meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to estimate the effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) on coronary heart disease (CHD), and to conduct meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies to estimate the association between EPA+DHA intake and CHD risk. METHODS: A systematic literature search of Ovid/Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from January 1, 1947, to November 2, 2015, was conducted; 18 RCTs and 16 prospective cohort studies examining EPA+DHA from foods or supplements and CHD, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, coronary death, and angina, were identified...
January 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617709/sugar-industry-and-coronary-heart-disease-research-a-historical-analysis-of-internal-industry-documents
#6
Cristin E Kearns, Laura A Schmidt, Stanton A Glantz
Early warning signals of the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of sugar (sucrose) emerged in the 1950s. We examined Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) internal documents, historical reports, and statements relevant to early debates about the dietary causes of CHD and assembled findings chronologically into a narrative case study. The SRF sponsored its first CHD research project in 1965, a literature review published in the New England Journal of Medicine, which singled out fat and cholesterol as the dietary causes of CHD and downplayed evidence that sucrose consumption was also a risk factor...
November 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599384/metabolic-syndrome-and-its-individual-components-with-mortality-among-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#7
Qian Chen, Yuan Zhang, Ding Ding, Dan Li, Min Xia, Xinrui Li, Yunou Yang, Qing Li, Gang Hu, Wenhua Ling
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its metabolic risk factors appear to promote the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association of MetS and its individual components with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: We performed a prospective, hospital-based cohort among 3599 CHD patients in China. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association of MetS and its components at baseline with risk of mortality...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492964/medication-induced-diabetes-mellitus
#8
REVIEW
David R Repaske
Epidemiological studies and case reports have demonstrated an increased rate of development of diabetes mellitus consequent to taking diverse types of medication. This review explores this evidence linking these medications and development of diabetes and presents postulated mechanisms by which the medications might cause diabetes. Some medications are associated with a reduction in insulin production, some with reduction in insulin sensitivity, and some appear to be associated with both reduction in insulin production and insulin sensitivity...
September 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109584/dietary-patterns-and-the-risk-of-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-in-a-global-study-of-high-risk-patients-with-stable-coronary-heart-disease
#9
Ralph A H Stewart, Lars Wallentin, Jocelyne Benatar, Nicolas Danchin, Emil Hagström, Claes Held, Steen Husted, Eva Lonn, Amanda Stebbins, Karen Chiswell, Ola Vedin, David Watson, Harvey D White
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether dietary pattern assessed by a simple self-administered food frequency questionnaire is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in high-risk patients with stable coronary artery disease. BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean dietary pattern has been associated with lower cardiovascular (CV) mortality. It is less certain whether foods common in western diets are associated with CV risk. METHODS: At baseline, 15 482 (97...
July 1, 2016: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27055107/middle-term-dietary-supplementation-with-red-yeast-rice-plus-coenzyme-q10-improves-lipid-pattern-endothelial-reactivity-and-arterial-stiffness-in-moderately-hypercholesterolemic-subjects
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Arrigo F G Cicero, Martino Morbini, Martina Rosticci, Sergio D''Addato, Elisa Grandi, Claudio Borghi
AIM: The aim of our study was to investigate whether treatment with red yeast rice added with Coenzyme Q10 is associated with changes in endothelial function and arterial stiffness. METHODS: This double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was carried out on 40 non-smoker moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects (ClinicalTrial.gov ID NCT02492464). After 4 weeks of diet and physical activity, patients were allocated to treatment with placebo or with an active product containing 10 mg monacolins and 30 mg Coenzyme Q10, to be assumed for 6 months...
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944101/oats-from-farm-to-fork
#11
REVIEW
Ravi Menon, Tanhia Gonzalez, Mario Ferruzzi, Eric Jackson, Dan Winderl, Jay Watson
Oats have a long history of use as human food and animal feed. From its origins in the Fertile Crescent, the oat has adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and geographic regions. Its unique macro-, micro-, and phytonutrient composition, high nutritional value, and relatively low agricultural input requirements makes oats unique among cereal crops. The health benefits of the oats are becoming well established. While the connection between oat β-glucan fiber in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and controlling glycemia have been unequivocally established, other potential benefits including modulation of intestinal microbiota and inflammation continue to be explored...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26764327/garlic-and-heart-disease
#12
REVIEW
Ravi Varshney, Matthew J Budoff
BACKGROUND: Thousands of studies have been published based on animal and human studies evaluating garlic's effects and safety. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the available literature investigating the effects of garlic supplements on hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, C-reactive protein (CRP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and coronary artery calcium (CAC), as well as available data on side effects. METHODS: We searched PubMed for all human studies using medical subject heading words through 30 May 2013 and assessed relevant review articles and original studies...
February 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26764329/aged-garlic-extract-suppresses-the-development-of-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice
#13
Naoaki Morihara, Atsuko Hino, Takako Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to retard the progression of coronary calcification in patients with coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the mechanism of AGE's action to retard atherosclerosis, we investigated whether AGE suppresses the formation and progression of atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E (Apoe)-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice (control mice, 5 wk old) were fed a standard diet, whereas male ApoE-KO mice (5 wk old) were fed a standard diet with or without 3% AGE for 12 or 24 wk...
February 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931669/plasma-levels-of-marine-n-3-fatty-acids-and-cardiovascular-risk-markers-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#14
I A Eide, D O Dahle, M Svensson, A Hartmann, A Åsberg, K S Bjerve, J H Christensen, E B Schmidt, M E Lauritsen, K Lund, T Jenssen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death after renal transplantation. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert potential cardio-protective metabolic effects and might reduce CV morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 1990 Norwegian RTRs, transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between plasma phospholipid marine n-3 PUFA levels and various CV risk markers at 10 weeks after transplant were evaluated...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26888326/cost-effectiveness-of-a-risk-based-secondary-screening-program-of-type-2-diabetes
#15
Balázs Nagy, Adriána Zsólyom, László Nagyjánosi, Gergő Merész, Tamás Steiner, Eszter Papp, Zoltán Dessewffy, György Jermendy, Gábor Winkler, Zoltán Kaló, Zoltán Vokó
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a long term economic model for type 2 diabetes to describe the entire spectrum of the disease over a wide range of health care programmes. The model evaluates a public health, risk based screening program in a country specific setting. METHODS: The lifespan of persons and important phases of the disease and related interventions are recorded in a Markov model, which first simulates the effect of screening, then replicates important complications of diabetes, follows the progression of individuals through physiological variables and finally calculates outcomes in monetary and naturalistic units...
February 17, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931571/serum-magnesium-is-inversely-associated-with-coronary-artery-calcification-in-the-genetics-of-atherosclerotic-disease-gea-study
#16
Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez, Carlos Posadas-Romero, Guillermo Cardoso-Saldaña, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón, María Teresa Villarreal-Molina, Nonanzit Pérez-Hernández, José Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez, Aida Medina-Urrutia, Esteban Jorge-Galarza, Juan Gabriel Juárez-Rojas, Margarita Torres-Tamayo
BACKGROUND: Serum magnesium is inversely associated to coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with chronic kidney disease. There is little information on this association in a general healthy population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association of serum magnesium levels with CAC. METHODS: We included 1276 Mexican-mestizo subjects (50 % women), aged 30-75 years, free of symptomatic cardiovascular disease...
March 1, 2016: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957517/elevated-triglyceride-level-is-independently-associated-with-increased-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-established-coronary-heart-disease-twenty-two-year-follow-up-of-the-bezafibrate-infarction-prevention-study-and-registry
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Robert Klempfner, Aharon Erez, Ben-Zekry Sagit, Ilan Goldenberg, Enrique Fisman, Eran Kopel, Nir Shlomo, Ariel Israel, Alexander Tenenbaum
BACKGROUND: The independent association between elevated triglycerides and all-cause mortality among patients with established coronary heart disease is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in a large cohort of patients with proven coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 15 355 patients who were screened for the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) trial. Twenty-two-year mortality data were obtained from the national registry...
March 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26864369/associations-of-egg-and-cholesterol-intakes-with-carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-risk-of-incident-coronary-artery-disease-according-to-apolipoprotein-e-phenotype-in-men-the-kuopio-ischaemic-heart-disease-risk-factor-study
#18
Jyrki K Virtanen, Jaakko Mursu, Heli Ek Virtanen, Mikael Fogelholm, Jukka T Salonen, Timo T Koskinen, Sari Voutilainen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen
BACKGROUND: In general populations, the effects of dietary cholesterol on blood cholesterol concentrations are modest. However, the relation is stronger in those with an ɛ4 allele in the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). There is little information on the association between cholesterol intake and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) among those with the ApoE4 phenotype. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of intakes of cholesterol and eggs, a major source of dietary cholesterol, with carotid intima-media thickness and the risk of incident CAD in middle-aged and older men from eastern Finland...
March 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26803431/weight-loss-is-superior-to-exercise-in-improving-the-atherogenic-lipid-profile-in-a-sedentary-overweight-population-with-stable-coronary-artery-disease-a-randomized-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lene Rørholm Pedersen, Rasmus Huan Olsen, Christian Anholm, Rosemary L Walzem, Mogens Fenger, Jesper Eugen-Olsen, Steen Bendix Haugaard, Eva Prescott
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation are integral in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We aim to compare the effects of a considerable weight loss and intensive exercise training on lipid atherogenicity and low-grade inflammation in a high-risk population with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Seventy non-diabetic participants with CAD, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2), age 45-75 years were randomized to 12 weeks' aerobic interval training (AIT) at 85-90% of peak heart rate three times/week or a low energy diet (LED, 800-1000 kcal/day) for 8-10 weeks followed by 2-4 weeks' weight maintenance diet...
March 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26743209/current-understanding-of-metformin-effect-on-the-control-of-hyperglycemia-in-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Hongying An, Ling He
Metformin is a first-line oral anti-diabetic agent that has been used clinically to treat patients with type 2 diabetes for over 60 years. Due to its efficacy in therapy and affordable price, metformin is taken by more than 150 million people each year. Metformin improves hyperglycemia mainly through the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis along with the improvement of insulin signaling. However, its mechanism of action remains partially understood and controversial, especially in regard to the role of AMPK in metformin's action and the mechanism of AMPK activation...
March 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
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