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By Faye Kehler Family Physician and GP Anesthetist since 1987 interested in all aspects of Medicine
Shelley N Hancock, Veronica Armijo-Garcia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Pediatrics in Review
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rachel T Clarke, Ann Van den Bruel, Clare Bankhead, Christopher D Mitchell, Bob Phillips, Matthew J Thompson
OBJECTIVE: Leukaemia is the most common cancer of childhood, accounting for a third of cases. In order to assist clinicians in its early detection, we systematically reviewed all existing data on its clinical presentation and estimated the frequency of signs and symptoms presenting at or prior to diagnosis. DESIGN: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for all studies describing presenting features of leukaemia in children (0-18 years) without date or language restriction, and, when appropriate, meta-analysed data from the included studies...
October 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Amir Saam Youshani, Bimal Mehta, Katharine Davies, Helen Beer, Sujata De
OBJECTIVE: We carried out a complete audit cycle, reviewing our management of paediatric patients with Bell's palsy within 72 h of symptom onset. Our protocol was published after the initial audit in 2009, and a re-audit was carried out in 2011. We aimed to improve our current practice in accordance with up-to-date evidence-based research on the use of steroids and antivirals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 17 patients were included in the first cycle, but only eight patients met our inclusion and exclusion criteria for the re-audit...
April 2015: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
James McCaffrey, Ajaya Kumar Dhakal, David V Milford, Nicholas J A Webb, Rachel Lennon
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition in children admitted to hospital and existing serum and urine biomarkers are insensitive. There have been significant developments in stratifying the risk of AKI in children and also in the identification of new AKI biomarkers. Risk stratification coupled with a panel of AKI biomarkers will improve future detection of AKI, however, paediatric validation studies in mixed patient cohorts are required. The principles of effective management rely on treating the underlying cause and preventing secondary AKI by the appropriate use of fluids and medication...
August 5, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Evdokia Anagnostou, Michael G Aman, Benjamin L Handen, Kevin B Sanders, Amy Shui, Jill A Hollway, Jessica Brian, L Eugene Arnold, Lucia Capano, Jessica A Hellings, Eric Butter, Deepali Mankad, Rameshwari Tumuluru, Jessica Kettel, Cassandra R Newsom, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Naomi Peleg, Dina Odrobina, Sarah McAuliffe-Bellin, Pearl Zakroysky, Sarah Marler, Alexis Wagner, Taylor Wong, Eric A Macklin, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
IMPORTANCE: Atypical antipsychotic medications are indicated for the treatment of irritability and agitation symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Unfortunately, these medications are associated with weight gain and metabolic complications that are especially troubling in children and with long-term use. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of metformin for weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotic medications in children and adolescents with ASD (defined in the protocol as DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified), aged 6 to 17 years...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Borja Gomez, Santiago Mintegi, Silvia Bressan, Liviana Da Dalt, Alain Gervaix, Laurence Lacroix
BACKGROUND: A sequential approach to young febrile infants on the basis of clinical and laboratory parameters, including procalcitonin, was recently described as an accurate tool in identifying patients at risk for invasive bacterial infection (IBI). Our aim was to prospectively validate the Step-by-Step approach and compare it with the Rochester criteria and the Lab-score. METHODS: Prospective study including infants ≤90 days with fever without source presenting in 11 European pediatric emergency departments between September 2012 and August 2014...
August 2016: Pediatrics
Helene Pinches, Katherine Dobbins, Sarah Cantrell, Joseph May, Joseph Lopreiato
Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in the United States. It is a systemic vasculitis characterized by diffuse inflammation of medium and small blood vessels. If untreated it can lead to myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, or sudden death. Early recognition and treatment decrease the incidence of coronary consequences, resulting in improved clinical outcomes. Incomplete KD is much less likely to fulfill major clinical diagnostic criteria. Infants <12 months of age are more likely to have an incomplete presentation, and children <6 months of age are more likely to develop cardiac complications...
August 2016: Pediatrics
Andrew Turnbull, Ian M Balfour-Lynn
This review highlights important advances in paediatric respiratory medicine since 2014, excluding cystic fibrosis. It focuses mainly on the more common conditions, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchiolitis and preschool wheezing, asthma, pneumonia and sleep, and highlights some of the rarer conditions such as primary ciliary dyskinesia and interstitial lung disease (ILD).
February 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Craig A Erickson, Balmiki Ray, Bryan Maloney, Logan K Wink, Katherine Bowers, Tori L Schaefer, Christopher J McDougle, Deborah K Sokol, Debomoy K Lahiri
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains limited. Brain overgrowth has been hypothesized to be associated with the development of ASD. A derivative of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), secreted APPα (sAPPα), has neuroproliferative effects and has been shown to be elevated in the plasma of persons with ASD compared to control subjects. Reduction in sAPPα holds promise as a novel molecular target of treatment in ASD. Research into the neurochemistry of ASD has repeatedly implicated excessive glutamatergic and deficient GABAergic neurotransmission in the disorder...
December 2014: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Mark Oliver Tessaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Pediatrics in Review
Jeffrey Baron, Gladys El-Chaar
Bronchiolitis, an infection of the lower respiratory tract, is the leading cause of infant and child hospitalization in the United States. Therapeutic options for management of bronchiolitis are limited. Hypertonic saline inhalation therapy has been studied in numerous clinical trials with mixed results. In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published updated guidelines on the diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis, which include new recommendations on the use of hypertonic saline. We reviewed all published clinical trials mentioned in the 2014 AAP guidelines, as well as additional trials published since the guidelines, and critically evaluated each trial to determine efficacy, safety, and expectations of hypertonic saline inhalation therapy...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Chantel Cacciotti, Claudia Vicetti Miguel, Jeremy Neuman, Sarah Vaiselbuh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Pediatrics in Review
Ernest Cutz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Mohammad Jobayer Chisti, Tahmeed Ahmed, A M Shamshir Ahmed, Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Md Munirul Islam, Sayeeda Huq, Lubaba Shahrin, Pradip Kumar Bardhan, Mohammed Abdus Salam
We sought to investigate the magnitude, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of children suffering from hypernatremic diarrhea and to identify risk factors for fatal outcome among them. We reviewed 2 data sets of children <15 years admitted to the in-patient ward of the Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr, b) with diarrhea and hypernatremia (serum sodium ≥150 mmol/L): (a) March 2001 to March 2002 (n = 371) and (b) March 2009 to August 2011 (n = 360)...
June 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
Fatihi Hassan Soliman Toaimah, Hala Mohammad Fathi Mohammad
BACKGROUND: Rapid intravenous (IV) rehydration is commonly used for the management of pediatric gastroenteritis in the emergency department. The current practice shows wide variation in the volume and rate of rapid IV hydration. The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of rapid IV rehydration compared with standard method in children with gastroenteritis. METHOD: MEDLINE (1946-2014), EMBASE (1974-2014), and CENTRAL via the Cochrane Library (Issue 8, 2014) were systematically searched to identify eligible studies...
February 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Andrea Lo Vecchio, Jorge Amil Dias, James A Berkley, Chris Boey, Mitchell B Cohen, Sylvia Cruchet, Ilaria Liguoro, Eduardo Salazar Lindo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Philip Sherman, Toshiaki Shimizu, Alfredo Guarino
OBJECTIVE: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of child mortality and morbidity. This study aimed at systematically reviewing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on AGE to compare recommendations and provide the basis for developing single universal guidelines. METHODS: CPGs were identified by searching MEDLINE, Cochrane-Library, National Guideline Clearinghouse and Web sites of relevant societies/organizations producing and/or endorsing CPGs. RESULTS: The definition of AGE varies among the 15 CPGs identified...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jose Rosa-Olivares, Amanda Porro, Marielys Rodriguez-Varela, Gloria Riefkohl, Iran Niroomand-Rad
.On the basis of research evidence, a recommended strategy for improving the care of middle ear infections is to identify the subset of patients least likely to benefit from antibiotic therapy. They include children ages 6 months to 23 months with unilateral disease without severe signs and symptoms (moderate or severe otalgia, otalgia lasting more than 48 hours,or temperature of 39°C [102.2°F]), and those older than 2 years ofage with unilateral or bilateral disease who have mild signs andsymptoms.(9) On the basis of research evidence, the initial treatment of otitis media with effusion is watchful observation...
November 2015: Pediatrics in Review
H Cody Meissner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
I Feferman
Night terrors are a bizarre sleep disorder that affects young children. The child partially awakes during the night agitated, afraid and terrified, and cannot be consoled. These events, which may be related to emotional turmoil, are self-limiting. Psychiatric evaluation is indicated in certain cases, and drug therapy is almost never necessary. Parents should be reassured that night terrors are not dangerous and do not reflect any serious pathology.
December 1988: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
2016-01-19 14:01:37
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