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Hematología

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93 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766049/management-of-venous-thromboembolism-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Siavash Piran, Sam Schulman
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which constitutes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Landmark trials have shown that direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are as effective as conventional anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in prevention of VTE recurrence and associated with less bleeding. This has paved the way for the recently published guidelines to change their recommendations in favor of DOACs in acute and long-term treatment of VTE in patients without cancer...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20048028/myelodysplastic-syndromes-a-practical-approach-to-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Afsaneh Barzi, Mikkael A Sekeres
The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal bone marrow disorders that lead to underproduction of normal blood cells. The consequent cytopenias result in infections and bleeding complications. MDS transform to acute myeloid leukemia in one-third of patients. The number of diagnoses has exploded in the past decade as a result of increased recognition and understanding of the disease and the aging of the population. New therapies can extend life. MDS are now considered the most common form of leukemia, and in some cases deserve immediate intervention...
January 2010: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034892/how-i-treat-anemia-in-pregnancy-iron-cobalamin-and-folate
#3
REVIEW
Maureen M Achebe, Anat Gafter-Gvili
Anemia of pregnancy, an important risk factor for fetal and maternal morbidity, is considered a global health problem, affecting almost 50% of pregnant women. In this article, diagnosis and management of iron, cobalamin, and folate deficiencies, the most frequent causes of anemia in pregnancy, are discussed. Three clinical cases are considered. Iron deficiency is the most common cause. Laboratory tests defining iron deficiency, the recognition of developmental delays and cognitive abnormalities in iron-deficient neonates, and literature addressing the efficacy and safety of IV iron in pregnancy are reviewed...
February 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096088/how-i-treat-acquired-aplastic-anemia
#4
REVIEW
Andrea Bacigalupo
Acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a rare hematologic disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Immune destruction of hemopoietic stem cells plays an important role in pathogenesis, as shown by successful treatment with immunosuppressive agents, leading to transfusion independence or complete recovery of peripheral blood counts in a proportion of patients. Growth factors can be combined with immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and may improve response rates, as recently shown with thrombopoietin analogs...
March 16, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313619/haploidentical-stem-cell-transplantation-in-adult-haematological-malignancies
#5
REVIEW
Kevon Parmesar, Kavita Raj
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a well-established treatment option for both hematological malignancies and nonmalignant conditions such as aplastic anemia and haemoglobinopathies. For those patients lacking a suitable matched sibling or matched unrelated donor, haploidentical donors are an alternative expedient donor pool. Historically, haploidentical transplantation led to high rates of graft rejection and GVHD. Strategies to circumvent these issues include T cell depletion and management of complications thereof or T replete transplants with GVHD prophylaxis...
2016: Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182688/haemostatic-balance-in-cirrhosis
#6
Héla Baccouche, Asma Labidi, Monia Fekih, Sonia Mahjoub, Houda Kaabi, Slama Hmida, Azza Filali, Neila B Romdhane
Despite the prolongation of coagulation tests, recent studies reported an increased frequency of thromboembolic events in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the haemostatic balance in cirrhotic patients through assessing the variation of pro- and anticoagulant factors and evaluating the in-vitro thrombin generation in patients with cirrhosis and in healthy patients. Fifty-one cirrhotic patients with or without thromboembolic events and 50 controls matched by age and sex were enrolled...
March 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23375551/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#7
REVIEW
Maurizio Martelli, Andrés J M Ferreri, Claudio Agostinelli, Alice Di Rocco, Michael Pfreundschuh, Stefano A Pileri
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoid malignancy in adults accounting for 31% of all NHL in Western Countries. Following, morphological, biological and clinical studies have allowed the subdivision of DLBCLs into morphological variants, molecular and immunophenotypic subgroups and distinct disease entities. However, a large number of cases still remain biologically and clinically heterogeneous, for which there are no clear and accepted criteria for subclassification; these are collectively termed DLBCL, not otherwise specified (NOS)...
August 2013: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26408108/how-we-diagnose-and-treat-iron-deficiency-anemia
#8
REVIEW
Michael Auerbach, John W Adamson
It is estimated that one-third of the world's population is anemic, the majority being due to iron deficiency (ID). In adults, ID is associated with fatigue in the absence of anemia, restless legs syndrome, pica and, in neonates, delayed growth and development. In adolescents, ID is associated with decrements in learning and behavioral abnormalities. In the absence of a clear cause, search for a source of bleeding is indicated. No single test is diagnostic of ID unless the serum ferritin is low or the percent transferrin saturation is low with an elevated total iron binding capacity...
January 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132279/role-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-in-mature-b-cell-lymphoid-malignancies
#9
REVIEW
Nathan H Fowler, Chan Yoon Cheah, Randy D Gascoyne, John Gribben, Sattva S Neelapu, Paolo Ghia, Catherine Bollard, Stephen Ansell, Michael Curran, Wyndham H Wilson, Susan O'Brien, Cliona Grant, Richard Little, Thorsten Zenz, Loretta J Nastoupil, Kieron Dunleavy
The tumor microenvironment is the cellular and molecular environment in which the tumor exists and with which it continuously interacts. In B-cell lymphomas, this microenvironment is intriguing in that it plays critical roles in the regulation of tumor cell survival and proliferation, fostering immune escape as well as the development of treatment resistance. The purpose of this review is to summarize the proceedings of the Second Annual Summit on the Immune Microenvironment in Hematologic Malignancies that took place on September 11-12, 2014 in Dublin, Ireland...
May 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084953/current-management-of-newly-diagnosed-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia
#10
REVIEW
L Cicconi, F Lo-Coco
The management of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has considerably evolved during the past two decades. The advent of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its inclusion in combinatorial regimens with anthracycline chemotherapy has provided cure rates exceeding 80%; however, this widely adopted approach also conveys significant toxicity including severe myelosuppression and rare occurrence of secondary leukemias. More recently, the advent of arsenic trioxide (ATO) and its use in association with ATRA with or without chemotherapy has further improved patient outcome by allowing to minimize the intensity of chemotherapy, thus reducing serious toxicity while maintaining high anti-leukemic efficacy...
August 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001163/hodgkin-lymphoma-2016-update-on-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Stephen M Ansell
DISEASE OVERVIEW: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoid malignancy affecting 9,050 new patients annually and representing approximately 11.2% of all lymphomas in the United States. DIAGNOSIS: HL is composed of two distinct disease entities; the more commonly diagnosed classical HL and the rare nodular lymphocyte predominant HL. Nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte depletion, and lymphocyte-rich HL are subgroups under the designation of classical HL...
June 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034676/review-on-haploidentical-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#12
REVIEW
William A Fabricius, Muthalagu Ramanathan
Allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HSCT) is typically the preferred curative therapy for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia, but its use has been reduced as a consequence of limited donor availability in the form of either matched-related donors (MRD) or matched-unrelated donors (MUD). Alternative options such as unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation and haploidentical HSCT have been increasingly studied in the past few decades to overcome these obstacles. A human leukocyte antigen- (HLA-) haploidentical donor is a recipient's relative who shares an exact haplotype with the recipient but is mismatched for HLA genes on the unshared haplotype...
2016: Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780744/guidance-for-the-evaluation-and-treatment-of-hereditary-and-acquired-thrombophilia
#13
REVIEW
Scott M Stevens, Scott C Woller, Kenneth A Bauer, Raj Kasthuri, Mary Cushman, Michael Streiff, Wendy Lim, James D Douketis
Thrombophilias are hereditary and/or acquired conditions that predispose patients to thrombosis. Testing for thrombophilia is commonly performed in patients with venous thrombosis and their relatives; however such testing usually does not provide information that impacts management and may result in harm. This manuscript, initiated by the Anticoagulation Forum, provides clinical guidance for thrombophilia testing in five clinical situations: following 1) provoked venous thromboembolism, 2) unprovoked venous thromboembolism; 3) in relatives of patients with thrombosis, 4) in female relatives of patients with thrombosis considering estrogen use; and 5) in female relatives of patients with thrombosis who are considering pregnancy...
January 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26799612/chronic-myeloid-leukemia-2016-update-on-diagnosis-therapy-and-monitoring
#14
Elias Jabbour, Hagop Kantarjian
DISEASE OVERVIEW: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm with an incidence of 1-2 cases per 100,000 adults. It accounts for approximately 15% of newly diagnosed cases of leukemia in adults. DIAGNOSIS: CML is characterized by a balanced genetic translocation, t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), involving a fusion of the Abelson gene (ABL1) from chromosome 9q34 with the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene on chromosome 22q11.2. This rearrangement is known as the Philadelphia chromosome...
February 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26713281/monitoring-anticoagulant-therapy-with-new-oral-agents
#15
REVIEW
Allan Ramos-Esquivel
Thromboembolic disease is a major leading cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries. Currently, the management of these patients is challenging due to the availability of new drugs with proven efficacy and security compared to traditional oral vitamin K antagonists. These compounds are characterized by a predictable pharmacokinetic profile for which blood monitoring is not routinely needed. Nevertheless, some data have suggested inter-patient variability in the anticoagulant effect of these drugs, raising concerns about their effectiveness and safety...
December 26, 2015: World Journal of Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083327/transfusion-reactions-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Meghan Delaney, Silvano Wendel, Rachel S Bercovitz, Joan Cid, Claudia Cohn, Nancy M Dunbar, Torunn O Apelseth, Mark Popovsky, Simon J Stanworth, Alan Tinmouth, Leo Van De Watering, Jonathan H Waters, Mark Yazer, Alyssa Ziman
Blood transfusion is one of the most common procedures in patients in hospital so it is imperative that clinicians are knowledgeable about appropriate blood product administration, as well as the signs, symptoms, and management of transfusion reactions. In this Review, we, an international panel, provide a synopsis of the pathophysiology, treatment, and management of each diagnostic category of transfusion reaction using evidence-based recommendations whenever available.
December 3, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26763514/multiple-myeloma-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
S Vincent Rajkumar, Shaji Kumar
The diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma has changed dramatically in the past decade. The disease definition has been updated to include highly specific biomarkers in addition to established markers of end-organ damage. The staging system has been revised to combine both measures of tumor burden and disease biology. Advances in therapy have resulted in a marked improvement in overall survival. New drugs introduced in the past few years include carfilzomib, pomalidomide, panobinostat, ixazomib, elotuzumab, and daratumumab...
January 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26094881/treatment-for-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-multiple-myeloma-in-2015
#18
REVIEW
María-Victoria Mateos, Enrique M Ocio, Bruno Paiva, Laura Rosiñol, Joaquín Martínez-López, Joan Bladé, Juan-José Lahuerta, Ramón García-Sanz, Jesús F San Miguel
Multiple myeloma is the second most frequent haematological disease. The introduction of high-dose melphalan followed by autologous haematopoietic cell transplant (HDT/ASCT) for young patients and the availability of novel agents for young and elderly patients with multiple myeloma have dramatically changed the perspective of treatment. However, further research is necessary if we want to definitively cure the disease. Treatment goals for transplant-eligible and non-transplant-eligible patients should be to prolong survival by achieving the best possible response, while ensuring quality of life...
November 2015: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26357515/plasmablastic-lymphoma-a-review-of-current-knowledge-and-future-directions
#19
REVIEW
Ghaleb Elyamany, Eman Al Mussaed, Ali Matar Alzahrani
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), which frequently arises in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. PBL shows diffuse proliferation of large neoplastic cells resembling B-immunoblasts/plasmablasts, or with plasmacytic features and an immunophenotype of plasma cells. PBL remains a diagnostic challenge due to its peculiar morphology and an immunohistochemical profile similar to plasma cell myeloma (PCM). PBL is also a therapeutic challenge with a clinical course characterized by a high rate of relapse and death...
2015: Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26537527/thalassemia-2016-modern-medicine-battles-an-ancient-disease
#20
REVIEW
Deborah Rund
Thalassemia was first clinically described nearly a century ago and treatment of this widespread genetic disease has greatly advanced during this period. DNA-based diagnosis elucidated the molecular basis of the disease and clarified the variable clinical picture. It also paved the way for modern methods of carrier identification and prevention via DNA-based prenatal diagnosis. Every aspect of supportive care, including safer blood supply, more regular transfusions, specific monitoring of iron overload, parenteral and oral chelation, and other therapies, has prolonged life and improved the quality of life of these patients...
January 2016: American Journal of Hematology
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