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Neurobiology of Memory

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38 papers 25 to 100 followers Recent papers on topics of interest in learning and memory
Marcus E Raichle
The brain's default mode network consists of discrete, bilateral and symmetrical cortical areas, in the medial and lateral parietal, medial prefrontal, and medial and lateral temporal cortices of the human, nonhuman primate, cat, and rodent brains. Its discovery was an unexpected consequence of brain-imaging studies first performed with positron emission tomography in which various novel, attention-demanding, and non-self-referential tasks were compared with quiet repose either with eyes closed or with simple visual fixation...
July 8, 2015: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Kaycie K Tayler, Kazumasa Z Tanaka, Leon G Reijmers, Brian J Wiltgen
BACKGROUND: Episodic memories are encoded within hippocampal and neocortical circuits. Retrieving these memories is assumed to involve reactivation of neural ensembles that were established during learning. Although it has been possible to follow the activity of individual neurons shortly after learning, it has not been possible to examine their activity weeks later during retrieval. We addressed this issue by using a stable form of GFP (H2B-GFP) to permanently tag neurons that are active during contextual fear conditioning...
January 21, 2013: Current Biology: CB
Steve Ramirez, Xu Liu, Pei-Ann Lin, Junghyup Suh, Michele Pignatelli, Roger L Redondo, Tomás J Ryan, Susumu Tonegawa
Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram-bearing cells in the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus (DG) or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context were labeled with channelrhodopsin-2. These neurons were later optically reactivated during fear conditioning in a different context. The DG experimental group showed increased freezing in the original context, in which a foot shock was never delivered. The recall of this false memory was context-specific, activated similar downstream regions engaged during natural fear memory recall, and was also capable of driving an active fear response...
July 26, 2013: Science
Z Josh Huang
The mammalian neocortex gives rise to a wide range of mental activities and consists of a constellation of interconnected areas that are built from a set of basic circuit templates. Major obstacles to understanding cortical architecture include the diversity of cell types, their highly recurrent local and global connectivity, dynamic circuit operations, and a convoluted developmental assembly process rooted in the genome. With our increasing knowledge of gene expression and developmental genetic principles, it is now feasible to launch a program of genetic dissection of cortical circuits through systematic targeting of cell types and fate mapping of neural progenitors...
September 17, 2014: Neuron
Erik W Schomburg, Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, Kenji Mizuseki, Antal Berényi, Costas A Anastassiou, Christof Koch, György Buzsáki
Precisely how rhythms support neuronal communication remains obscure. We investigated interregional coordination of gamma oscillations using high-density electrophysiological recordings in the rat hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. We found that 30-80 Hz gamma dominated CA1 local field potentials (LFPs) on the descending phase of CA1 theta waves during navigation, with 60-120 Hz gamma at the theta peak. These signals corresponded to CA3 and entorhinal input, respectively. Above 50 Hz, interregional phase-synchronization of principal cell spikes occurred mostly for LFPs in the axonal target domain...
October 22, 2014: Neuron
Simon Pieraut, Natalia Gounko, Richard Sando, Westley Dang, Elisabeth Rebboah, Satchidananda Panda, Linda Madisen, Hongkui Zeng, Anton Maximov
The structural organization of neural circuits is strongly influenced by experience, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We found that, in the developing dentate gyrus (DG), excitatory drive promotes the somatic innervation of principal granule cells (GCs) by parvalbumin (PV)-positive basket cells. In contrast, presynaptic differentiation of GCs and interneuron subtypes that inhibit GC dendrites is largely resistant to loss of glutamatergic neurotransmission. The networks of PV basket cells in the DG are regulated by vesicular release from projection entorhinal cortical neurons and, at least in part, by NMDA receptors in interneurons...
October 1, 2014: Neuron
Matthias J Gruber, Bernard D Gelman, Charan Ranganath
People find it easier to learn about topics that interest them, but little is known about the mechanisms by which intrinsic motivational states affect learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how curiosity (intrinsic motivation to learn) influences memory. In both immediate and one-day-delayed memory tests, participants showed improved memory for information that they were curious about and for incidental material learned during states of high curiosity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that activity in the midbrain and the nucleus accumbens was enhanced during states of high curiosity...
October 22, 2014: Neuron
Ira K Katz, Raphael Lamprecht
RNA transcription is needed for memory formation. However, the ability to identify genes whose expression is altered by learning is greatly impaired because of methodological difficulties in profiling gene expression in specific neurons involved in memory formation. Here, we report a novel approach to monitor the expression of genes after learning in neurons in specific brain pathways needed for memory formation. In this study, we aimed to monitor gene expression after fear learning. We retrogradely labeled discrete thalamic neurons that project to the lateral amygdala (LA) of rats...
February 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Armelle Viard, Karine Lebreton, Gaël Chételat, Béatrice Desgranges, Brigitte Landeau, Alan Young, Vincent De La Sayette, Francis Eustache, Pascale Piolino
We previously demonstrated that episodic autobiographical memories (EAMs) rely on a network of brain regions comprising the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and distributed neocortical regions regardless of their remoteness. The findings supported the model of memory consolidation, which proposes a permanent role of MTL during EAM retrieval (multiple-trace theory or MTT) rather than a temporary role (standard model). Our present aim was to expand the results by examining the interactions between the MTL and neocortical regions (or MTL-neocortical links) during EAM retrieval with varying retention intervals...
January 2010: Hippocampus
Gordon Winocur, Morris Moscovitch, Bruno Bontempi
Historically, the hippocampus has been viewed as a temporary memory structure. Consistent with the central premise of standard consolidation theory (SCT), a memory is initially hippocampus-dependent but, over time, it undergoes a consolidation process and eventually becoming represented in a distributed cortical network independent of the hippocampus. In this paper, we review evidence that is incompatible with each of the following essential features of SCT that are derived from its central premise: (1) Hippocampal damage reliably produces temporally graded retrograde amnesia, (2) all declarative explicit memories are equivalent with respect to consolidation, (3) consolidation entails a process of duplication in which a particular cortically based memory is identical to the hippocampus-dependent memory from which it derived, (4) consolidated memories are permanent and immutable...
July 2010: Neuropsychologia
Michael A Yassa, Zachariah M Reagh
Much controversy exists regarding the role of the hippocampus in retrieval. The two dominant and competing accounts have been the Standard Model of Systems Consolidation (SMSC) and Multiple Trace Theory (MTT), which specifically make opposing predictions as to the necessity of the hippocampus for retrieval of remote memories. Under SMSC, memories eventually become independent of the hippocampus as they become more reliant on cortical connectivity, and thus the hippocampus is not required for retrieval of remote memories, only recent ones...
2013: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Gordon Winocur, Morris Moscovitch, Melanie J Sekeres
This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory...
November 2013: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Nadja Urbanowitsch, Lina Gorenc, Christina J Herold, Johannes Schröder
Autobiographical memory (ABM) comprises memories of one's own past that are characterized by a sense of subjective time and autonoetic awareness. Although ABM deficits are among the primary symptoms of patients with major psychiatric conditions such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD) or chronic schizophrenia large clinical studies are scarce. We therefore summarize and discuss the results of our clinical studies on ABM deficits in the respective conditions. In these studies ABM was assessed by using the same instrument - i...
2013: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Stephanie Jacobs, Zhenzhong Cui, Ruiben Feng, Huimin Wang, Deheng Wang, Joe Z Tsien
The opening-duration of the NMDA receptors implements Hebb's synaptic coincidence-detection and is long thought to be the rate-limiting factor underlying superior memory. Here, we investigate the molecular and genetic determinants of the NMDA receptors by testing the "synaptic coincidence-detection time-duration" hypothesis vs. "GluN2B intracellular signaling domain" hypothesis. Accordingly, we generated a series of GluN2A, GluN2B, and GluN2D chimeric subunit transgenic mice in which C-terminal intracellular domains were systematically swapped and overexpressed in the forebrain excitatory neurons...
2014: PloS One
Tomomi Nemoto
"In vivo" two-photon microscopy (TPLSM) has revealed vital information on neural activity for brain function, even in light of its limitation in imaging events at depths greater than a several hundred micrometers from the brain surface. To break the limit of this penetration depth, we introduced a novel light source based on a semiconductor laser [1]. The light source successfully visualized not only cortex layer V pyramidal neurons spreading to all cortex layers at a superior S/N ratio, but visualize hippocampal CA1 neurons in young adult mice [2]...
November 2014: Microscopy
Alex Gomez-Marin, Joseph J Paton, Adam R Kampff, Rui M Costa, Zachary F Mainen
Behavior is a unifying organismal process where genes, neural function, anatomy and environment converge and interrelate. Here we review the current state and discuss the future effect of accelerating advances in technology for behavioral studies, focusing on rodents as an example. We frame our perspective in three dimensions: the degree of experimental constraint, dimensionality of data and level of description. We argue that 'big behavioral data' presents challenges proportionate to its promise and describe how these challenges might be met through opportunities afforded by the two rival conceptual legacies of twentieth century behavioral science, ethology and psychology...
November 2014: Nature Neuroscience
Russell A Poldrack, Krzysztof J Gorgolewski
In the last decade, major advances have been made in the availability of shared neuroimaging data, such that there are more than 8,000 shared MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) data sets available online. Here we outline the state of data sharing for task-based functional MRI (fMRI) data, with a focus on various forms of data and their relative utility for subsequent analyses. We also discuss challenges to the future success of data sharing and highlight the ethical argument that data sharing may be necessary to maximize the contribution of human subjects...
November 2014: Nature Neuroscience
Thomas J Richner, Sanitta Thongpang, Sarah K Brodnick, Amelia A Schendel, Ryan W Falk, Lisa A Krugner-Higby, Ramin Pashaie, Justin C Williams
OBJECTIVE: Spatial localization of neural activity from within the brain with electrocorticography (ECoG) and electroencephalography remains a challenge in clinical and research settings, and while microfabricated ECoG (micro-ECoG) array technology continues to improve, complementary methods to simultaneously modulate cortical activity while recording are needed. APPROACH: We developed a neural interface utilizing optogenetics, cranial windowing, and micro-ECoG arrays fabricated on a transparent polymer...
February 2014: Journal of Neural Engineering
Xu Liu, Steve Ramirez, Susumu Tonegawa
Memories can be easily distorted, and a lack of relevant animal models has largely hindered our understanding of false-memory formation. Here, we first identified a population of cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus that bear the engrams for a specific context; these cells were naturally activated during the encoding phase of fear conditioning and their artificial reactivation using optogenetics in an unrelated context was sufficient for inducing the fear memory specific to the conditioned context...
January 5, 2014: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
C McCormick, M Moscovitch, A B Protzner, C G Huber, M P McAndrews
Encoding and retrieval of relational information requires interaction between the hippocampus and various neocortical regions, but it is unknown whether the connectivity of hippocampal-neocortical networks is different at input and output stages. To examine this, we conducted a network analysis of event-related fMRI data collected during a face-recognition, remember/know paradigm. Directed analyses in the medial temporal lobe identified a small region in the left hippocampus that showed differential activation for encoding and retrieval of recollected versus familiar items...
September 2010: Neuropsychologia
2014-10-26 07:26:00
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