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10 papers 25 to 100 followers
Jin Zhou, Bin Liu, Chun Liang, Yangxin Li, Yao-Hua Song
Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in a variety of diseases including diabetes, cancer, Crohn's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disuse, and denervation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in mediating the wasting effect. To date, a causal relationship between TNF-α signaling and muscle wasting has been established in animal models. However, results from clinical trials are conflicting. This is partly due to the fact that other factors such as TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are also involved in skeletal muscle wasting...
May 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Jeanne D Johansen, Kristiina Aalto-Korte, Tove Agner, Klaus E Andersen, Andreas Bircher, Magnus Bruze, Alicia Cannavó, Ana Giménez-Arnau, Margarida Gonçalo, An Goossens, Swen M John, Carola Lidén, Magnus Lindberg, Vera Mahler, Mihály Matura, Thomas Rustemeyer, Jørgen Serup, Radoslaw Spiewak, Jacob P Thyssen, Martine Vigan, Ian R White, Mark Wilkinson, Wolfgang Uter
The present guideline summarizes all aspects of patch testing for the diagnosis of contact allergy in patients suspected of suffering, or having been suffering, from allergic contact dermatitis or other delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and mucosal conditions. Sections with brief descriptions and discussions of different pertinent topics are followed by a highlighted short practical recommendation. Topics comprise, after an introduction with important definitions, materials, technique, modifications of epicutaneous testing, individual factors influencing the patch test outcome or necessitating special considerations, children, patients with occupational contact dermatitis and drug eruptions as special groups, patch testing of materials brought in by the patient, adverse effects of patch testing, and the final evaluation and patient counselling based on this judgement...
October 2015: Contact Dermatitis
Catherine Gottschalk, Elisabeth Mettke, Christian Kurts
New vaccination strategies focus on achieving CD8(+) T cell (CTL) immunity rather than on induction of protective antibody responses. While the requirement of CD4(+) T (Th) cell help in dendritic cell (DC) activation and licensing, and in CTL memory induction has been described in several disease models, CTL responses may occur in a Th cell help-independent manner. Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) can substitute for Th cell help and license DC as well. iNKT cells produce a broad spectrum of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, thereby inducing a similar set of costimulatory molecules and cytokines in DC...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
Stephanie S Tseng-Rogenski, Yasushi Hamaya, Daniel Y Choi, John M Carethers
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST) is the most common DNA mismatch repair defect in colorectal cancers, observed in approximately 60% of specimens. This acquired genotype correlates with metastasis and poor outcomes for patients, and is associated with intra-epithelial inflammation and heterogeneous nuclear levels of the mismatch repair protein hMSH3. Inflammation and accompanying oxidative stress can cause hMSH3 to change its intracellular location, but little is known about the source of oxidative stress in cancer cells...
March 2015: Gastroenterology
Merryn Netting, Adaweyah Donato, Maria Makrides, Michael Gold, Patrick Quinn, Irmeli Penttila
BACKGROUND: Oral food challenges for diagnosis and management of egg allergy using fresh egg are common; however, to limit the risk of foodborne infection, many allergy units use pasteurized raw egg. Pasteurization and drying processes have the potential to affect the structure of egg proteins in egg powder and thus the allergenicity when compared to fresh egg. Our aim was to compare the binding of serum IgE from egg-allergic children to in vitro digested and undigested pasteurized whole raw egg powder with unpasteurized fresh whole raw egg...
May 2015: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
M B G Kiewiet, M Gros, R J J van Neerven, M M Faas, P de Vos
Cow's milk proteins cause allergic symptoms in 2-3% of all infants. In these individuals, the tolerogenic state of the intestinal immune system is broken, which can lead to sensitization against antigens and eventually to allergic responses. Although a true treatment for food allergy is not available, symptoms can be avoided by providing the infants with hydrolyzed proteins. Hydrolyzed proteins are proteins that are enzymatically degraded. They lack typical allergenic IgE-binding epitopes but are also thought to play a pertinent role in other mechanisms inducing hypoallergenic effects...
May 2015: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Pavlina Kralickova, Eva Mala, Doris Vokurkova, Irena Krcmova, Lenka Pliskova, Vlasta Stepanova, Vladimir Bartos, Vladimir Koblizek, Ilja Tacheci, Jan Bures, Jan Brozik, Jiri Litzman
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent clinically relevant primary immunodeficiency and shows enormous heterogeneity in clinical presentation. Despite clinical immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections are not a typical manifestation of CVID. A retrospective study of 32 patients followed up for 335 patient-years was performed to determine the frequency of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Symptomatic CMV infection was documented in 3 CVID patients. Patients No. 1 and 2 suffered from CMV pneumonia, with complications due to atypical mycobacteriosis in patient No...
2014: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Iain B McInnes, Arthur Kavanaugh, Alice B Gottlieb, Lluís Puig, Proton Rahman, Christopher Ritchlin, Carrie Brodmerkel, Shu Li, Yuhua Wang, Alan M Mendelsohn, Mittie K Doyle
BACKGROUND: Many patients with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis, a chronic inflammatory disease that afflicts peripheral synovial, axial, and entheseal structures. The fully human monoclonal antibody ustekinumab is an efficacious treatment for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. We did a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to assess the safety and efficacy of ustekinumab in patients with active psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: In this phase 3, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 104 sites in Europe, North America, and Asia-Pacific, adults with active psoriatic arthritis (≥5 tender and ≥5 swollen joints, C-reactive protein ≥3·0 mg/L) were randomly assigned (1:1:1, by dynamic central randomisation based on an algorithm implemented by an interactive voice-web response system) to 45 mg ustekinumab, 90 mg ustekinumab, or placebo at week 0, week 4, and every 12 weeks thereafter...
August 31, 2013: Lancet
Lin Mu, Kenneth J Mukamal, Asghar Z Naqvi
OBJECTIVE: The role of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in chronic disease remains controversial; inflammation is one pathway by which SFAs influence the risk for chronic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between red blood cell (RBC) phospholipid SFAs and systemic inflammation. METHODS: As part of a randomized controlled trial, we measured RBC phospholipid FA composition in 55 generally healthy adults twice at 3-mo intervals. We estimated associations of RBC total SFAs and two major SFA subtypes, palmitic and stearic acids, with C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, white blood count (WBC), and a composite inflammation measure using generalized estimating equations in multivariable FA substitution models...
November 2014: Nutrition
Stephen Ellison, Khatuna Gabunia, James M Richards, Sheri E Kelemen, Ross N England, Dan Rudic, Yasu-Taka Azuma, M Alexandra Munroy, Satoru Eguchi, Michael V Autieri
We tested the hypothesis that IL-19, a putative member of the type 2 helper T-cell family of anti-inflammatory interleukins, can attenuate intimal hyperplasia and modulate the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) response to injury. Ligated carotid artery of IL-19 knockout (KO) mice demonstrated a significantly higher neointima/intima ratio compared with wild-type (WT) mice (P = 0.04). More important, the increased neointima/intima ratio in the KO could be reversed by injection of 10 ng/g per day recombinant IL-19 into the KO mouse (P = 0...
July 2014: American Journal of Pathology
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