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Fitness & Epidemiology

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20 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Jessica Schwartz Orthopedic residency trained doctor of physical therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27063997/the-association-between-income-and-life-expectancy-in-the-united-states-2001-2014
#1
Raj Chetty, Michael Stepner, Sarah Abraham, Shelby Lin, Benjamin Scuderi, Nicholas Turner, Augustin Bergeron, David Cutler
IMPORTANCE: The relationship between income and life expectancy is well established but remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To measure the level, time trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy and to identify factors related to small area variation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion deidentified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records...
April 26, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26961635/statisticians-issue-warning-over-misuse-of-p-values
#2
Monya Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26618056/current-concepts-in-periodization-of-strength-and-conditioning-for-the-sports-physical-therapist
#3
Daniel Lorenz, Scot Morrison
UNLABELLED: The rehabilitation process is driven by the manipulation of training variables that elicit specific adaptations in order to meet established goals. Periodization is an overall concept of training that deals with the division of the training process into specific phases. Programming is the manipulation of the variables within these phases (sets, repetitions, load) that are needed to bring about the specific adaptations desired within that particular period. The current body of literature is very limited when it comes to how these variables are best combined in an injured population since most of the periodization research has been done in a healthy population...
November 2015: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25596097/physical-exercise-recommendations-improve-postural-changes-found-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Cláudia S Schindel, Patrícia X Hommerding, Denizar A S Melo, Rafael R Baptista, Paulo J C Marostica, Márcio V F Donadio
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate postural changes and the distribution of plantar pressures in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We also sought to evaluate the effects of an educational guideline for physical activity on body posture in children and adolescents with CF. STUDY DESIGN: This was a 2-phase study of individuals between age 7 and 20 years. Phase I was a cross-sectional study in which healthy subjects were selected for postural evaluation and baropodometry, aiming to perform a later comparison with patients with CF...
March 2015: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25491707/injury-due-to-mechanical-falls-future-directions-in-gender-specific-surveillance-screening-and-interventions-in-emergency-department-patients
#5
Marna R Greenberg, Bryan G Kane, Vicken Y Totten, Neha P Raukar, Elizabeth C Moore, Tracy Sanson, Robert D Barraco, Michael C Nguyen, Federico E Vaca
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that among older adults (≥65 years), falls are the leading cause of injury-related death. Fall-related fractures among older women are more than twice as frequent as those for men. Gender-specific evidence-based fall prevention strategy and intervention studies show that improved patient-centered outcomes are elusive. There is a paucity of emergency medicine literature on the topic. As part of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference on "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a breakout group convened to generate a research agenda on priority questions to be answered on this topic...
December 2014: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25559637/acute-effects-of-stretching-on-passive-properties-of-human-gastrocnemius-muscle-tendon-unit-analysis-of-differences-between-hold-relax-and-static-stretching
#6
Masatoshi Nakamura, Tome Ikezoe, Takahiro Tokugawa, Noriaki Ichihashi
CONTEXT: Hold-relax stretching (HRS) and static stretching (SS) are commonly used to increase joint range of motion (ROM) and decrease muscle stiffness. However, whether there are differences between acute effects of HRS and SS on end ROM, passive torque, and muscle stiffness is unclear. In addition, any differences between the mechanisms by which HRS and SS lead to an increase in end ROM are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To compare the acute effects of HRS and SS on the passive properties of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit (MTU), end ROM, passive torque, and muscle stiffness in vivo and to investigate the factors involved in increasing end ROM...
August 2015: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25193796/texting-and-walking-effect-of-environmental-setting-and-task-prioritization-on-dual-task-interference-in-healthy-young-adults
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Prudence Plummer, Sarah Apple, Colleen Dowd, Eliza Keith
Recent studies have shown that young adults significantly reduce their gait speed and weave more when texting while walking. Previous research has not examined the simultaneous dual-task effects on texting performance, therefore, the attention prioritization strategy used by young adults while texting and walking is not currently known. Moreover, it is not known whether laboratory-based studies accurately reflect texting and walking performance in the real world. This study compared dual-task interference during texting and walking between laboratory and real-world settings, and examined the ability of young adults to flexibly prioritize their attention between the two tasks in each environment...
January 2015: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25531144/injuries-in-professional-male-soccer-players-in-the-netherlands-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Janine H Stubbe, Anne-Marie M C van Beijsterveldt, Sissi van der Knaap, Jasper Stege, Evert A Verhagen, Willem van Mechelen, Frank J G Backx
CONTEXT: Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: The Dutch premier soccer league. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: During the 2009-2010 soccer season, a total of 217 professional soccer players from 8 teams were prospectively followed...
February 2015: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25532778/geriatrics-education-is-associated-with-positive-attitudes-toward-older-people-in-internal-medicine-residents-a-multicenter-study
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
Fatih Tufan, Mehmet Yuruyen, Muhammet Cemal Kizilarslanoglu, Timur Akpinar, Sirhan Emiksiye, Yusuf Yesil, Zeynel Abidin Ozturk, Utku Burak Bozbulut, Basak Bolayir, Pinar Tosun Tasar, Hakan Yavuzer, Sevnaz Sahin, Zekeriya Ulger, Gulistan Bahat Ozturk, Meltem Halil, Fehmi Akcicek, Alper Doventas, Yalcin Kepekci, Nurhan Ince, Mehmet Akif Karan
OBJECTIVE: The number of older people is growing fast in Turkey. In this context, internal medicine residents and specialists contact older people more frequently. Thus, healthcare providers' knowledge and attitudes toward older people is becoming more important. Studies that specifically investigate internal medicine residents' attitudes toward the elderly are scarce. We aimed to investigate the attitudes of internal medicine residents toward older people. METHODS: This cross-sectional multicenter study was undertaken in the internal medicine clinics of six university state hospitals that provide education in geriatric care...
March 2015: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25489546/how-obesity-modifies-tendons-implications-for-athletic-activities
#10
REVIEW
Michele Abate
BACKGROUND: obesity is a well recognized risk factor for dysmetabolic and cardiovascular diseases, but can also be associated to musculo-skeletal disorders. METHODS: a search of English-language articles was performed using the key search terms "obesity" or "body mass index" combined with "tendon", or "tendinopathy", indipendently. RESULTS: several studies show that, in obese subjects, tendons frequently undergo to degeneration, which can progress to a symptomatic stage, with pain and functional impairment...
July 2014: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25351783/sedentary-behaviour-and-diet-across-the-lifespan-an-updated-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Matthew Hobbs, Natalie Pearson, Perry J Foster, Stuart J H Biddle
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and its association with dietary intake in young people and adults are important topics and were systematically reviewed in 2011. There is a need to update this evidence given the changing nature of sedentary behaviour and continued interest in this field. This review aims to assist researchers in better interpreting the diversity of findings concerning sedentary behaviour and weight status. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update of the associations between sedentary behaviour and dietary intake across the lifespan...
September 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25401325/low-dose-aspirin-for-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events-in-japanese-patients-60-years-or-older-with-atherosclerotic-risk-factors-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yasuo Ikeda, Kazuyuki Shimada, Tamio Teramoto, Shinichiro Uchiyama, Tsutomu Yamazaki, Shinichi Oikawa, Masahiro Sugawara, Katsuyuki Ando, Mitsuru Murata, Kenji Yokoyama, Naoki Ishizuka
IMPORTANCE: Prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases is an important public health priority in Japan due to an aging population. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether daily, low-dose aspirin reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events in older Japanese patients with multiple atherosclerotic risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Japanese Primary Prevention Project (JPPP) was a multicenter, open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial...
December 17, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25303847/a-conceptual-framework-for-improved-analyses-of-72-hour-return-cases
#13
Bradley D Shy, Jason S Shapiro, Peter L Shearer, Nicholas G Genes, Cindy F Clesca, Reuben J Strayer, Lynne D Richardson
For more than 25 years, emergency medicine researchers have examined 72-hour return visits as a marker for high-risk patient visits and as a surrogate measure for quality of care. Individual emergency departments frequently use 72-hour returns as a screening tool to identify deficits in care, although comprehensive departmental reviews of this nature may consume considerable resources. We discuss the lack of published data supporting the use of 72-hour return frequency as an overall performance measure and examine why this is not a valid use, describe a conceptual framework for reviewing 72-hour return cases as a screening tool, and call for future studies to test various models for conducting such quality assurance reviews of patients who return to the emergency department within 72 hours...
January 2015: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24390632/physically-demanding-work-and-preterm-delivery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
M D M van Beukering, M J G J van Melick, B W Mol, M H W Frings-Dresen, C T J Hulshof
OBJECTIVE: Physically demanding work may increase the risk of preterm delivery (PTD), defined as delivery before 37 weeks. We assessed the available evidence. METHODS: A systematic search in Medline, Embase and Nioshtic for the period 1990 to June 2012 for observational and intervention studies on physically demanding work (prolonged standing, heavy lifting, physical exertion, occupational fatigue and demanding posture) and PTD. Selected studies were assessed for their risk of bias and pooled using a random effects model...
November 2014: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23831179/physical-activity-and-risk-of-cognitive-impairment-among-oldest-old-women
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sophia Wang, Xiaodong Luo, Deborah Barnes, Mary Sano, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity may reduce the risk of cognitive decline in the elderly, but its effects among the oldest-old (i.e., those aged 85 years and older) are not well known. Our study assessed the association between very late-life physical activity and 5-year risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia and neuropsychological test performance among oldest-old women. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at three sites. Participants included 1,249 women (mean [standard deviation] age: 83...
November 2014: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25293956/predicting-geriatric-falls-following-an-episode-of-emergency-department-care-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Christopher R Carpenter, Michael S Avidan, Tanya Wildes, Susan Stark, Susan A Fowler, Alexander X Lo
BACKGROUND: Falls are the leading cause of traumatic mortality in geriatric adults. Despite recent multispecialty guideline recommendations that advocate for proactive fall prevention protocols in the emergency department (ED), the ability of risk factors or risk stratification instruments to identify subsets of geriatric patients at increased risk for short-term falls is largely unexplored. OBJECTIVES: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of ED-based history, physical examination, and fall risk stratification instruments with the primary objective of providing a quantitative estimate for each risk factor's accuracy to predict future falls...
October 2014: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23517118/a-behavioral-weight-loss-intervention-in-persons-with-serious-mental-illness
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Gail L Daumit, Faith B Dickerson, Nae-Yuh Wang, Arlene Dalcin, Gerald J Jerome, Cheryl A M Anderson, Deborah R Young, Kevin D Frick, Airong Yu, Joseph V Gennusa, Meghan Oefinger, Rosa M Crum, Jeanne Charleston, Sarah S Casagrande, Eliseo Guallar, Richard W Goldberg, Leslie M Campbell, Lawrence J Appel
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are epidemic among persons with serious mental illness, yet weight-loss trials systematically exclude this vulnerable population. Lifestyle interventions require adaptation in this group because psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of an 18-month tailored behavioral weight-loss intervention in adults with serious mental illness. METHODS: We recruited overweight or obese adults from 10 community psychiatric rehabilitation outpatient programs and randomly assigned them to an intervention or a control group...
April 25, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25301440/effect-of-early-rehabilitation-by-physical-therapists-on-in-hospital-mortality-after-aspiration-pneumonia-in-the-elderly
#18
Ryo Momosaki, Hideo Yasunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Hiromasa Horiguchi, Kiyohide Fushimi, Masahiro Abo
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the effect of early rehabilitation by physical therapists on in-hospital mortality among elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A total of 1161 acute-care hospitals across Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients (age, 70-100 y) (N=68,584) from July 2010 to March 2012 in the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database with aspiration pneumonia on admission who underwent early physical therapist-guided rehabilitation (n=16,835) and who did not undergo rehabilitation administered by physical therapists (n=51,749)...
February 2015: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25278335/safety-of-aerobic-exercise-in-people-with-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-single-group-clinical-trial
#19
Patricia M Kluding, Mamatha Pasnoor, Rupali Singh, Linda J D'Silva, Min Yoo, Sandra A Billinger, Joseph W LeMaster, Mazen M Dimachkie, Laura Herbelin, Douglas E Wright
BACKGROUND: Exercise is recommended for people with diabetes, but little is known about exercise in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this preliminary study was to examine adverse events (AEs) during moderate-intensity, supervised aerobic exercise in people with DPN. The secondary purpose was to examine changes in fatigue, aerobic fitness, and other outcomes after intervention. DESIGN: This was a single-group preliminary study...
February 2015: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25282383/early-life-predictors-of-leisure-time-physical-inactivity-in-midadulthood-findings-from-a-prospective-british-birth-cohort
#20
Snehal M Pinto Pereira, Leah Li, Chris Power
Much adult physical inactivity research ignores early-life factors from which later influences may originate. In the 1958 British birth cohort (followed from 1958 to 2008), leisure-time inactivity, defined as activity frequency of less than once a week, was assessed at ages 33, 42, and 50 years (n = 12,776). Early-life factors (at ages 0-16 years) were categorized into 3 domains (i.e., physical, social, and behavioral). We assessed associations of adult inactivity 1) with factors within domains, 2) with the 3 domains combined, and 3) allowing for adult factors...
December 1, 2014: American Journal of Epidemiology
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