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Sports performance

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19 papers 0 to 25 followers
By Suzanne Atkinson ER doc and triathlon coach
Ramzy Ross, Cindy M Gray, Jason M R Gill
PURPOSE: This study aims to quantify the magnitude of the placebo effect of an injected placebo ("OxyRBX") purporting to have effects similar to those of recombinant human erythropoietin on endurance running performance in "real-world" field-based head-to-head competition settings. METHODS: Fifteen endurance-trained club-level men (mean ± SD: age, 27.5 ± 6.8 yr; body mass index, 22.9 ± 2.0 kg·m) with 10-km personal-best record times of 39.3 ± 4.4 min completed a randomized cross-over study of 3-km races before and after 7-d "control" and "placebo" phases...
August 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sian V Allen, Tom J Vandenbogaerde, David B Pyne, Will G Hopkins
UNLABELLED: Talent identification and development typically involve allocation of resources toward athletes selected on the basis of early-career performance. PURPOSE: To compare 4 methods for early-career selection of Australia's 2012 Olympic-qualifying swimmers. METHODS: Performance times from 5738 Australian swimmers in individual Olympic events at 101 competitions from 2000 to 2012 were analyzed as percentages of world-record times using 4 methods that retrospectively simulated early selection of swimmers into a talent-development squad...
May 2015: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Mathias Wolfrum, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann, Romuald Lepers, Beat Knechtle
Effects of course length (25 m versus 50 m) and advances in performance of individual medley swimming were examined for men and women in Swiss national competitions and FINA World Championships during 2000-2011. Linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse 200 m and 400 m race results for 26,081 swims on the Swiss high score list and 382 FINA finalists. Swiss and FINA swimmers of both sexes were, on average, 4.3±3.2% faster on short courses for both race distances. Sex-related differences in swim speed were significantly greater for FINA swimmers competing in short-course events than in long-course events (10...
September 29, 2014: Journal of Human Kinetics
Andrew P Hancock, Kenneth E Sparks, Emily L Kullman
This study examined postactivation potentiation (PAP) and its effect on performance during sprint swimming. After maximal muscular contraction, the muscles are in both a potentiated and fatigued state. However, fatigue dissipates faster than potentiation, creating a window of opportunity for possible performance enhancement. We observed 30 collegiate swimmers (15 men and 15 women) performing 2 swim trials in a randomized order. The control trial involved a standard swim warm-up, followed by a 6-minute rest and by a maximal 100-m freestyle swim effort...
April 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Anna M C van Beijsterveldt, Ingrid G L van de Port, Mark R Krist, Sandor L Schmikli, Janine H Stubbe, Janet E Frederiks, Frank J G Backx
BACKGROUND: The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of the 'The11' injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. STUDY DESIGN: Cluster-randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Teams from two high-level amateur soccer competitions were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=11 teams, 223 players) or control group (n=12 teams, 233 players)...
December 2012: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Kent Sahlin
The high-energy demand during high-intensity exercise (HIE) necessitates that anaerobic processes cover an extensive part of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) requirement. Anaerobic energy release results in depletion of phosphocreatine (PCr) and accumulation of lactic acid, which set an upper limit of anaerobic ATP production and thus HIE performance. This report focuses on the effects of training and ergogenic supplements on muscle energetics and HIE performance. Anaerobic capacity (i.e. the amount of ATP that can be produced) is determined by the muscle content of PCr, the buffer capacity and the volume of the contracting muscle mass...
November 2014: Sports Medicine
Laurent B Seitz, Alvaro Reyes, Tai T Tran, Eduardo Saez de Villarreal, G Gregory Haff
BACKGROUND: Although lower-body strength is correlated with sprint performance, whether increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis determined whether increases in lower-body strength (measured with the free-weight back squat exercise) transfer positively to sprint performance, and identified the effects of various subject characteristics and resistance-training variables on the magnitude of sprint improvement...
December 2014: Sports Medicine
Mark Waldron, Jamie Highton
With the advancements in player tracking technology, the topic of fatigue and pacing in team sport has become increasingly popular in recent years. Initially based upon a pre-conceived pacing schema, a central metabolic control system is proposed to guide the movement of players during team sport matches, which can be consciously modified based on afferent signals from the various physiological systems and in response to environmental cues. On the basis of this theory, coupled with the collective findings from motion-analysis research, we sought to define the different pacing strategies employed by team sport players...
December 2014: Sports Medicine
Dominic Micklewright, David Parry, Tracy Robinson, Greg Deacon, Andrew Renfree, Alan St Clair Gibson, William J Matthews
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to examine risk taking and risk perception associations with perceived exertion, pacing, and performance in athletes. METHODS: Two experiments were conducted in which risk perception was assessed using the domain-specific risk taking (DOSPERT) scale in 20 novice cyclists (experiment 1) and 32 experienced ultramarathon runners (experiment 2). In experiment 1, participants predicted their pace and then performed a 5-km maximum effort cycling time trial on a calibrated Kingcycle mounted bicycle...
May 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Marco Romagnoli, Rafael Alis, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Giuseppe Lippi, Alesandro Arduini
We aimed to evaluate the utility of a submaximal heart rate recovery (HRR) test to monitor changes in cardiac fitness after aerobic training. Twenty healthy subjects were assigned to a control (n=10) or a training (n=10) group. Subjects in the training group performed 8 weeks of bicycle training, followed by 8 weeks of detraining. HRR was assessed after exercises at 65% and 80% HRmax. The HRR test was performed at weeks 0 (W0), 4 (W4), 8 (W8) and 16 (W16) in the training group and at W0 and W8 in the control group...
September 15, 2014: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Lars Nybo, Jakob F Schmidt, Stephen Fritzdorf, Nikolai B Nordsborg
PURPOSE: To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (three gold and two bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games. METHODS: From the age of 19 to 40 yr, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), peak HR, blood lactate, and rowing ergometer performance were assessed annually. RESULTS: During the first years of his elite career (from age 19 to 24), VO2 max increased from 5.5 to approximately 5...
November 2014: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Martin P Schwellnus, Wayne Elton Derman, Esme Jordaan, Tony Page, Mike Ian Lambert, Clint Readhead, Craig Roberts, Ryan Kohler, Robert Collins, Stephen Kara, Michael Ian Morris, Org Strauss, Sandra Webb
BACKGROUND: Illness accounts for a significant proportion of consultations with a team physician travelling with elite athletes. OBJECTIVE: To determine if international travel increases the incidence of illness in rugby union players participating in a 16-week tournament. SETTING: 2010 Super 14 Rugby Union tournament. PARTICIPANTS: 259 elite rugby players from eight teams were followed daily over the 16-week competition period (22 676 player-days)...
September 2012: British Journal of Sports Medicine
L K Wallace, K M Slattery, Aaron J Coutts
PURPOSE: To assess the validity of methods for quantifying training load, fitness and fatigue in endurance athletes using a mathematical model. METHODS: Seven trained runners (VO2max: 51.7 ± 4.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1), age: 38.6 ± 9.4 years, mean ± SD) completed 15 weeks of endurance running training. Training sessions were assessed using a heart rate (HR), running pace and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Training dose was calculated using the session-RPE method, Banisters TRIMP and the running training stress score (rTSS)...
January 2014: European Journal of Applied Physiology
David G Carfagno, Joshua C Hendrix
Competitive athletes are pushed routinely to the limits of their physical abilities. When tempered with periods of rest and recovery, a highly demanding training schedule can have tremendous benefits. However when an athlete is pushed too far, overtraining syndrome (OTS) can develop and result in career-ending damage. Overreaching and overtraining are part of the same spectrum that can lead to OTS. The pressure to perform placed on elite athletes is a real danger. Athletes and coaches understand the importance of rest days, but the insidious onset of OTS slowly saps the efficacy of recovery times so the athlete is no longer able to reach previously attainable goals...
January 2014: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Naokazu Miyamoto, Yasuo Kawakami
PURPOSE: Existing studies have failed to provide evidence of a positive effect on exercise performance by wearing compression short tights covering only both thighs. This could be due to an inadequate pressure intensity that otherwise has a significant effect if applied on the crucial point in the thigh. This study aimed to examine the effect of pressure intensity of elastic compression short-tights on the metabolic state of thigh muscles during submaximal running. METHODS: Two groups of 11 male subjects performed treadmill running at 12 km · h(-1) in three conditions in each of experiment 1 (short-tights with a compression intensity at the thigh of 8 mm Hg (LOW) and 15 mm Hg (MID) and noncompression shorts as control (CON1)) and experiment 2 (short-tights with 20 mm Hg (MID-HIGH) and 25 mm Hg (HIGH) and CON2)...
November 2014: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Christopher D Black, Dwight E Waddell, Alexander R Gonglach
UNLABELLED: Caffeine improves endurance exercise performance, but its ergogenic mechanism(s) remain unclear. PURPOSE: This investigation sought to examine the effects of caffeine on perceptual and physiological responses to endurance exercise. METHODS: Two experiments were performed. In study A, 14 participants were tested. Maximal voluntary strength (MVC) and motor-unit recruitment (%ACT) of the knee extensors and elbow flexors were tested before and 60 min after ingestion of a 5-mg·kg⁻¹ dose of caffeine or placebo and after completion of 40 min of exercise (30 min of submaximal leg or arm cycling followed by a 10-min time-trial performance)...
June 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
O Hue, S Henri, M Baillot, S Sinnapah, A P Uzel
The purpose of this study was to investigate thermal response, hydration and performance over a 6-day, 142-km trail running race in tropical conditions. 9 participants competed in the 2011 Gwadarun (30°C±2.4 °C and 82±4% RH). Data were collected on days 1, 4 and 6. Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi) and heart rate (HR) were measured using portable telemetry units, whereas blood samples were collected for hematocrit, osmolarity, plasma concentrations, alkaline reserves and creatine phosphokinase. The performances expressed in speed were correlated with both total body water and body mass loss per hour (TBWL...
October 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Ross Tucker, Malcolm Collins
Elite sporting performance results from the combination of innumerable factors, which interact with one another in a poorly understood but complex manner to mould a talented athlete into a champion. Within the field of sports science, elite performance is understood to be the result of both training and genetic factors. However, the extent to which champions are born or made is a question that remains one of considerable interest, since it has implications for talent identification and management, as well as for how sporting federations allocate scarce resources towards the optimisation of high-performance programmes...
June 2012: British Journal of Sports Medicine
D G Allen, G D Lamb, H Westerblad
Repeated, intense use of muscles leads to a decline in performance known as muscle fatigue. Many muscle properties change during fatigue including the action potential, extracellular and intracellular ions, and many intracellular metabolites. A range of mechanisms have been identified that contribute to the decline of performance. The traditional explanation, accumulation of intracellular lactate and hydrogen ions causing impaired function of the contractile proteins, is probably of limited importance in mammals...
January 2008: Physiological Reviews
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