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J L Frias, I T Thomas
Numerous factors hinder our ability to recognize fully human teratogens. Among these are the limitations of animal and epidemiologic studies, the lack of understanding of the mechanisms of action of most teratogens, and the variability in expression of the clinical manifestation. Dose and timing of exposure, interactions with other environmental agents, and host susceptibility influence this variable expressivity. Recent studies suggest the genetic constitution of the mother and the fetus play a central role in the teratogenic response...
March 1988: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Bogdan J Wlodarczyk, Ana M Palacios, Claudia J Chapa, Huiping Zhu, Timothy M George, Richard H Finnell
Birth defects remain the leading cause of infant death in US. The field of teratology has been focused on the causes and underlying mechanisms of birth defects for decades, yet our understanding of these critical issues remain unacceptably vague. Conclusions from years of animal and human studies made it clear that the vast majority of birth defects have multifactorial origins, with contributions from environmental and genetic factors. The environment comprises not only of the physical, biological, and chemical external environment surrounding the pregnant woman, but it also includes the internal environment of the woman's body that interact with the developing embryo in a complex fashion...
August 15, 2011: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
M Ankiersztejn-Bartczak, E FirlÄ…g-Burkacka, H Czeszko-Paprocka, J Kubicka, A Cybula, A Horban, J D Kowalska
OBJECTIVES: Linkage to care after HIV diagnosis remains underinvestigated in Europe, yet delays in linkage to care are an important obstacle to controlling the HIV epidemic. The Test and Keep in Care (TAK) project aims to determine the prevalence of HIV-positive persons who are lost or late to care and factors associated with this. METHODS: Data from community-based voluntary counselling and testing that occurred in 2010-2011 were linked with data from HIV clinics using unique test numbers...
February 2015: HIV Medicine
Kevin J Olival, Ariful Islam, Meng Yu, Simon J Anthony, Jonathan H Epstein, Shahneaz Ali Khan, Salah Uddin Khan, Gary Crameri, Lin-Fa Wang, W Ian Lipkin, Stephen P Luby, Peter Daszak
To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.
February 2013: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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